Changes between Version 1 and Version 2 of GENIRacksHome/OpenGENIRacks/InstallationGuideJunoOffline

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  • GENIRacksHome/OpenGENIRacks/InstallationGuideJunoOffline

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    1 PlaceHolder
     1= GRAM Offline Installation Guide For Juno Version=
     4[[PageOutline(2-100,Table of Contents,inline,unnumbered)]]
     6== Introduction ==
     8This document describes the procedures and context for installing GRAM software. There are these aspects which will be covered individually:
     9* Configuration Overview
     10* Hardware Requirements
     11* Software Requirements
     12* Network configuration
     13* !OpenStack Installation and Configuration
     14* GRAM Installation and Configuration
     16== Hardware Requirements ==
     17The minimum requirements are:
     18* 1 Control Server
     19* 1 Compute Server (Can be more)
     20* 1 Switch with at least (number of servers)*3 ports  [For non-dataplane traffic]
     21* 1 !OpenFlow Switch with at least (number of servers) ports  [For dataplane traffic]
     22* Each server should have at least 4 Ethernet ports
     23== Software Requirements ==
     26==== Ports ====
     27The following ports will be used by GRAM components.  Verify that these ports are not already in use.  If so, change the configuration of the gram component below to use a different port.
     29   * Controller node
     30      * 8000: GRAM Clearinghouse (Unless you are using a different clearinghouse).  See [wiki:InstallationGuide#ConfigureandStartClearinghouseontheControlNode this section] to change this port.
     31      * 8001: GRAM Aggregate Manager.  See [wiki:InstallationGuide#ConfigureandStartAggregateManager this section] to change this  port.
     32      * 9000: VMOC Default Controller
     33      * 7001: VMOC Management.  See [wiki:InstallationGuide#Setup this section] to change this port.
     34      * 6633: VMOC
     36=== Openstack Requirements ===
     38* This guide was written for Ubuntu 12.04
     39* All dependencies will be downloaded for the Ubuntu repository.
     43==== Image requirements ====
     44   * Currently, nova images must meet the following requirements for GRAM:
     45      1.  Must have the following packages installed:
     46          * cloud-utils
     47          * openssh-server
     48          * bash
     49          * apt
     52== Configuration Overview ==
     54!OpenStack and GRAM present software layers on top of rack hardware. It is expected that rack compute nodes are broken into two categories:
     55* '''Controller Node''': The central management and coordination point for !OpenStack and Gram operations and services. There is one of these per rack.
     56* '''Compute Node''': The resource from which VM's and network connections are sliced and allocated on requrest. There are many of these per rack.
     58* !OpenStack and GRAM require establishing four distinct networks among the different nodes of the rack:
     59  * '''Control Network''': The network over which !OpenFlow and GRAM commands flow between control and compute nodes. This network is NOT !OpenFlow controlled and has internal IP addresses for all nodes.
     60  * '''Data Network''': The allocated network and associated interfaces between created VM's representing the requested compute/network resource topology. This network IS !OpenFlow controlled.
     61  * '''External Network''': The network connecting the controller node to the external internet. The compute nodes may or may not also have externaly visible addresses on this network, for convenience.
     62  * '''Management Network''': Enables SSH entry into and between created VM's. This network is NOT !OpenFlow controlled and has internal IP addresses for all nodes.
     64The mapping of the networks to interfaces is arbitrary and can be changed by the installer. For this document we assume the following convention:
     65 * eth0: Control network
     66 * eth1 : Data network
     67 * eth2 : External network
     68 * eth3 : Management network
     70The Controller node will have four interfaces, one for each of the above networks. The Compute nodes will have three (Control, Data and Management) with one (External) optional.
     72More details on the network configuration are provided in wiki:"ArchitectureDescription".
     75== Network Configuration ==
     77 The first step of !OpenStack/Gram configuration is establishing the networks described above.
     79We need to define a range of VLAN's for the data network (say, 1000-2000) and separate VLANs for the external, control, and management networks (say, 5, 6, and 7) on the management switch.
     80The external and control network ports should be configured untagged and the management port should be configured tagged.
     82The Control, External and Management networks are connected between the rack management switch and ethernet interfaces on the Controller or Compute nodes.
     84The Data network is connected between the rack !OpenFlow switch and an ethernet interface on the Control and Compute nodes.
