wiki:GENIBibliography

GENI Bibliography Page

This page contains GENI-relevant papers. It is intended to include papers addressing:

  • Research, experiments, services, and applications using GENI
  • Design, architecture, development, or deployment of GENI
  • Design, architecture, development, or deployment of aggregates or capabilities and their relationships with GENI
  • Federation of GENI and other testbeds

Recognizing GENI in your work

To help us track GENI's impact, we have a simple requirement. If you use GENI in your research or classroom, you must say so in your published papers or other documents. You may make this acknowledgement by citing one of the following (BibTeX entries are provided for your convenience):

GENI: A federated testbed for innovative network experiments (BibTeX entry)
The GENI Book (BibTeX entry)

We also appreciate hearing about how you're using GENI and how GENI could better meet your needs. Please send updates and thoughts to help@geni.net.

Adding to this bibliography

We welcome your contributions to this bibliography. Please send references to Mark Berman. Preferred formats are:

Feel free to download the attached BibTeX source file, which contains entries for all items listed below.


GENI Bibliography


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  1. Özçelik, İlker and Brooks, Richard R., "Deceiving entropy based DoS detection." Computers & Security, 2015. doi:10.1016/j.cose.2014.10.013. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cose.2014.10.013

    Abstract: Denial of Service (DoS) attacks disable network services for legitimate users. As a result of growing dependence on the Internet by both the general public and service providers, the availability of Internet services has become a concern. While DoS attacks cause inconvenience for users, and revenue loss for service providers; their effects on critical infrastructures like the smart grid and public utilities could be catastrophic. For example, an attack on a smart grid system can cause cascaded power failures and lead to a major blackout. Researchers have proposed approaches for detecting these attacks in the past decade. Anomaly based DoS detection is the most common. The detector uses network traffic statistics; such as the entropy of incoming packet header fields (e.g. source IP addresses or protocol type). It calculates the observed statistical feature and triggers an alarm if an extreme deviation occurs. Entropy features are common in recent DDoS detection publications. They are also one of the most effective features for detecting these attacks. However, intrusion detection systems (IDS) using entropy based detection approaches can be a victim of spoofing attacks. An attacker can sniff the network and calculate background traffic entropy before a (D)DoS attack starts. They can then spoof attack packets to keep the entropy value in the expected range during the attack. This paper explains the vulnerability of entropy based network monitoring systems. We present a proof of concept entropy spoofing attack and show that by exploiting this vulnerability, the attacker can avoid detection or degrade detection performance to an unacceptable level.

  2. Abdelhadi, Ahmed and Rechia, Felipe and Narayanan, Arvind and Teixeira, Thiago and Lent, Ricardo and Benhaddou, Driss and Lee, Hyunwoo and Clancy, T. Charles, "Position estimation of robotic mobile nodes in wireless testbed using GENI." 2016 Annual IEEE Systems Conference (SysCon), IEEE, 2016. doi:10.1109/syscon.2016.7490652. http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/syscon.2016.7490652

    Abstract: We present a low complexity experimental RF-based indoor localization system based on the collection and processing of WiFi RSSI signals and processing using a RSS-based multi-lateration algorithm to determine a robotic mobile node's location. We use a real indoor wireless testbed called w-iLab.t that is deployed in Zwijnaarde, Ghent, Belgium. One of the unique attributes of this testbed is that it provides tools and interfaces using Global Environment for Network Innovations (GENI) project to easily create reproducible wireless network experiments in a controlled environment. We provide a low complexity algorithm to estimate the location of the mobile robots in the indoor environment. In addition, we provide a comparison between some of our collected measurements with their corresponding location estimation and the actual robot location. The comparison shows an accuracy between 0.65 and 5 meters.

  3. Aikat, Jay and Hasan, Shaddi and Jeffay, Kevin and Smith, F. Donelson, "Discrete-Approximation of Measured Round Trip Time Distributions: A Model for Network Emulation." First GENI Research and Educational Experiment Workshop (GREE 2012), Los Angeles, 2012.

    Abstract: Empirical evaluations to study network performance, whether in a laboratory setting or on GENI testbeds, rely heavily on measurement-based modeling of round trip times (RTTs) to emulate realistic end-to-end delays of local and metropolitan area networks. For generating realistic traffic, we studied several models to emulate RTTs. In this paper, we performed experiments on real testbeds using synthetic TCP traffic generated from measurement data from a large university campus. As a result of our study, we present the Discrete- Approximation model for RTT (DA-RTT) emulation. Using three different metrics for performance evaluation, which include queue length at routers, connection response times, and connection durations, we demonstrate that the simple DA-RTT model closely represents the per-connection RTTs in the original traffic. While these experiments were performed in our laboratory, and not using GENI infrastructure, we present this as a possible model for adoption on GENI testbeds to emulate Round Trip Time Distributions for GENI experiments.

  4. Akella, Anand V. and Xiong, Kaiqi, "Quality of Service (QoS)-Guaranteed Network Resource Allocation via Software Defined Networking (SDN)." 2014 IEEE 12th International Conference on Dependable, Autonomic and Secure Computing, Dalian, China, IEEE, 2014. doi:10.1109/dasc.2014.11. http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/dasc.2014.11

    Abstract: Quality of Service (QoS) -- based bandwidth allocation plays a key role in real-time computing systems and applications such as voice IP, teleconferencing, and gaming. Likewise, customer services often need to be distinguished according to their service priorities and requirements. In this paper, we consider bandwidth allocation in the networks of a cloud carrier in which cloud users' requests are processed and transferred by a cloud provider subject to QoS requirements. We present a QoS-guaranteed approach for bandwidth allocation that satisfies QoS requirements for all priority cloud users by using Open vSwitch, based on software defined networking (SDN). We implement and test the proposed approach on the Global Environment for Networking Innovations (GENI). Experimental results show the effectiveness of the proposed approach.

  5. AlEroud, Ahmed and Alsmadi, Izzat, "Identifying cyber-attacks on software defined networks: An inference-based intrusion detection approach." Journal of Network and Computer Applications, 2017. doi:10.1016/j.jnca.2016.12.024. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jnca.2016.12.024

    Abstract: Software Defined Networking is an emerging architecture which focuses on the role of software to manage computer networks. Software Defined Networks (SDNs) introduce several mechanisms to detect specific types of attacks such as Denial of Service (DoS). Nevertheless, they are vulnerable to similar attacks that occur in traditional networks, such as the attacks that target control and data plane. Several techniques are proposed to handle the security vulnerabilities in SDNs. However, it is fairly challenging to create attack signatures, scenarios, or even intrusion detection rules that are applicable to dynamic environments such SDNs. This paper introduces a new approach to identify attacks on SDNs that uses: (1) similarity with existing attacks that target traditional networks, (2) an inference mechanism to avoid false positives and negatives during the prediction process, and (3) a packet aggregation technique which aims at creating attack signatures and use them to predict attacks on SDNs. We validated our approach on two datasets and showed that it yields promising results.

