Changes between Version 2 and Version 3 of TracEnvironment


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Timestamp:
11/14/18 14:30:10 (4 years ago)
Author:
trac
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  • TracEnvironment

    v2 v3  
    1 = The Trac Environment =
     1= The Trac Environment
    22
    3 Trac uses a directory structure and a database for storing project data. The directory is referred to as the “environment”.
     3[[TracGuideToc]]
     4[[PageOutline(2-5,Contents,pullout)]]
    45
    5 == Creating an Environment ==
     6Trac uses a directory structure and a database for storing project data. The directory is referred to as the '''environment'''.
    67
    7 A new Trac environment is created using  [wiki:TracAdmin trac-admin]:
    8 {{{
     8Trac supports [http://sqlite.org/ SQLite], [http://www.postgresql.org/ PostgreSQL] and [http://mysql.com/ MySQL] databases. With PostgreSQL and MySQL you have to create the database before running `trac-admin initenv`.
     9
     10== Creating an Environment
     11
     12A new Trac environment is created using the [TracAdmin#initenv initenv] command:
     13{{{#!sh
    914$ trac-admin /path/to/myproject initenv
    1015}}}
    1116
    12 [wiki:TracAdmin trac-admin] will ask you for the name of the project, the
    13 database connection string (explained below), and the type and path to
    14 your source code repository.
     17`trac-admin` will ask you for the name of the project and the [#DatabaseConnectionStrings database connection string].
    1518
    16 ''Note: The web server user will require file system write permission to
    17 the environment directory and all the files inside. Please remember to set
    18 the appropriate permissions. The same applies to the Subversion repository
    19 Trac is eventually using, although Trac will only require read access as long
    20 as you're not using the BDB file system. Also, it seems that project names
    21 with spaces can be problematic for authentication (see [trac:#7163]).''
     19=== Useful Tips
    2220
    23 ''Note: "initenv" when using svn repository does not imply that trac-admin will perform "svnadmin create" for the specified repository path. You need to perform the "svnadmin create" prior to trac-admin initenv if you're creating a new svn repository altogether with a new trac environment, otherwise you will see a message "Warning: couldn't index the repository" when initializing the environment.''
     21 - Place your environment's directory on a filesystem which supports sub-second timestamps, as Trac monitors the timestamp of its configuration files and changes happening on a filesystem with too coarse-grained timestamp resolution may go undetected in Trac < 1.0.2. This is also true for the location of authentication files when using TracStandalone.
    2422
    25 == Database Connection Strings ==
     23 - The user under which the web server runs will require file system write permission to the environment directory and all the files inside. Please remember to set the appropriate permissions. The same applies to the source code repository, although the user under which Trac runs will only require write access to a Subversion repository created with the BDB file system; for other repository types, check the corresponding plugin's documentation.
     24 
     25 - `initenv` does not create a version control repository for the specified path. If you wish to specify a default repository using the optional arguments to `initenv` you must create the repository first, otherwise you will see a message when initializing the environment: //Warning: couldn't index the default repository//.
    2626
    27 Since version 0.9, Trac supports both [http://sqlite.org/ SQLite] and
    28 [http://www.postgresql.org/ PostgreSQL] database backends.  Preliminary
    29 support for [http://mysql.com/ MySQL] was added in 0.10.  The default is
    30 to use SQLite, which is probably sufficient for most projects. The database
    31 file is then stored in the environment directory, and can easily be
    32 [wiki:TracBackup backed up] together with the rest of the environment.
     27 - Non-ascii environment paths are not supported.
    3328
    34 === Embedded SQLite Connection String ===
    35 The connection string for an embedded SQLite database is:
     29 - TracPlugins located in a [TracIni#inherit-plugins_dir-option shared plugins directory] that is defined in an [TracIni#GlobalConfiguration inherited configuration] are not enabled by default, in contrast to plugins in the environment `plugins` directory. Hence, if they need to create extra tables, for example, the tables will not be created during environment creation and you'll need to [TracUpgrade#UpgradetheTracEnvironment upgrade the environment]. Alternatively you can avoid the need to upgrade the environment by explicitly enabling the plugin in the inherited configuration, or in a configuration file using the `--config` option. See TracAdmin#FullCommandReference for more information.
     30
     31{{{#!div style="border: 1pt dotted; margin: 1em;"
     32**Caveat:** don't confuse the //Trac environment directory// with the //source code repository directory//.
     33
     34This is a common beginners' mistake.
     35It happens that the structure for a Trac environment is loosely modeled after the Subversion repository directory structure, but those are two disjoint entities and they are not and //must not// be located at the same place.