     89=== OpenFlow Switch for the Data Network ===
     91The ports on the !OpenFlow switch to which data network interfaces have been connected need to be configured to ''trunk'' the VLANs of the data network. How this is done varies from switch to switch but typical commands look something like
     94conf t
     95  vlan <vlanid>
     96    tagged <ports>
     97    exit
     98  exit
     99write memory
     103On the !OpenFlow switch, for each VLAN used in the data network (1000-2000), set the controller to point to the VMOC running on the control node. The command will vary from switch to switch but this is typical:
     106conf t
     107  vlan <vlanid>
     108    openflow controller tcp:<controller_addr>:6633 enable
     109    openflow fail-secure on
     110    exit
     111  exit
     112write memory
     115For the Dell Force 10 switch, The following lines set up the vlan trunking in the data network, and sets up the default openflow controller on the VMOC.
     118interface Vlan 1001 of-instance 1
     119 no ip address
     120 tagged TenGigabitEthernet 0/0-2
     121 no shutdown
     125openflow of-instance 1
     126 controller 1  tcp
     127 flow-map l2 enable
     128 flow-map l3 enable
     129 interface-type vlan
     130 multiple-fwd-table enable
     131 no shutdown
     134The above snippet assumes that the controller node, running VMOC, is at
     136For a sample configuration file for the Dell Force10, see attachment:force10-running
     138=== Management Switch ====
     140The ports on the management switch to which management network interfaces have been connected need to be configured to ''trunk'' the VLAN of the management network. How this is done varies from switch to switch, but typical commands look something like:
     143conf t
     144  int gi0/1/3
     145  switchport mode trunk
     146  switchport trunk native vlan 1
     147  switchport trunk allowed vlan add 7
     148  no shutdown
     149  end
     150write memory
     153Here is a config file for a Dell Powerconnect 7048: attachment:powerconnect-running. We use VLAN 200, 300 and 2500 for the control plane, management plane and external network respectively.
     155== GRAM and !OpenStack Installation and Configuration ==
     157GRAM provides a custom installation script for installing and configuring !OpenStack/Folsom particularly for GRAM requirements as well as GRAM itself.
     1591. '''Install fresh Ubuntu 12.04 image on control and N compute nodes'''
     161- From among the rack nodes, select one to be the 'control' and others to be the compute nodes. The control node should have at least 4 NIC's and the compute should have at least 3 NIC's.
     162- Install Ubuntu 12.04 image on each selected rack. Server is preferred
     163- Create 'gram' user with sudo/admin privileges
     164- If there are additional admin accounts, you must manually install omni for each of these accounts.
     1661a. ''' Set up a local repository with the packages and dependencies'''
     167- unpack gram_pkgs.gz
     169cd /home/gram/
     170tar -zxvf gram_pkgs.tar.gz
     173- add gram_pkgs to the list of repositories:
     174Edit "/etc/apt/sources.list"
     175add the line
     177deb file:/home/gram/pkgs ./
     179and comment off all other sources.
     181- run the command
     183sudo apt-get update
     1862. '''Install mysql on the control node'''
     189sudo apt-get install mysql-server python-mysqldb
     192- You will be prompted for the password of the mysql admin. Type it in (twice) and remember it: it will be needed in the config.json file for the value of mysql_password.
     1963. '''Install !OpenStack and GRAM on the control and compute nodes'''
     198- Get the DEBIAN files gram_control.deb and gram_compute.deb. These are not available on an apt server currently but can be obtained by request from ''''''.
     201sudo apt-get install -y ubuntu-cloud-keyring --force-yes
     202sudo apt-get install gdebi-core
     205- Install the gram package (where <type> is ''control'' or ''compute'' depending on what machine type is being installed):
     207sudo gdebi gram_<control/compute>.deb
     210- '''Edit /etc/gram/config.json'''. ''NOTE: This is the most critical step of the process. This specifies your passwords, network configurations, so that !OpenStack will be configured properly.'' [See section "Configuring config.json" below for details on the variables in that file]
     212- Run the GRAM installation script (where <type> is ''control'' or ''compute'' depending on what machine type is being installed):
     214sudo /etc/gram/ <control/compute>
     217- Configure the OS and Network. You will lose network connectivity in the step, it is recommended that the following command is run directly on the machine or using the Linux 'screen' program.