  6. Alali, Fatma and Veeraraghavan, Malathi, "A cross-layer design for large transfers in SDNs." 2016 Eighth International Conference on Ubiquitous and Future Networks (ICUFN), IEEE, 2016. doi:10.1109/icufn.2016.7537142. http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/icufn.2016.7537142

    Abstract: Software Defined Network (SDN) technologies have enabled the introduction of new services such as dynamic Layer-1 (L1) circuits and Layer-2 (L2) virtual circuits (VCs). This work presents a cross-layer design that leverages transport- and link-layer protocols to enable the full use of high-rate circuits/VCs to achieve high-throughput transfers. Three cases are considered: (i) single circuit/rate-guaranteed VC for a single large transfer from a server, (ii) multiple simultaneous large transfers from a server, and (iii) semi-rate-guaranteed VC. Circuit TCP (CTCP) and the Token Bucket Filter (TBF) queueing discipline of the Linux traffic control (tc) utility are recommended for the first case, and parameter selection methods are provided. For the second case, the tc Hierarchical Token Bucket (HTB) discipline is recommended as it supports dynamic additions and deletions of classes without impact on ongoing large-transfer flows using existing classes. For the third case, CTCP is recommended if the large-transfer throughput is the primary concern, while HTCP is recommended if higher consideration is given to other flows.

  7. Alaoui, Sara E. and Ramamurthy, Byrav, "EAODR: A novel routing algorithm based on the Modified Temporal Graph network model for DTN-based Interplanetary Networks." Computer Networks, 2017. doi:10.1016/j.comnet.2017.09.012. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.comnet.2017.09.012

    Abstract: The Interplanetary Internet is a network that interconnects objects traveling in space and on planets such as satellites, rovers and comets. This network has very different communication conditions than the networks deployed on the surface of Earth. The large delays, intermittent connections and rough environment in space require the adoption of the Delay/Disruption Tolerant Network architecture/techniques. The currently used implementation of DTN interplanetary networks uses the Contact Graph Routing mechanism that we show, using the Interplanetary Overlay Network (ION) based experiments, has some shortcomings leading to less efficient use of the network. In this paper, we propose a novel model to represent such networks based on temporal graphs obtaining a near-real-time representation of these deterministic dynamic networks. This Modified Temporal Graph (MTG) model is then used for the implementation of our proposed routing algorithm, the Earliest Arrival Optimal Delivery Ratio (EAODR) routing algorithm. We provide the proof of correctness of EAODR, and we use our routing simulator to run experiments on a real-world network and also on large networks. We prove that EAODR outperforms the Contact Graph Routing (CGR) in terms of a decrease in delay of up to 12.9%.

  8. Albrecht, J. and Huang, D. Y., "Managing distributed applications using Gush." Proceedings of the ICST Conference on Testbeds and Research Infrastructures for the Development of Networks and Communities, Testbed Practices Session (TridentCom), 2010. doi:10.1007/978-3-642-17851-1_31. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-3-642-17851-1_31

    Abstract: Deploying and controlling experiments running on a distributed set of resources is a challenging task. Software developers often spend a significant amount of time dealing with the complexities associated with resource configuration and management in these environments. Experiment control systems are designed to automate the process, and to ultimately help developers cope with the common problems that arise during the design, implementation, and evaluation of distributed systems. However, many of the existing control systems were designed with specific computing environments in mind, and thus do not provide support for heterogeneous resources in different testbeds. In this paper, we explore the functionality of Gush, an experiment control system, and discuss how it supports execution on three of the four GENI control frameworks.

  9. Albrecht, Jeannie R., "Bringing big systems to small schools: distributed systems for undergraduates." SIGCSE Bull., ACM, New York, NY, USA, 2009. doi:10.1145/1539024.1508903. http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/1539024.1508903

    Abstract: Distributed applications have become a core component of the Internet's infrastructure. However, many undergraduate curriculums, especially at small colleges, do not offer courses that focus on the design and implementation of distributed systems. The courses that are offered address the theoretical aspects of system design, but often fail to provide students with the opportunity to develop and evaluate distributed applications in real-world environments. As a result, undergraduate students are not as prepared as they should be for graduate study or careers in industry. This paper describes an undergraduate course in Distributed Systems that not only studies the key design principles of distributed systems, but also has a unique emphasis on giving students hands-on access to distributed systems through the use of shared computing testbeds, such as PlanetLab and GENI, and open-source technologies, such as Xen and Hadoop. Using these platforms, students can perform large-scale, distributed experimentation even at small colleges.

  10. Albrecht, Jeannie and Tuttle, Christopher and Braud, Ryan and Dao, Darren and Topilski, Nikolay and Snoeren, Alex C. and Vahdat, Amin, "Distributed application configuration, management, and visualization with plush." ACM Trans. Internet Technol., ACM, New York, NY, USA, 2011. doi:10.1145/2049656.2049658. http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/2049656.2049658

    Abstract: Support for distributed application management in large-scale networked environments remains in its early stages. Although a number of solutions exist for subtasks of application deployment, monitoring, and maintenance in distributed environments, few tools provide a unified framework for application management. Many of the existing tools address the management needs of a single type of application or service that runs in a specific environment, and these tools are not adaptable enough to be used for other applications or platforms. To this end, we present the design and implementation of Plush, a fully configurable application management infrastructure designed to meet the general requirements of several different classes of distributed applications. Plush allows developers to specifically define the flow of control needed by their computations using application building blocks. Through an extensible resource management interface, Plush supports execution in a variety of environments, including both live deployment platforms and emulated clusters. Plush also uses relaxed synchronization primitives for improving fault tolerance and liveness in failure-prone environments. To gain an understanding of how Plush manages different classes of distributed applications, we take a closer look at specific applications and evaluate how Plush provides support for each.

  11. Aleroud, Ahmad and Alsmadi, Izzat, "Identifying DoS attacks on software defined networks: A relation context approach." NOMS 2016 - 2016 IEEE/IFIP Network Operations and Management Symposium, IEEE, 2016. doi:10.1109/noms.2016.7502914. http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/noms.2016.7502914

    Abstract: The recent emerge of Software Defined Networking (SDN) promotes both supporters and opponents to further explore this network architecture. One of the main attributes that characterize SDN is the significant role of software to manage and control the architecture. There are four major concerns for such software dominant role, security, performance, reliability, and fault tolerance. Among them security is considered a major concern. SDNs security concerns include attacks on the control plane layer such as DoS attacks. This paper presents an inference-relation context based technique for the detection of DoS attacks on SDNs. The proposed technique utilizes contextual similarity with existing attack patterns to identify DoS in an OpenFlow infrastructure. A validation of the proposed technique has been performed using a several benchmark datasets yielding promising results.