     36}}}
     37
     38== Database Connection Strings
     39
     40You will need to specify a database connection string at the time the environment is created. The default is SQLite, which is sufficient for most projects. The SQLite database file is stored in the environment directory, and can easily be [wiki:TracBackup backed up] together with the rest of the environment.
     41
     42Note that if the username or password of the connection string (if applicable) contains the `:`, `/` or `@` characters, they need to be [http://meyerweb.com/eric/tools/dencoder/ URL encoded].
     43{{{#!sh
     44$ python -c "import urllib; print urllib.quote('password@:/123', '')"
     45password%40%3A%2F123
     46}}}
     47
     48=== SQLite Connection String
     49
     50The connection string for an SQLite database is:
    3651{{{
    3752sqlite:db/trac.db
    3853}}}
     54where `db/trac.db` is the path to the database file within the Trac environment.
    3955
    40 === PostgreSQL Connection String ===
    41 If you want to use PostgreSQL or MySQL instead, you'll have to use a
    42 different connection string. For example, to connect to a PostgreSQL
    43 database on the same machine called `trac`, that allows access to the
    44 user `johndoe` with the password `letmein`, use:
     56See [trac:DatabaseBackend#SQLite] for more information.
     57
     58=== PostgreSQL Connection String
     59
     60The connection string for PostgreSQL is a bit more complex. For example, to connect to a PostgreSQL database named `trac` on `localhost` for user `johndoe` and password `letmein`, use:
    4561{{{
    4662postgres://johndoe:letmein@localhost/trac
    4763}}}
    48 ''Note that due to the way the above string is parsed, the "/" and "@" characters cannot be part of the password.''
    4964
    50 If PostgreSQL is running on a non-standard port (for example 9342), use:
     65If PostgreSQL is running on a non-standard port, for example 9342, use:
    5166{{{
    5267postgres://johndoe:letmein@localhost:9342/trac
    5368}}}
    5469
    55 On UNIX, you might want to select a UNIX socket for the transport,
    56 either the default socket as defined by the PGHOST environment variable:
     70On UNIX, you might want to select a UNIX socket for the transport, either the default socket as defined by the PGHOST environment variable:
    5771{{{
    5872postgres://user:password@/database
    5973}}}
     74
    6075or a specific one:
    6176{{{
     
    6378}}}
    6479
    65 Note that with PostgreSQL you will have to create the database before running
    66 `trac-admin initenv`.
    67 
    6880See the [http://www.postgresql.org/docs/ PostgreSQL documentation] for detailed instructions on how to administer [http://postgresql.org PostgreSQL].
    69 Generally, the following is sufficient to create a database user named `tracuser`, and a database named `trac`.
    70 {{{
    71 createuser -U postgres -E -P tracuser
    72 createdb -U postgres -O tracuser -E UTF8 trac
    73 }}}
    74 When running `createuser` you will be prompted for the password for the user 'tracuser'. This new user will not be a superuser, will not be allowed to create other databases and will not be allowed to create other roles. These privileges are not needed to run a trac instance. If no password is desired for the user, simply remove the `-P` and `-E` options from the `createuser` command.  Also note that the database should be created as UTF8. LATIN1 encoding causes errors trac's use of unicode in trac.  SQL_ASCII also seems to work.
    75 
    76 Under some default configurations (debian) one will have run the `createuser` and `createdb` scripts as the `postgres` user.  For example:
    77 {{{
    78 sudo su - postgres -c 'createuser -U postgres -S -D -R -E -P tracuser'
    79 sudo su - postgres -c 'createdb -U postgres -O tracuser -E UTF8 trac'
     81Generally, the following is sufficient to create a database user named `tracuser` and a database named `trac`:
     82{{{#!sh
     83$ createuser -U postgres -E -P tracuser
     84$ createdb -U postgres -O tracuser -E UTF8 trac
    8085}}}
    8186
    82 Trac uses the `public` schema by default but you can specify a different schema in the connection string:
     87When running `createuser` you will be prompted for the password for the `tracuser`. This new user will not be a superuser, will not be allowed to create other databases and will not be allowed to create other roles. These privileges are not needed to run a Trac instance. If no password is desired for the user, simply remove the `-P` and `-E` options from the `createuser` command. Also note that the database should be created as UTF8. LATIN1 encoding causes errors, because of Trac's use of unicode.