     219sudo /tmp/install/install_operating_system_[control/compute].sh
     223- Configure everything else. Use a ''' root shell '''
     228This last command will do a number of things:
     229- Read in all apt dependencies required
     230- Configure the !OpenStack configuration files based on values set in config.json
     231- Start all !OpenStack services
     232- Start all GRAM services
     234If something goes wrong (you'll see errors in the output stream), then the scripts it is running are in /tmp/install/install*.sh ( or You can usually run the commands by hand and get things to work or at least see where things went wrong (often a problem in the configuration file).
     236- Set up the namespace only on the control node. Use a '''root shell'''.
     2371. Check that sudo ip netns has two entries - the qrouter-* is the important one.
     2381. If qdhcp-* namespace is not there, type sudo quantum-dhcp-agent-restart
     2391. If you still cannot get 2 entries, try restarting all the quantum services:
     240* sudo service quantum-server restart
     241* sudo service quantum-plugin-openvswitch-agent restart
     242* sudo service quantum-dhcp-agent restart
     243* sudo service quantum-l3-agent restart
     246On the control node ONLY = In the root shell, type
     249export PYTHONPATH=$PYTHONPATH:/opt/gcf/src:/home/gram/gram/src:/home/gram/gram/src/gram/am/gram
     250python /home/gram/gram/src/gram/am/gram/
     2535. '''Edit /etc/hosts''' - Not clear that this is necessary anymore.
     254Each control/compute node must be associated with the external ip address.
     255It should look similar to:
     257127.0.0.1       localhost
     258128.89.72.112   bbn-cam-ctrl-1
     259128.89.72.113   bbn-cam-cmpe-1
     260128.89.72.114   bbn-cam-cmpe-2
     2656. '''Installing OS Images : Only on the Control Node'''
     267At this point, OS images must be placed in !OpenStack Glance (the image repository service) to support creation of virtual machines.
     269The choice of images is installation-specific, but these commands are provided as a reasonable example of a first image, a 64-bit Ubuntu 12.04 server in qcow2 format (
     273glance image-create --name "ubuntu-12.04" --is-public=true \
     274--disk-format=qcow2 --container-format=bare < \
     276#Make sure your default_OS_image in /etc/gram/config.json is set to
     277# the name of an existing image
     280Another image, a 64-bit Fedora 19 in qcow2 format (
     284glance image-create --name "fedora-19" --is-public=true \
     285--disk-format=qcow2 --container-format=bare < \
     289Another image, a 64-bit CentOS 6.5 in qcow2 format (
     293glance image-create --name "centos-6.5" --is-public=true \
     294--disk-format=qcow2 --container-format=bare < \
     298*In the event, these links no longer work, copies of the images have been put on an internal projects directory in the GPO infrastructure.
     2997. '''Edit gcf_config'''
     300If using the GENI Portal as the clearinghouse:
     301- Copy the cert:
     303cp nye-ca-cert.pem /etc/gram/certs/trusted_roots/
     304sudo service gram-am restart
     306- Instal user certs and configure omni (instructions: )
     309If using the local gcf clearinghouse, set up gcf_config:
     310In ~/.gcf/gcf_config change hostname to be the fully qualified domain name of the control host for the clearinghouse portion and the aggregate manager portion (2x) eg,
     314Change the base_name to reflect the service token (the same service token used in config.json).  Use the FQDN of the control for the token.
     318Generate new credentials:
     320cd /opt/gcf/src
     321./ --exp -u <username>
     322./ --exp -u <username> --notAll
     324This has to be done twice as the first creates certificates for the aggregate manager and the clearinghouse.   The second creates the username certificates appropriately based on the previous certificates.
     326Generate public key pair
     328ssh-keygen -t rsa -C ""
     331Modify ~/.gcf/omni_config to reflect the service token used in config.json: (Currently using FQDN as token)
     335Set the ip addresses of the ch and sa to the external IP address of the controler
     337ch =
     338sa =
     340ch =
     341sa =
     351=== Configuring ''config.json'' ===
     353The config.json file (in /etc/gram) is a JSON file that is parsed
     354by GRAM code at configre/install time as well as run time.
     356JSON is a format for expressing dictionaries of name/value
     357pairs where the values can be constants, lists or dictionaries. There are
     358no constants, per se, in JSON, but the file as provided has some 'dummy'
     359variables (e.g. "000001") against which comments can be added.