  12. Anan, M. and Ilyes, L. and Ayyash, M. and Alfuqaha, A., "Cloud-based autonomic service monitoring for Future Internet." 2014 International Wireless Communications and Mobile Computing Conference (IWCMC), IEEE, 2014. doi:10.1109/iwcmc.2014.6906333. http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/iwcmc.2014.6906333

    Abstract: The shortcomings of today's Internet and the high demand for complex and sophisticated applications and services drive a very interesting and novel research area called Future Internet. The area of Future Internet research focuses on developing a new network with similar magnitude as today's Internet but with more demanding and complex design goals and specifications. It strives to solve the issues identified in today's Internet, by capitalizing on the advantages of emerging new technologies in the area of computer networking such as Software Defined Networking (SDN). SDN represents an extraordinary opportunity to rethink computer networks, enabling the design and deployment of a future Internet. This paper focuses on the deployment of a complete system, designed with the new requirements of the Future Internet in mind, and aims to provide, monitor and enhance the popular multimedia streaming service of today's Internet. The testing environment was built in the Global Environment for Network Innovations (GENI). The conducted experiments illustrate how such a system can function under unstable and changing network conditions, dynamically learn its environment, recognize potential service degradation problems, and react to these challenges in an autonomic manner without the need for human intervention.

  13. Angu, Pragatheeswaran and Ramamurthy, Byrav, "Experiences with dynamic circuit creation in a regional network testbed." 2011 IEEE Conference on Computer Communications Workshops (INFOCOM WKSHPS), Shanghai, China, IEEE, 2011. doi:10.1109/infcomw.2011.5928801. http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/infcomw.2011.5928801

    Abstract: In this paper we share our experiences of enabling dynamic circuit creation in the GpENI network. GpENI is a network research testbed in the mid-west USA involving several educational institutions. University of Nebraska-Lincoln is involved in provisioning dynamic circuits across the GpENI network among its participating universities. We discuss several options investigated for deploying dynamic circuits over the GpENI network as well as our demonstration experiments at the GENI engineering conferences. UNL has also collaborated with ProtoGENI project of University of Utah and Mid-Atlantic Crossroads (MAX) facility of Washington DC to create inter-domain dynamic circuits.

  14. Antequera, R. Bazan and Calyam, P. and Chemodanov, D. and de Donato, W. and Mishra, A. and Pescape, A. and Skubic, M., "Socio-technical approach to engineer gigabit app performance for physicaltherapy-as-a-service." 2017 IEEE 19th International Conference on e-Health Networking, Applications and Services (Healthcom), Dalian, China, IEEE, 2017. doi:10.1109/healthcom.2017.8210768. http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/healthcom.2017.8210768

    Abstract: The deployment of Gigabit Apps owing to their high-bandwidth and low-latency nature pushes the limits of today's end-to-end networking, and reveals new bottlenecks at multiple layers of networking, virtualization, application and user experience. In this paper, we use an exemplar smart health related Gigabit App use case viz., PhysicalTherapy-as-a-Service to show how a multi-layer instrumentation approach of measurement points was critical to successfully deploy our lab-tested App out to residential homes with Google Fiber connections. The salient instrumentation strategies involved an organized co-design method between the App Developer and Network Engineer roles, and a multi-domain network performance monitoring featuring perfSONAR extensions, both of which were realized through our Narada Metrics framework. Our instrumentation strategies engendered a ” socio-technical tool” for co-ordination between multi-layer stakeholders in identifying and overcoming the intertwined bottlenecks, and in tuning the App performance. Our results highlight the new instrumentation and measurement challenges to foster multi-layer stakeholder collaboration, and provide rare insights to the budding Gigabit App developer community for performance engineering their Apps to serve residential users.

  15. Antequera, Ronny B. and Calyam, Prasad and Chandrashekara, Arjun A. and Malhotra, Shivoam, "Recommending Resources to Cloud Applications Based on Custom Templates Composition." Proceedings of the Computing Frontiers Conference, Siena, Italy, ACM, New York, NY, USA, 2017. doi:10.1145/3075564.3075582. http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/3075564.3075582

    Abstract: Emerging interdisciplinary data-intensive applications in science and engineering fields (e.g. bioinformatics, cybermanufacturing) demand the use of high-performance computing resources. However, data-intensive applications' local resources usually present limited capacity and availability due to sizable upfront costs. The applications requirements warrant intelligent resource 'abstractions' coupled with 'reusable' approaches to save time and effort in deploying cyberinfrastructure (CI). In this paper, we present a novel 'custom templates' management middleware to overcome this scarcity of resources by use of advanced CI management technologies/protocols to on-demand deploy data-intensive applications across distributed/federated cloud resources. Our middleware comprises of a novel resource recommendation scheme that abstracts user requirements of data-intensive applications and matches them with federated cloud resources using custom templates in a catalog. We evaluate the accuracy of our recommendation scheme in two experiment scenarios. The experiments involve simulating a series of user interactions with diverse applications requirements, also feature a real-world data-intensive application case study. Our experiment results show that our scheme improves the resource recommendation accuracy by up to 21%, compared to the existing schemes.

  16. Antonenko, V. and Smeliansky, R. and Baldin, I. and Izhvanov, Y. and Gugel, Y., "Towards SDI-bases Infrastructure for supporting science in Russia." Science and Technology Conference (Modern Networking Technologies) (MoNeTeC), 2014 First International, IEEE, 2014. doi:10.1109/monetec.2014.6995576. http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/monetec.2014.6995576

    Abstract: Modern science presents a number of challenges to the cyber-infrastructure supporting it: heterogeneity of the required computational resources, problems associated with storing, preserving and moving large quantities of information, a collaborative nature of scientific activities requiring shared access to resources, continuously growing requirements for computational power and network bandwidth, and, last, but not least, ease of use. In this position paper we explore a new approach to creating and growing such infrastructure based on the principles of federation, enabled by deep programmability of individual infrastructure elements: Software-Defined Infrastructure (SDI). We describe the evolution of the science infrastructure, open research problems and the concrete steps we are taking towards its realization by building a unique, widely distributed science facility in Russia based on SDI and GENI technologies.

