wiki:GENIExperimenter/Tutorials/NFV/Ryu/HandlingIntrusionwithRyu-ping

Experiment 3: Handling Intrusion with Ryu Controller : Ping Attack

Overview

In this experiment, we will use the Ryu controller to handle intrusion traffic in the form of pings (ICMP messages). In this system, we use a RINA distributed application to get the intrusion detection alerts from the VNFs (i.e., Snort) as well as the load of the VNFs. When an intrusion is detected by the VNFs, the information will be passed to the Attack Analyzer residing on the controller node via the RINA distributed application. The Attack Analyzer informs the Ryu controller about the attack, which then blocks the intrusion traffic by updating the OpenFlow rules on the OVS switch.

NOTE: If you have done experiment 2, you can skip steps 1-3 below.

(1) RINA Distributed Application

(Same as Part (1) in Experiment 2)

The RINA distributed application collects the CPU load of VNF1 and VNF2, as well as any Snort alerts generated by the Snort applications running on VNF1 and VNF2. These Snort alerts are collected on the Controller node and saved in file /tmp/snortalerts by the RINA distributed application.

We need Java installed on the VNF1, VNF2 and controller nodes to run the RINA application. Check if Java is installed using: java -version. If not, install java on VNF1, VNF2 and controller nodes in new windows (Type Ctrl-C to exit netcat on the sources and destination). To install Java, execute:  sudo apt-get install openjdk-7-jdk
(If the install fails, you may first run: sudo apt-get update. In some cases, you may need to first run: sudo add-apt-repository ppa:openjdk-r/ppa followed by: sudo apt-get update.)
  1. In the controller window, download the RINA controller code:
  • cd ~
  • wget https://github.com/akhtarnabeel/public/raw/master/NFV-GENI/Control.tar.gz
  • tar -xvf Control.tar.gz
  1. Type ifconfig to get the IP address of the controller. Save this address as we will need this address to direct the RINA processes on the VNFs to the RINA process on the controller.
  1. In a new VNF1 window, download the RINA VNF1 code:
  • cd ~
  • wget https://github.com/akhtarnabeel/public/raw/master/NFV-GENI/VNF1.tar.gz
  • tar -xvf VNF1.tar.gz
  1. In a new VNF2 window, download the RINA VNF2 code.
  • cd ~
  • wget https://github.com/akhtarnabeel/public/raw/master/NFV-GENI/VNF2.tar.gz
  • tar -xvf VNF2.tar.gz
  1. Now we will change the IP address in the RINA configuration files for VNF1, VNF2 and controller, so these RINA processes can talk to each other. In the VNF1 window, execute:
  • cd ~/VNF1/RINA
  • nano ipcVNF1.properties

At the bottom of the file, change the rina.dns.name and rina.idd.name to the IP address of the controller. The following screenshot shows an example.

In the VNF2 window, execute:

  • cd ~/VNF2/RINA
  • nano ipcVNF2.properties

At the bottom of the file, again change the rina.dns.name and rina.idd.name to the IP address of the controller.

In the controller window, execute:

  • cd ~/Control/RINA
  • nano ipcControl.properties

At the bottom of the file, again change the 'rina.dns.name' and 'rina.idd.name' to the IP address of the controller.

  1. To run the RINA application, follow these steps (make sure you installed Java as noted above):

o In the controller window, execute the following commands:

  • cd ~/Control/RINA/
  • ./run_controller.sh

o In the VNF1 window, execute the following commands:

  • cd ~/VNF1/RINA
  • ./run_VNF1.sh

o In the VNF2 window, execute the following commands:

  • cd ~/VNF2/RINA
  • ./run_VNF2.sh

You should see output on the controller window as shown below:

The RINA application on VNF1 and VNF2 should be run as soon as possible after the RINA application on the controller is started. If you wait for too long, you will get null values for CPU usage, as the controller's RINA app is not able to subscribe to the CPU load of the VNFs. If this is the case, you should restart all RINA processes.
To stop all RINA processes running on a VM, run killall -v java

(2) PI Controller

(Same as Part (2) in Experiment 2)

The PI-controller gets the load information of VNF1 and VNF2 using RINA's distributed application and makes the load balancing decision.

The figure below shows the block diagram of the Proportional Integral (PI) controlled NFV system.

Block diagram of the PI-controller NFV system. System load L and target load T(s)=T/s of VNF1 is used to compute X, i.e. ratio of traffic diverted to VNF2. K` = K/T.

The RINA-based distributed monitoring application provides the VNF1 state (average CPU load) information L(t) to the PI controller. The maximum capacity of a VNF instance is T. If the load on VNF1 exceeds T, new traffic flows are forwarded to a second VNF instance, VNF2. Assuming instantaneous feedback / measured load L(t), the PI control equation is given by:

The code for the PI controller is based on the following algorithm. Input IDSload.txt is the file generated by the RINA distributed application. This file has load information of the VNFs.

  1. To run the PI-controller, open a new controller window and execute:
  • cd ~/Control/PI_controller
  • python PI_controller.py ~/Control/RINA/NFV1.txt

Note that here we are directing PI_controller.py to the NFV1.txt file that is constantly updated by the RINA distributed application with the load information of VNFs.