     361The following is a list of all the configuration variables that can
     362be set in the config.json JSON file. For some, defaults are provided in the
     363code but it is advised that the values of these parameters be explicitly set.
     365|| '''parameter''' || '''definition''' ||
     366|| default_VM_flavor || Name of the default VM flavor (if not provided in request RSpec), e.g. 'm1.small' ||
     367|| default_OS_image ||  Name of default VM image (if not provided in request RSpec), e.g. 'ubuntu-12.04' ||
     368|| default_OS_type ||  Name of OS of default VM image, e.g. 'Linux' ||
     369|| default OS_version ||  Version of OS of default VM image, e.g. '12' ||
     370|| external_interface || name of the nic connected to the external network (internet) e.g. eth0. GRAM configures this interface with a static IP address to be specified by the user ||
     371|| external_address || IP address of the interface connected to the external network ||
     372|| external_netmask || netmask associated with the above IP address ||
     373|| control_interface || name of the nic that is to be on the control plane ||
     374|| control_address || IP address of control address. This should be a private address ||
     375|| data_interface || name of the nic that is to be on the data plane ||
     376|| data_address || IP address of the data interface ||
     377|| internal_vlans || Set of VLAN tags for internal links and networks, not for stitching, this must match the !OpenFlow switch configuration  ||
     378|| management_interface || name of the nic that is to be on the management plane ||
     379|| management_address || IP address of the management interface ||
     380|| management_network_name || Quantum will create a network with this name to provide an interface to the VMs through the controller ||
     381|| management_network_cidr || The cidr of the quantum management network. It is recommended that this address space be different from the addresses used on the physical interfaces (control, management, data interfaces) of the control and compute nodes
     382|| management_network_vlan || The vlan used on the management switch to connect the management interfaces of the compute/control nodes.
     383|| mysql_user ||  The name of the mysql_user for !OpenStack operations ||
     384|| mysql_password ||  The password of the mysql_user for !OpenStack operations. ([1] above.] ||
     385|| rabbit_password ||  The password for RabbitMQ interface !OpenStack operations ||
     386|| nova_password ||  The password of the nova mysql database for the nova user ||
     387|| glance_password ||  The password of the glance mysql database for the glance user ||
     388|| keystone_password ||  The password of the keystone mysql database for the keystone user ||
     389|| quantum_password ||  The password of the quantum mysql database for the quantum user ||
     390|| os_tenant_name ||  The name of the !OpenStack admin tenant (e.g. admin) ||
     391|| os_username ||  The name of the !OpenStack admin user (e.g. admin) ||
     392|| os_password ||  The password of the !OpenStack admin user ||
     393|| os_auth_url ||  The URL for accessing !OpenStack authorization services ||
     394|| os_region_name ||  The name of the !OpenStack region namespace (default = RegionOne) ||
     395|| os_no_cache ||  Whether to enable/disable caching (default = 1) ||
     396|| service_token ||  The unique token for identifying this rack, shared by all control and compute nodes of the rack in the same !OpenStack instance (ie. the ''name'' of the rack, suggest FQDN of host) ||
     397|| service_endpoint ||  The URL by which !OpenStack services are identified within keystone ||
     398|| public_gateway_ip ||  The address of the default gateway on the external network interface ||
     399|| public_subnet_cidr ||  the range of address from which quantum may assign addresses on the external network ||
     400|| public_subnet_start_ip ||  the first address of the public addresses available on the external network ||
     401|| public_subnet_end_ip ||  the last address of the public addresses available on the external network ||
     402|| metadata_port ||  The port on which !OpenStack shares meta-data (defult 8775) ||
     403|| backup_directory ||  The directory in which the GRAM install process places original versions of config files in case of the need to roll-back to  a previous state. ||
     404|| allocation_expiration_minutes ||  Time at which allocations expire (in minutes), default=10 ||
     405|| lease_expiration_minutes ||  Time at which provisioned resources expire (in minutes), default = 7 days ||