  17. Araji, B. and Gurkan, D., "Embedding Switch Number, Port Number, and MAC Address (ESPM) within the IPv6 Address." Research and Educational Experiment Workshop (GREE), 2014 Third GENI, IEEE, 2014. doi:10.1109/gree.2014.20. http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/gree.2014.20

    Abstract: IPv4 protocol, the famous 32-bit address, has been used in networks for many decades [1] and would not have sustained its usability without NAT. IPv6 protocol with its 128-bit address, provides slight routing information [2]. In this paper, we present ESPM, Embedding Switch ID, Port number and MAC Address within IPv6 protocol and SDN technology, imposing a device connectivity hierarchy upon the address space. We amend the IPv6 global addressing scheme for hosts to include their MAC address as well as the switch ID and Switch port number that they are connected to. This scheme encodes information that would ordinarily require a lookup or query packets(ARP) and decrease CAM table entries on the switch by forwarding the packets using the ESPM algorithm. After processing ESPM algorithm to check for OF controller ID, OF switch ID, and the port ID, the amount of total packets transferred on the network to fulfill an ICMP request-reply process decreased by 28.1% in 1-switch-2 hosts. In order to demonstrate the feasibility of such an addressing scheme, we use POF controller and POF switch [3] to emulate ESPM implementation and then measure the impact on the number of network management packets transferred between hosts during connectivity tests.

  18. Arezoumand, Saeed, "End to End Orchestration of Distributed Cloud Applications (Master's Thesis)." 2017. https://tspace.library.utoronto.ca/handle/1807/79499

    Abstract: Centralized management provides benefits for cloud providers in terms of efficient and simple management of their infrastructure. However, tenants who use these infrastructures to deliver a software service to the end-users, are handicapped by having to work with traditional network primitives. Current service orchestration tools can automate most of the service configuration and deployment process, but these do not yet include significant SDN capabilities. In this thesis, we propose and examine high-level abstraction models for the orchestration of distributed cloud applications over multiple network domains and multiple infrastructure providers. We provide cloud application developers with a set of useful network functionalities that require no programming effort to provision and use. Our design relies on Hyperexchange, a protocol-agnostic exchange point for peering of virtual networks, to enable orchestration among multiple virtual network providers.

  19. Arezoumand, Saeed and Bannazadeh, Hadi and Leon-Garcia, Alberto, "HyperExchange: A protocol-agnostic exchange fabric enabling peering of Virtual Networks." 2017 IFIP/IEEE Symposium on Integrated Network and Service Management (IM), Lisbon, Portugal, IEEE, 2017. doi:10.23919/inm.2017.7987281. http://dx.doi.org/10.23919/inm.2017.7987281

    Abstract: With the growing pervasiveness of virtualization technologies, carrier networks are shifting from simple packet delivery platforms to multi-tenant integrated clouds offering fine-grained resource management. The need for interoperability among these autonomous cloud-based service providers has created demand for versatile and extensible exchange points to interconnect the future Internet. A novel SDX (Software Defined Exchange) can address this challenge and help redefine the Internet exchange by leveraging SDN. Current implementations of SDXs have focused on traffic exchange between conventional IP networks and have not been specifically intended for exchange between multi-tenant environments and virtual networks; and they have mostly relied on OpenFlow for network forwarding and functionality. While OpenFlow is the de-facto solution for fine-grained forwarding, it nevertheless provides limited network functionality. In this paper we present HyperExchange, a protocol-agnostic exchange fabric for peering of virtual networks. HyperExchange is designed to provide exchange services between autonomous Infrastructure Providers and their hosted Virtual Networks. As a result, it specifically offers solutions for inter-domain tenant authentication and authorization for network control. By leveraging SDI as the core building architecture, HyperExchange uses SDN to forward and steer traffic in a fine-grained manner and yet relies on NFV to push all network functionalities to standard servers as software-based functions. This solution meets both scalability and extensibility requirements for long-term use. We have deployed a prototype of the HyperExchange between SAVI and GENI testbeds to serve real world exchange experiments.

  20. Arezoumand, Saeed and Bannazadeh, Hadi and Leon-Garcia, Alberto, "Layer-two peering across SAVI and GENI testbeds using HyperExchange." 2017 IFIP/IEEE Symposium on Integrated Network and Service Management (IM), Lisbon, Portugal, IEEE, 2017. doi:10.23919/inm.2017.7987407. http://dx.doi.org/10.23919/inm.2017.7987407

    Abstract: We demonstrate the peering of virtual networks between the SAVI and GENI testbeds using HyperExchange 1, a software-defined exchange fabric. The exchange is deployed between the physical networks of the two testbeds. Specifically, a layer-two WAN including nodes in SAVI testbed is peered with a VLAN in GENI testbed without using encapsulation and overlays. Each of these testbeds has a different logic to create and manage layer-two networks, so this demonstration shows how the HyperExchange is protocol-agnostic and allows tenants to create networks across dissimilar networks.

  21. Augé, Jordan and Parmentelat, Thierry and Turro, Nicolas and Avakian, Sandrine and Baron, Loïc and Larabi, Mohamed A. and Rahman, Mohammed Y. and Friedman, Timur and Fdida, Serge, "Tools to foster a global federation of testbeds." Computer Networks, 2014. doi:10.1016/j.bjp.2013.12.038. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bjp.2013.12.038

    Abstract: A global federation of experimental facilities in computer networking is being built on the basis of a thin waist, the Slice-based Federation Architecture (SFA), for managing testbed resources in a secure and efficient way. Its success will depend on the existence of tools that allow testbeds to expose their local resources and users to browse and select the resources most appropriate for their experiments. This paper presents two such tools. First, SFAWrap, which makes it relatively easy for a testbed owner to provide an SFA interface for their testbed. Second, MySlice, a tool that allows experimenters to browse and reserve testbed resources via SFA, and that is extensible through a system of plug-ins. Together, these tools should lower the barriers to entry for testbed owners who wish to join the global federation.

  22. Avgeris, Marios and Kalatzis, Nikos and Dechouniotis, Dimitrios and Roussaki, Ioanna and Papavassiliou, Symeon, "Semantic Resource Management of Federated IoT Testbeds." Ad-hoc, Mobile, and Wireless Networks, Springer International Publishing, 2017. doi:10.1007/978-3-319-67910-5_3. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-67910-5_3

    Abstract: Testbeds and experimental network facilities accelerate the expansion of disruptive Internet services and support their evolution. The integration of IoT technologies in the context of Unmanned Vehicles (UxVs) and their deployment in federated, real–world testbeds introduce various challenging research issues. This paper presents the Semantic Aggregate Manager (SAM) that exploits semantic technologies for modeling and managing resources of federated IoT Testbeds. SAM introduces new semantics–based features tailored to the needs of IoT enabled UxVs, but on the same time allows the compatibility with existing legacy, ” de facto” standardised protocols, currently utilized by multiple federated testbed management systems. The proposed framework is currently being deployed in order to be evaluated in real–world testbeds across several sites in Europe.