     88
     89Under some default configurations (Debian), run the `createuser` and `createdb` scripts as the `postgres` user:
     90{{{#!sh
     91$ sudo su - postgres -c 'createuser -U postgres -S -D -R -E -P tracuser'
     92$ sudo su - postgres -c 'createdb -U postgres -O tracuser -E UTF8 trac'
     93}}}
     94
     95Trac uses the `public` schema by default, but you can specify a different schema in the connection string:
    8396{{{
    8497postgres://user:pass@server/database?schema=yourschemaname
    8598}}}
    8699
    87 === MySQL Connection String ===
     100=== MySQL Connection String
    88101
    89 If you want to use MySQL instead, you'll have to use a
    90 different connection string. For example, to connect to a MySQL
    91 database on the same machine called `trac`, that allows access to the
    92 user `johndoe` with the password `letmein`, the mysql connection string is:
     102The format of the MySQL connection string is similar to PostgreSQL, with the `postgres` scheme being replaced by `mysql`. For example, to connect to a MySQL database on `localhost` named `trac` for user `johndoe` with password `letmein`:
    93103{{{
    94104mysql://johndoe:letmein@localhost:3306/trac
    95105}}}
    96106
    97 == Source Code Repository ==
     107== Source Code Repository
    98108
    99 You'll first have to provide the ''type'' of your repository (e.g. `svn` for Subversion,
    100 which is the default), then the ''path'' where the repository is located.
     109A single environment can be connected to more than one repository. However, by default Trac is not connected to any source code repository, and the ''Browse Source'' navigation item will not be displayed.
    101110
    102 If you don't want to use Trac with a source code repository, simply leave the ''path'' empty
    103 (the ''type'' information doesn't matter, then).
     111There are several ways to connect repositories to an environment, see TracRepositoryAdmin. A single repository can be specified when the environment is created by passing the optional arguments `repository_type` and `repository_dir` to the `initenv` command.
    104112
    105 For some systems, it is possible to specify not only the path to the repository,
    106 but also a ''scope'' within the repository. Trac will then only show information
    107 related to the files and changesets below that scope. The Subversion backend for
    108 Trac supports this; for other types, check the corresponding plugin's documentation.
     113== Directory Structure
    109114
    110 Example of a configuration for a Subversion repository:
    111 {{{
    112 [trac]
    113 repository_type = svn
    114 repository_dir = /path/to/your/repository
    115 }}}
    116 
    117 The configuration for a scoped Subversion repository would be:
    118 {{{
    119 [trac]
    120 repository_type = svn
    121 repository_dir = /path/to/your/repository/scope/within/repos
    122 }}}
    123 
    124 == Directory Structure ==
    125 
    126 An environment directory will usually consist of the following files and directories:
     115An environment consists of the following files and directories:
    127116
    128117 * `README` - Brief description of the environment.
    129  * `VERSION` - Contains the environment version identifier.
    130  * `attachments` - Attachments to wiki pages and tickets are stored here.
     118 * `VERSION` - Environment version identifier.
     119 * `files`
     120  * `attachments` - Attachments to wiki pages and tickets.
    131121 * `conf`
    132    * `trac.ini` - Main configuration file. See TracIni.
     122  * `trac.ini` - Main [TracIni configuration file].
    133123 * `db`
    134    * `trac.db` - The SQLite database (if you're using SQLite).
    135  * `htdocs` - directory containing web resources, which can be referenced in Genshi templates. '''''(0.11 only)'''''
    136  * `log` - default directory for log files, if logging is turned on and a relative path is given.
    137  * `plugins` - Environment-specific [wiki:TracPlugins plugins] (Python eggs, since [trac:milestone:0.10 0.10])
    138  * `templates` - Custom Genshi environment-specific templates. '''''(0.11 only)'''''
    139    * `site.html` - method to customize header, footer, and style, described in TracInterfaceCustomization#SiteAppearance
    140  * ''`templates` - Custom [trac:ClearSilver ClearSilver] environment-specific templates. '''(0.10 only)''' ''
    141    * ''`site_css.cs` - Custom CSS rules.''
    142    * ''`site_footer.cs` - Custom page footer.''
    143    * ''`site_header.cs` - Custom page header.''
    144  * ''`wiki-macros` - Environment-specific [WikiMacros Wiki macros]. '''(0.10 only)''' ''
    145 
    146   '''Note: don't confuse a Trac environment directory with the source code repository directory.
    147 It happens that the above structure is loosely modelled after the Subversion repository directory
    148 structure, but they are not and ''must not'' be located at the same place.'''
     124  * `trac.db` - The SQLite database, if you are using SQLite.
     125 * `htdocs` - Directory containing web resources, which can be referenced in templates using the path `/chrome/site/...`.
     126 * `log` - Default directory for log files when `file` logging is enabled and a relative path is given.
     127 * `plugins` - Environment-specific [wiki:TracPlugins plugins].
     128 * `templates` - Custom Genshi environment-specific templates.
     129  * `site.html` - Method to [TracInterfaceCustomization#SiteAppearance customize] the site header, footer, and style.
    149130
    150131----
    151 See also: TracAdmin, TracBackup, TracIni, TracGuide
     132See also: TracAdmin, TracBackup, TracIni