     406|| gram_snapshot_directory ||  Directory of GRAM snapshots, default '/etc/gram/snapshots' ||
     407|| recover_from_snapshot ||  Whether GRAM should, on initialization, reinitialize from a particular snapshot (default = None or "" meaning no file provided) ||
     408|| recover_from_most_recent_snapshot ||  Whether GRAM should, on initialization, reinitialize from the most recent snapshot (default = True) ||
     409|| snapshot_maintain_limit ||  Number of most recent snapshots maintained by GRAM (default = 10) ||
     410|| subnet_numfile ||  File where gram stores the subnet number for last allocated subnet, default  = '/etc/gram/GRAM-next-subnet.txt'. ''Note: This is temporary until we have namespaces working. '' ||
     411|| port_table_file ||  File where GRAM stores the SSH proxy port state table, default  = '/etc/gram/gram-ssh-port-table.txt' ||
     412|| port_table_lock_file ||  File where SSH port table lock state is stored, default =  = '/etc/gram/gram-ssh-port-table.lock' ||
     413|| ssh_proxy_exe ||  Location of GRAM SSH proxy utility, which enables GRAM to create and delete proxies for each user requested, default  = '/usr/local/bin/gram_ssh_proxy' ||
     414|| ssh_proxy_start_port ||  Start of SSH proxy ports, default = 3000 ||
     415|| ssh_proxy_end_port ||  End of SSH proxy ports, default = 3999 ||
     416|| vmoc_interface_port ||  Port on which to communicate to VMOC interface manager, default = 7001 ||
     417|| vmoc_slice_autoregister ||  SHould GRAM automatically reigster slices to VMOC? Default = True ||
     418|| vmoc_set_vlan_on_untagged_packet_out ||  Should VMOC set VLAN on untagged outgoing packet, default = False ||
     419|| vmoc_set_vlan_on_untagged_flow_mod ||  Should VMOC set VLAN on untagged outgoing flowmod, default = True ||
     420|| vmoc_accept_clear_all_flows_on_startup ||  Should VMOC clear all flows on startup, default  = True ||
     421|| control_host_address || The IP address of the controller node's control interface (used to set the /etc/hosts on the compute nodes ||
     422|| mgmt_ns || DO NOT set this field, it will be set up installation and is the name of the namespace containing the Quantum management network. This namespace can be used to access the VMs using their management address ||
     423|| disk_image_metadata ||  This provides a dictionary mapping names of images (as registered in Glance) with tags for 'os' (operating system of image), 'version' (version of OS of image) and 'description' (human readable description of image) e.g. ||
     426   {
     427   "ubuntu-2nic":
     428       {
     429        "os": "Linux",
     430        "version": "12.0",
     431        "description":"Ubuntu image with 2 NICs configured"
     432        },
     433   "cirros-2nic-x86_64":
     434       {
     435        "os": "Linux",
     436        "version": "12.0",
     437        "description":"Cirros image with 2 NICs configured"
     438        }
     440|| control_host ||  The name or IP address of the control node host ||
     441|| compute_hosts ||  The names/addresses of the compute node hosts, e.g. ||
     444   "boscompute1": "",
     445   "boscompute2": "",
     446   "boscompute4": ""
     449|| host_file_entries ||  The names/addresses of machines to be included in /etc/hosts, e.g. ||
     452   "boscontrol": "",
     453   "boscompute1": "",
     454   "boscompute2": ""
     457||= stitching_info =||  Information necessary for the Stitching Infrastructure
     458   ||aggregate_id  || The URN of this AM
     459   ||aggregate_url || The URL of this AM
     460   ||edge_points   || A list of dictionaries for which:
     461      || local_switch               || URN of local switch                                || mandatory
     462      || port                       || URN port on local switch leading to remote switch  || mandatory
     463      || remote_switch              || URN of remote switch                               || mandatory
     464      || vlans                      || VLAN tags configured on this port                  || mandatory
     465      || traffic_engineering_metric || configurable metric for traffic engineering        || optional, default value = 10 (no units)
     466      || capacity                   || Capacity of the link between endpoints             || optional, default value = 1000000000 (bytes/sec)
     467      || interface_mtu              || MTU of interface                                   || optional, default value = 900 (bytes)
     468      || maximum_reservable_capacity|| Maximum reservable capacity between endpoints      || optional, default value = 1000000000 (bytes/sec)