  23. Babaoglu, A. C. and Dutta, R., "A GENI Meso-Scale Experiment of a Verification Service." Research and Educational Experiment Workshop (GREE), 2014 Third GENI, IEEE, 2014. doi:10.1109/gree.2014.13. http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/gree.2014.13

    Abstract: In this work, we demonstrate the real world results of a verification service that verifies the performance of a set of network providers by measuring the user flows, using GENI experimental facility. We first give an overview of the architectural components and their interactions to enable such a verification capability. We then give the experiment setup details followed by the numerical results for various network measurement metrics and the evaluation of these results.

  24. Babaoglu, Ahmet C., "Verification Services for the Choice-Based Internet of the Future (Doctoral dissertation)." 2014. http://www.lib.ncsu.edu/resolver/1840.16/9336

    Abstract: The Internet has grown from its inception as a special-purpose internetwork into a general multi-purpose world-wide facility enabling education, commerce, governance, and societal communication, all in the space of a few decades. Over this time, and accelerating in the last decade or so, increasing demands and a growing variety of use cases are posing new challenges on the architecture prompting re-thinking and re-architecting of the network. One thread of research in such architectural considerations involves the issue of choice. The lack of alternative network services brings little economic incentive for the network service providers to make investments to deploy new technologies and improve the quality of their network services. In addition, most user flows goes through several providers, thus there is no effective mechanism in the current Internet to provide feedback to users about which provider is the cause of the performance problems they experience. One solution to these problems is to create a more competitive open market where providers can advertise their network services, and users can choose their desired set of network services to satisfy their needs. In this solution, the users have the option to choose another service if they are not satisfied. However, even in this solution, the root cause of the performance problems still can not be found and it brings us to the lack of a robust feedback capability. In this work, we investigate a solution to this fundamental missing piece of the In- ternet, the measurement and verification capability of the network services offered in the Internet, that indirectly pushes more responsibility to the network providers to fulfill their requirements for high quality services. Our work, while rooted in standard expectations of economic theory, is not in economics itself. Rather, it is in defining, designing, and realizing architectural entities and interactions in technical terms that can realize verification services essential to enabling such economic interactions. Our work is threefold; after giving a literature overview of the research on future Internet and Internet measurement, we first propose an architecture that defines the roles, interactions and design choices to enable a Choice-Based Verification Service. We then describe the results and analysis of a series of tests, which start with our work on measurement frameworks in wired and wireless environments and continue with the simulation, the mechanism introduced and the actual prototype of this work deployed into a real system, the GENI meso-scale testbed. Finally, we investigate and validate whether such informed choices with verification service actually lead to better overall results. We use energy-efficiency as a practical and useful domain for a case study and show the simulation results, which greatly increase the appeal of this work as applicable real-world network services.

  25. Baldin, Ilya and Chase, Jeff and Xin, Yufeng and Mandal, Anirban and Ruth, Paul and Castillo, Claris and Orlikowski, Victor and Heermann, Chris and Mills, Jonathan, "ExoGENI: A Multi-Domain Infrastructure-as-a-Service Testbed." The GENI Book, Springer International Publishing, 2016. doi:10.1007/978-3-319-33769-2_13. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-33769-2_13

    Abstract: This chapter describes ExoGENI, a multi-domain testbed infrastructure built using the ORCA control framework. ExoGENI links GENI to two advances in virtual infrastructure (IaaS) services outside of GENI: open cloud computing (OpenStack) and dynamic circuit fabrics. It orchestrates a federation of independent cloud sites and circuit providers through their native IaaS interfaces, and links them to other GENI tools and resources. ExoGENI slivers are instances of basic IaaS resources: variously sized virtual machines, bare-metal nodes, iSCSI block storage volumes, and Layer 2 network links with optional OpenFlow control. ExoGENI offers a powerful unified hosting platform for deeply networked, multi-domain, multi-site cloud applications. ExoGENI operates its own stitching engine and Layer 2 (L2) network exchanges that work in concert to interconnect the sites with dynamic point-to-point and multi-point L2 links via multiple circuit providers. It also supports stitchports—named attachment points enabling direct L2 connections to resources outside the system's control. ExoGENI is seeding a larger, evolving platform linking third-party cloud sites, transport networks, new resource types, and other infrastructure services. It facilitates real-world deployment of innovative distributed services, leading to a new vision of a future federated, more resilient, and deeply networked cyber- infrastructure. This chapter explores the unique features of ExoGENI and, in particular, how it differs from other GENI testbeds.

  26. Baldine, I., "Unique optical networking facilities and cross-layer networking." Summer Topical Meeting, 2009. LEOSST '09. IEEE/LEOS, 2009. doi:10.1109/LEOSST.2009.5226210. http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/LEOSST.2009.5226210

  27. Baldine, Ilia and Xin, Yufeng and Evans, Daniel and Heerman, Chris and Chase, Jeff and Marupadi, Varun and Yumerefendi, Aydan, "The missing link: Putting the network in networked cloud computing." in ICVCI09: International Conference on the Virtual Computing Initiative, 2009.

  28. Baldine, Ilia and Xin, Yufeng and Mandal, Anirban and Renci, Chris H. and Chase, Unc-Ch J. and Marupadi, Varun and Yumerefendi, Aydan and Irwin, David, "Networked cloud orchestration: A GENI perspective." 2010 IEEE Globecom Workshops, Miami, FL, USA, IEEE, 2010. doi:10.1109/GLOCOMW.2010.5700385. http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/GLOCOMW.2010.5700385

    Abstract: This paper describes the experience of developing a system for creation of distributed linked configurations of heterogeneous resources (slices) in GENI. Our work leverages a number of unique architectural solutions (distributed architecture, declarative resource specifications, unique approach to slice instantiation) which is applicable to a wider set of problems related to autonomic co-scheduling and provisioning of heterogeneous networked resources. We discuss the architecture, the resource description mechanisms and some of the algorithms used to enable our system. We conclude with an analysis of a real experiment at allocating resources from multiple providers across a very wide geographic area (spanning Massachusetts, Illinois and North Carolina) to create a single private Layer 2 network connecting virtual machines on the campus of Duke University to a sensor testbed at University of Massachusetts, Amherst.

  29. Baldine, Ilia and Xin, Yufeng and Mandal, Anirban and Ruth, Paul and Yumerefendi, Aydan and Chase, Jeff, "ExoGENI: A Multi-Domain Infrastructure-as-a-Service Testbed." 8th International ICST Conference on Testbeds and Research Infrastructures for the Development of Networks and Communities (TRIDENTCOM 2012), 2012.