  1. You should see the VNF state information printed on the screen. A sample output is shown below.

Here the target load on VNF1 is 50.0% of CPU usage, i.e. if the CPU load on VNF1 is more than 50.0%, traffic flows will be diverted to VNF2. The current CPU load shows the load on VNF1. The next line of the output shows the percentage of flows that will be directed to VNF2 and the last line shows the flows that were being directed to VNF2 before the current control update.

Do not close this window; leave the PI controller running.

(3) PI-based Ryu Controller

(Same as Part (3) in Experiment 2)

Now we will run the Ryu controller that will get the load balancing decision from the PI-controller and direct the flows accordingly.

  1. First we will update the nfv.config file to direct the controller to the NFV_ratio_PI.txt file generated by the PI-controller, which has the load balancing decision information. In a new controller window, execute:
  • nano /tmp/ryu/ryu/app/nfv.config

o Change the value of controller_type to PI
o Change the value of file_path_pi to the text file that has the PI controller`s output.

/users/<UserName>/Control/PI_controller/NFV_ratio_PI.txt
Change the <UserName> to your user name.

  1. Now we can run the Ryu controller. Execute
  • /tmp/ryu/bin/ryu-manager --verbose /tmp/ryu/ryu/app/nfv_controller.py

(4) Run Snort

Note: keep the RINA application processes, PI controller process and PI-based Ryu controller process from the previous 3 steps running in the background.

  1. We need to first configure Snort so that we can use our rules, or snort’s built-in rules to detect the intrusion traffic.

To configure Snort, in separate windows for VNF1 and VNF2, execute the following commands

For VNF1:

  • cd ~/VNF1/SnortSetup
  • chmod 755 config_snort.sh
  • ./config_snort.sh

For VNF2:

  • cd ~/VNF2/SnortSetup
  • chmod 755 config_snort.sh
  • ./config_snort.sh
  1. We will use a simple rule where all the ICMP traffic to the destination node is considered as intrusion traffic. To add the rule, open /etc/snort/rules/my.rules and add the rule specified below

To open the file:

  • nano /etc/snort/rules/my.rules

Add the following rule to my.rules

  • alert icmp any any -> 10.10.1.5 any (msg:"ICMP traffic found to Destination";sid:1000001;)
  1. We then run Snort IDS on VNF1 and VNF2. In separate windows for VNF1 and VNF2, execute the following command:
  • sudo /usr/local/bin/snort -A full -dev -c /etc/snort/snort.conf -i eth1

Note: exit from previous instances of Snort if they are still running from earlier experiments before you run this instance of Snort.

Note: this command is different from Experiment 2. Here we specify the file /etc/snort/snort.conf to indicate which rule files to load.

When Snort detects intrusion traffic, it will save the alert messages into the file /var/log/snort/alert. The RINA distributed application keeps reading this alert file, and passes any intrusion information to the Ryu controller, which will block the intrusion traffic.

(5) Run Attack Analyzer

The Attack Analyzer reads the Snort alerts saved on the Controller node and makes decisions about which IP addresses to block. The Attack analyzer is the “brain” on the attack control system. It reads the file /tmp/snortalert, which is generated by RINA on controller node and outputs /tmp/attacker.txt file which has the IP addresses of all the nodes that the Attack Analyzer decides to block based on Snort alerts.

Open a separate window for the Controller, and run the attack analyzer.

cd ~/Control/AttackAnalyzer/

python AttackAnalyzer.py -f /tmp/snortalert

Note: If you want to re-run this experiment, make sure to remove /tmp/attacker.txt and /tmp/snortalert files on the controller node.

(6) Generate Regular and Intrusion Traffic

  1. In a separate window for destination, start the netcat server by running:
  • nc -u -l 5000
  1. In another separate window for s1, start the netcat client by running:
  • nc -u destination 5000
  1. Type something on the s1 window and you should see it on the destination window.
  1. In another separate window for s1, we will generate attack traffic, which in our case are ICMP messages. To send ICMP messages to the destination, run the following ping command:
  • ping destination

The first few ping messages are able to reach destination since it takes some time for the controller to get the intrusion detection results from the VNFs via the RINA distributed application, but after a few seconds, all following ping messages will not be able to reach the destination, and you should see the following output:

  1. Type something on the s1 window for netcat and you should NOT see it on the destination window.

If you go to the controller window which runs the Ryu controller, you can see that all traffic from the attacker is dropped with the following output:

If you go to the controller window which runs the Attack Analyzer, you can see the list of IP addresses blocked by the Attack Analyzer:

  1. Restart the netcat server on the destination by running:
  • nc -u -l 5000
  1. In another separate window for s2, start the netcat client by running:
  • nc -u destination 5000

Notice that using the netcat client side on s2, all messages are able to reach the destination since s2 traffic is not blocked. However, no traffic from s1 reaches the destination since s1 is blocked.

Next Experiment

Experiment 4: Handling Intrusion with Ryu Controller: Port Scanning Attack

Last modified 6 months ago Last modified on 05/24/19 23:09:25