     469      || minimum_reservable_capacity|| Minimum reservable capacity between endpoints      || optional, default value = 1000000 (bytes/sec)
     470      || granularity                || Increments for reservations                        || optional, default value = 1000000 (bytes/sec)
     472== Installing Operations Monitoring ==
     473Monitoring can be installed after testing the initial installation of GRAM.   Most supporting infrastructure was installed by
     474the steps above.   Some steps, however, still need to be done by hand and the instructions can be found here: [wiki:InstallOpsMon Installing Monitoring on GRAM]
     477== Testing GRAM installation ==
     478This simple rspec can be used to test the gram installation - attachment:2n-1l.rspec
     482# Restart gram-am and clearinghose
     483sudo service gram-am restart
     484sudo service gram-ch restart
     486# check omni/gcf config
     487cd /opt/gcf/src
     488./ getusercred
     490# allocate and provision a slice
     491# I created an rspec in /home/gram called 2n-1l.rspec
     492./ -V 3 -a allocate a1 ~/2n-1l.rspec
     493./ -V 3 -a provision a1 ~/2n-1l.rspec
     495# check that the VMs were created
     496nova list --all-tenants
     498# check that the VMs booted, using the VM IDs from the above command:
     499nova console-log <ID>
     501# look at the 192.x.x.x IP in the console log
     503# find the namespace for the management place:
     504sudo ip netns list
     505     # look at each qrouter-.... for one that has the external (130) and management (192)
     506sudo ip netns exec qrouter-78c6d3af-8455-4c4a-9fd3-884f92c61125 ifconfig
     508# using this namespace, ssh into the VM:
     509sudo ip netns exec qrouter-78c6d3af-8455-4c4a-9fd3-884f92c61125 ssh -i ~/.ssh/id_rsa ssh gramuser@
     511# verify that the data plane is working by pinging across VMs on the 10.x.x.x addresses
     512# The above VM has and the other VM i created has
     516== Turn off Password Authentication on the Control and Compute Nodes
     5181.  Generate an rsa ssh key pair on the control node for the gram user or use the one previously generated if it exists: i.e. ~gram/.ssh/id_rsa and ~gram/.ssh/
     519    ssh-keygen -t rsa -C "gram@address"
     5202.  Generate a dsa ssh key pair on the control node for the gram user or use the one previously generated if it exists: i.e. ~gram/.ssh/id_dsa and ~gram/.ssh/  Some components could only deal well with dsa keys and
     521so from the control node access to other resources on the rack should be using the dsa key.
     522    ssh-keygen -t dsa -C "gram@address"
     5233.  Copy the public key to the compute nodes, i.e.
     5244.  On the control and compute nodes,  cat >> ~/.ssh/authorized_keys
     5255.  As sudo, edit /etc/sshd/config and ensure that these entries are set this way:
     526     RSAAuthentication yes[[BR]]
     527     !PubkeyAuthentication yes[[BR]]
     528     !PasswordAuthentication no[[BR]]
     5296.  Restart the ssh service, sudo service ssh restart.
     5307.  Verify by login in using the key ssh -i ~/.ssh/id_dsa gram@address
     532== TODO ==
     533*Need to make link to /opt/gcf in compute nodes
     535*Make sure that your rabbitMQ IP in /etc/quantum/quantum.conf is set to the controller node: (broken sed in
     537*Service token not set in keystone.conf
     539*add a step in the installation process that checks the status of the services before we start our installation scripts - check dependencies
     541*fix installation such as the gcf_config has the proper entry for host in aggregate and clearinghouse portions - also need to check where the port number is actually read from
     542for the AM - as it is not the gcf_config
     545== DEBUGGING NOTES ==
     546* If it gets stuck at provisioning, you may have lost connectivity with one or more compute nodes. Check that network-manager is removed
     548* If ip addresses are not being assigned and the VMs stall on boot: quantum port-delete (the dhcp agent) and restart quantum-* services
     550* To create the deb package check the Software Release Page for instructions [wiki:SoftwareReleaseNotes Software Release Procedure]
     553* To create a tar file for offline Ubuntu installation, follow the instructions on this page [wiki:MakeLocalUbuntuRepo Create Local Ubuntu Repository]
     555* To create a tar file for offline CentOS installation, follow the instructions on this page [wiki:MakeLocalCentOSRepo Create Local CentOS Repository]
     558* To create a tar file for offline python package installation, follow the instructions on this page [wiki:MakeLocalPythonRepo Create Local Python Repository]
     561[ More Debugging Notes][[BR]]