    Abstract: NSF's GENI program seeks to enable experiments that run within virtual network topologies built-to-order from testbed infrastructure offered by multiple providers (domains). GENI is often viewed as a network testbed integration effort, but behind it is an ambitious vision for multi-domain infrastructure-as-a-service (IaaS). This paper presents ExoGENI, a new GENI testbed that links GENI to two advances in virtual infrastructure services outside of GENI: open cloud computing (OpenStack) and dynamic circuit fabrics. ExoGENI orchestrates a federation of independent cloud sites and circuit providers through their native IaaS interfaces, and links them to other GENI tools and resources. The ExoGENI deployment consists of cloud site ``racks'' on host campuses within the US, linked with national research networks and other circuit networks through programmable exchange points. The ExoGENI sites and control software are enabled for software-defined networking using OpenFlow. ExoGENI offers a powerful unified hosting platform for deeply networked, multi-domain, multi-site cloud applications. We intend that ExoGENI will seed a larger, evolving platform linking other third-party cloud sites, transport networks, and other infrastructure services, and that it will enable real-world deployment of innovative distributed services and new visions of a Future Internet.

  30. Bashir, Sadia and Ahmed, Nadeem, "VirtMonE: Efficient detection of elephant flows in virtualized data centers." Telecommunication Networks and Applications Conference (ITNAC), 2015 International, IEEE, 2015. doi:10.1109/atnac.2015.7366826. http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/atnac.2015.7366826

    Abstract: A modern virtualized data center is highly multifarious environment shared among hundreds of co-located tenants hosting heterogeneous applications. The tenants' virtual machines generate a subset of elephants or mice flows (different in terms of rate, size, duration, and burstiness) based on the type of application they are running. Virtual traffic generated from the tenant's virtual machines traverses the underlay physical fabric in aggregate because of different encapsulation techniques (VXLAN, NVGRE, and STT for example) employed in data center networks thus obfuscating the virtual traffic characteristics. Existing approaches to monitor and/or identify elephant flows either have limited or no visibility into virtual traffic or are associated with high monitoring overhead making it hard to precisely detect and properly engineer elephant flows on the underlay fabric. In this paper, we present VirtMonE, a lightweight detection mechanism aimed at precisely detecting egress elephant flows at Open vSwitch while providing visibility into virtual traffic with least measurement and monitoring overhead at the edge. We conduct simulations on a small GENI testbed to evaluate the performance of the proposed solution for a software-defined multi-tenant virtual network. Our proposed solution is demonstrated to precisely detect the elephant flows from different tenants at the edge, provide visibility into virtual traffic and mitigate the network overhead associated with detection, thus improving the overall performance of the data centre.

  31. Bastin, Nicholas and Bavier, Andy and Blaine, Jessica and Chen, Jim and Krishnan, Narayan and Mambretti, Joe and McGeer, Rick and Ricci, Rob and Watts, Nicki, "The InstaGENI initiative: An architecture for distributed systems and advanced programmable networks." Computer Networks, 2014. doi:10.1016/j.bjp.2013.12.034. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bjp.2013.12.034

    Abstract: In this paper, we describe InstaGENI, a distributed cloud based on programmable networks designed for the GENI Mesoscale deployment and large-scale distributed research projects. The InstaGENI architecture closely integrates a lightweight cluster design with software-defined networking, Hardware-as-a-Service and Containers-as-a-Service, remote monitoring and management, and high-performance inter-site networking. The initial InstaGENI deployment will encompass 34 sites across the United States, interconnected through a specialized GENI backbone network deployed over national, regional and campus research and education networks, with international network extensions to sites across the world.

  32. Bastin, Nicholas and McGeer, Rick, "Programmable, Controllable Networks." The GENI Book, Springer International Publishing, 2016. doi:10.1007/978-3-319-33769-2_8. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-33769-2_8

    Abstract: We describe OpenFlow, a first step on the road to networks which are fully integrated into the IT infrastructure ecosystem. We review the history of OpenFlow, its precursors, its design and initial implementations. We discuss its use within the GENI project and the applications and services developers have built on the OpenFlow platform. Finally, we review the implementation issues with OpenFlow, and consider extensions and the next generation of Software-Defined Networking.

  33. Bavier, Andy and Chen, Jim and Mambretti, Joe and McGeer, Rick and McGeer, Sean and Nelson, Jude and O'Connell, Patrick and Ricart, Glenn and Tredger, Stephen and Coady, Yvonne, "The GENI experiment engine." Teletraffic Congress (ITC), 2014 26th International, IEEE, 2014. doi:10.1109/itc.2014.6932974. http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/itc.2014.6932974

    Abstract: We describe the GENI Experiment Engine, a Distributed-Platform-as-a-Service facility designed to be implemented on a distributed testbed or infrastructure. The GEE is intended to provide rapid and convenient access to a distributed infrastructure for simple, easy-to-configure experiments and applications. Specifically, the design goal of the GEE is to permit experimenters and application writers to: (a) allocate a GEE slicelet; (b) deploy a simple experiment or application; (c) run the experiment; (d) collect the results; and (e) tear down the experiment, starting from scratch, within five minutes. The GEE consists of four cooperating services over the GENI infrastructure, which together with pre-allocated slicelets and a pre-allocated network offers a complete, ready to use, sliceable platform over the GENI Infrastructure.

  34. Bavier, Andy and Coady, Yvonne and Mack, Tony and Matthews, Chris and Mambretti, Joe and McGeer, Rick and Mueller, Paul and Snoeren, Alex and Yuen, Marco, "GENICloud and transcloud." Proceedings of the 2012 workshop on Cloud services, federation, and the 8th open cirrus summit, San Jose, California, USA, ACM, New York, NY, USA, 2012. doi:10.1145/2378975.2378980. http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/2378975.2378980

    Abstract: In this paper, we argue that federation of cloud systems requires a standard API for users to create, manage, and destroy virtual objects, and a standard naming scheme for virtual objects. We introduce an existing API for this purpose, the Slice-Based Federation Architecture, and demonstrate that it can be implemented on a number of existing cloud management systems. We introduce a simple naming scheme for virtual objects, and discuss its implementation.

  35. Bavier, Andy and McGeer, Rick, "The GENI Experiment Engine." The GENI Book, Springer International Publishing, 2016. doi:10.1007/978-3-319-33769-2_11. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-33769-2_11

    Abstract: The GENI Experiment Engine (GEE) is a lightweight, easy-to-use Platform-as-a-Service on GENI inspired by PlanetLab. The GEE offers one-click creation of slicelets (sets of lightweight containers), single-pane-of-glass orchestration and configuration of slice execution, an integrated intra-slice messaging system, and will soon offer a wide-area file system, and an integrated reverse proxy mechanism. A key design goal of the GEE was simplicity: it should be possible for a new user to get up-and-running with GEE in less than 5 min. The GEE is constructed as an overlay on GENI resources and is available to all GENI users.

  36. Bavier, Andy and McGeer, Rick and Ricart, Glenn, "PlanetIgnite: A Self-Assembling, Lightweight, Infrastructure-as-a-Service Edge Cloud." 2016 28th International Teletraffic Congress (ITC 28), Würzburg, Germany, IEEE, 2016. doi:10.1109/itc-28.2016.125. http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/itc-28.2016.125

    Abstract: PlanetIgnite is a general-purpose, Infrastructure-as-a-Service, self-assembling, lightweight edge cloud on virtualized infrastructure with support for single-pane-of-glass distributed application configuration and deployment. This is an entirely new concept. PlanetLab[32], GENI[7], [22], and SAVI[19] are general-purpose IaaS edge clouds, but require top-down installation and dedicated hardware resources at each site and do not offer single- pane-of-glass application deployment. Seattle[11] is a lightweight self-assembling edge cloud that offers single- pane-of-class configuration and control, but developers are restricted to using a subset of Python. PlanetIgnite is a Containers-as-a-Service Edge Cloud which offers Docker Containers to each PlanetIgnite user. A PlanetIgnite node is an off-the-shelf Ubuntu 14.04 Virtual machine with Docker installed, meaning it can be installed on any edge node where a VM with a routable v4 address is available. Adding a PlanetIgnite node to the infrastructure is simple: a site wishing to host a PlanetIgnite node simply downloads the image; on boot, the new PlanetIgnite node registers with the PlanetIgnite portal, which runs a series of acceptance tests. Once complete, the image is registered and the node is added to the set of PlanetIgnite sites.

  37. Bejerano, Y. and Ferragut, J. and Guo, K. and Gupta, V. and Gutterman, C. and Nandagopal, T. and Zussman, G., "Experimental Evaluation of a Scalable WiFi Multicast Scheme in the ORBIT Testbed." Research and Educational Experiment Workshop (GREE), 2014 Third GENI, IEEE, 2014. doi:10.1109/gree.2014.22. http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/gree.2014.22

    Abstract: IEEE 802.11-based wireless local area networks, referred to as WiFi, have been globally deployed and the vast majority of the mobile devices are currently WiFi-enabled. While WiFi has been proposed for multimedia content distribution, its lack of adequate support for multicast services hinders its ability to provide multimedia content distribution to a large number of devices. In earlier work, we proposed a dynamic scheme called AMuSe that selects a subset of the multicast receivers as feedback nodes. The feedback nodes periodically send information about channel quality to the multicast sender and the sender in turn can optimize multicast service quality, e.g., by dynamically adjusting transmission bit-rate. In this paper, we discuss several experimental results for the performance evaluation of AMuSe. Our experiments use more than 250 nodes placed in a grid topology in the ORBIT testbed. We consider different experimental scenarios: with and without the presence of external noise. Our focus is on studying the performance of WiFi nodes in WiFi multicast and establishing the conditions that make AMuSe an attractive scheme for feedback in WiFi multicast.

  38. Berman, M. and Brinn, M., "Progress and challenges in worldwide federation of future internet and distributed cloud testbeds." Science and Technology Conference (Modern Networking Technologies) (MoNeTeC), 2014 First International, IEEE, 2014. doi:10.1109/monetec.2014.6995579. http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/monetec.2014.6995579

    Abstract: Future Internet and distributed cloud (FIDC) testbeds are rapidly becoming important research and educational resoures worldwide. While FIDC testbeds may be built on diverse technologies, they share the primary capabilities of slicing (virtualized end-to-end configurations of computing, networking, and storage resources) and deep programmability (experimenter programmability of all resources from low level hardware to virtualized components). FIDC testbeds often achieve their deep programmability through software defined networking (SDN) capabilities, which researchers employ both to construct per-application and per-experiment virtual networks, and to intelligently steer traffic throughout the virtual network/cloud environment.

  39. Berman, Mark and Chase, Jeffrey S. and Landweber, Lawrence and Nakao, Akihiro and Ott, Max and Raychaudhuri, Dipankar and Ricci, Robert and Seskar, Ivan, "GENI: A federated testbed for innovative network experiments." Computer Networks, 2014. doi:10.1016/j.bjp.2013.12.037. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bjp.2013.12.037

    Abstract: GENI, the Global Environment for Networking Innovation, is a distributed virtual laboratory for transformative, at-scale experiments in network science, services, and security. Designed in response to concerns over Internet ossification, GENI is enabling a wide variety of experiments in a range of areas, including clean-slate networking, protocol design and evaluation, distributed service offerings, social network integration, content management, and in-network service deployment. Recently, GENI has been leading an effort to explore the potential of its underlying technologies, SDN and GENI racks, in support of university campus network management and applications. With the concurrent deployment of these technologies on regional and national R&E backbones, this will result in a revolutionary new national-scale distributed architecture, bringing to the entire network the shared, deeply programmable environment that the cloud has brought to the datacenter. This deeply programmable environment will support the GENI research mission and as well as enabling research in a wide variety of application areas.

  40. Berman, Mark and Demeester, Piet and Lee, Jae W. and Nagaraja, Kiran and Zink, Michael and Colle, Didier and Krishnappa, Dilip K. and Raychaudhuri, Dipankar and Schulzrinne, Henning and Seskar, Ivan and Sharma, Sachin, "Future Internets Escape the Simulator." Commun. ACM, ACM, New York, NY, USA, 2015. doi:10.1145/2699392. http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/2699392

    Abstract: Future Internet testbeds permit experiments not possible in today's public Net or commercial cloud services.

  41. Berman, Mark and Elliott, Chip and Landweber, Lawrence, "GENI: Large-Scale Distributed Infrastructure for Networking and Distributed Systems Research." 2014 IEEE Fifth International Conference on Communications and Electronics (ICCE), Da Nang, Vietnam, 2014. doi:10.1109/CCE.2014.6916696. http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/CCE.2014.6916696

    Abstract: GENI, the Global Environment for Networking Innovation, is a distributed virtual laboratory for research in networking and distributed systems, with applications in domain science. The main components of GENI include OpenFlow-enabled software defined networking (SDN) resources deployed on over 40 university campuses across the U.S. These resources include both switches and GENI Racks (SDN capable compute clusters with OpenFlow switches for internal and external communications). GENI Racks are currently installed on dozens of university campuses and within R&E network backbones. Also available is a diverse group of programmable computing and wireless networking resources. Researchers access this collection of resources via the key GENI techniques of deep programmability and slicing. Collectively, these resources and methods enable GENI to support a wide variety of research efforts.

  42. Berryman, Alex and Calyam, Prasad and Cecil, Joe and Adams, George B. and Comer, Douglas, "Advanced Manufacturing Use Cases and Early Results in GENI Infrastructure." 2013 Proceedings Second GENI Research and Educational Experiment Workshop, Salt Lake City, UT, IEEE, 2013. doi:10.1109/GREE.2013.13. http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/GREE.2013.13

    Abstract: Providing remote access and collaboration technologies to advanced manufacturing communities are exciting prospects due to the growth of the global marketplace and the pervasiveness of high-speed networks. There is a need to develop reliable protocols that extend beyond the current capabilities of typical TCP/IP connections that do not provide sufficient redundancy for controlling remote processes in manufacturing facilities. In addition, there is a need to suitably configure remote access protocol configurations that deliver satisfactory user experience amongst distributed collaborators synchronously working on manufacturing design workflows using cloud-hosted simulation software. In this paper, we present two case studies and early results that leverage the GENI Future Internet infrastructure for experimentation and development of new services that address such advanced manufacturing needs. Both case studies pivot around the idea of removing the need for users to have physical access to manufacturing resources and thus enable remote access to cloud-hosted services that use Future Internet capabilities for cost/time savings and improved convenience.

  43. Bhanage, G. and Daya, R. and Seskar, I. and Raychaudhuri, D., "VNTS: A Virtual Network Traffic Shaper for Air Time Fairness in 802.16e Systems." Communications (ICC), 2010 IEEE International Conference on, IEEE, 2010. doi:10.1109/ICC.2010.5502484. http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/ICC.2010.5502484

    Abstract: The 802.16e standard for broadband wireless access mandates the presence of QoS classes, but does not specify guidelines for the scheduler implementation or mechanisms to ensure air time fairness. Our study demonstrates the feasibility of controlling downlink airtime fairness for slices while running above a proprietary WiMAX basestation (BS) scheduler. We design and implement a virtualized infrastructure that allows users to obtain at least an allocated percentage of BS resources in the presence of saturation and link degradation. Using Kernel virtual machines for creating slices and Click modular router for implementing the virtual network traffic shaping engine we show that it is possible to adaptively control slice usage for downlink traffic on a WiMAX Basestation. The fairness index and coupling coefficient show an improvement of up to 42%, and 73% with preliminary indoor walking mobility experiments. Outdoor vehicular measurements show an improvement of up to 27%, and 70\\\\ with the fairness index and coupling coefficient respectively

  44. Bhanage, G. and Vete, D. and Seskar, I. and Raychaudhuri, D., "SplitAP: Leveraging Wireless Network Virtualization for Flexible Sharing of WLANs." Global Telecommunications Conference (GLOBECOM 2010), 2010 IEEE, IEEE, 2010. doi:10.1109/GLOCOM.2010.5684328. http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/GLOCOM.2010.5684328

    Abstract: Providing air-time guarantees across a group of clients forms a fundamental building block in sharing an access point (AP) across different virtual network providers. Though this problem has a relatively simple solution for downlink group scheduling through traffic engineering at the AP, solving this problem for uplink (UL) traffic presents a challenge for fair sharing of wireless hotspots. Among other issues, the mechanism for uplink traffic control has to scale across a large user base, and provide flexible operation irrespective of the client channel conditions and network loads. In this study, we propose the SplitAP architecture that address the problem of sharing uplink airtime across groups of users by extending the idea of network virtualization. Our architecture allows us to deploy different algorithms for enforcing UL airtime fairness across client groups. In this study, we will highlight the design features of the SplitAP architecture, and present results from evaluation on a prototype deployed with: (1) LPFC and (2) LPFC+, two algorithms for controlling UL group fairness. Performance comparisons on the ORBIT testbed show that the proposed algorithms are capable of providing group air-time fairness across wireless clients irrespective of the network volume, and traffic type. The algorithms show up to 40% improvement with a modified Jain fairness index.

  45. Bhanage, Gautam and Seskar, Ivan and Mahindra, Rajesh and Raychaudhuri, Dipankar, "Virtual basestation: architecture for an open shared WiMAX framework." Proceedings of the second ACM SIGCOMM workshop on Virtualized infrastructure systems and architectures, New Delhi, India, ACM, New York, NY, USA, 2010. doi:10.1145/1851399.1851401. http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/1851399.1851401

    Abstract: This paper presents the architecture and performance evaluation of a virtualized wide-area 4̈G ̈cellular wireless network. Specifically, it addresses the challenges of virtualization of resources in a cellular base station to enable shared use by multiple independent slice users (experimenters or mobile virtual network operators), each with possibly distinct flow types and network layer protocols. The proposed virtual basestation architecture is based on an external substrate which uses a layer-2 switched datapath, and an arbitrated control path to the WiMAX basestation. The framework implements virtualization of base station's radio resources to achieve isolation between multiple virtual networks. An algorithm for weighted fair sharing among multiple slices based on an airtime fairness metric has been implemented for the first release. Preliminary experimental results from the virtual basestation prototype are given, demonstrating mobile network performance, isolation across slices with different flow types, and custom flow scheduling capabilities.

  46. Bhanage, Gautam and Seskar, Ivan and Raychaudhuri, Dipankar, "A virtualization architecture for mobile WiMAX networks." SIGMOBILE Mob. Comput. Commun. Rev., ACM, New York, NY, USA, 2012. doi:10.1145/2169077.2169082. http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/2169077.2169082

    Abstract: Systems virtualization offers convenient means for sharing networking infrastructure while improving its utilization. This study addresses the challenges of virtualizing a commercial off-the-shelf 4G mobileWiMAX basestation. We highlight additions and modifications needed in theWiMAX network architecture for supporting multiple simultaneous virtual basestations on a single physical basestation. The most prominent features provided by the proposed virtual basestation framework include the capability to perform all frame switching at layer-2, and control mechanisms to provide isolation across slices needed to ensure experiment repeatability. By prototyping on a commercial WiMAX radio, this paper shows the usage of the virtual basestation system for housing mobile virtual network operators and testbeds alike. A use case is shown where the virtual basestation design is used to evaluate mobile handoff schemes. Another usage case is shown for optimizing a video delivery on the edge. The video delivery use case is used to show performance improvements of up to 5dB in the PSNR. Evaluation of prototype shows a significant improvement in the slice isolation, with aggregate throughput improvements of up to 192% achievable through fair resource allocation.

  47. Bhanage, Gautam and Seskar, Ivan and Zhang, Yanyong and Raychaudhuri, Dipankar and Jain, Shweta, "Experimental Evaluation of OpenVZ from a Testbed Deployment Perspective." Testbeds and Research Infrastructures. Development of Networks and Communities, Springer Berlin Heidelberg, 2011. doi:10.1007/978-3-642-17851-1_7. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-3-642-17851-1_7

    Abstract: A scalable approach to building large scale experimentation testbeds involves multiplexing the system resources for better utilization. Virtualization provides a convenient means of sharing testbed resources among experimenters. The degree of programmability and isolation achieved with such a setup is largely dependent on the type of technology used for virtualization. We consider OpenVZ and User Mode Linux (UML) for virtualization of the ORBIT wireless testbed and evaluate their relative merit. Our results show that OpenVZ, an operating system level virtualization mechanism significantly outperforms UML in terms of system overheads and performance isolation. We discuss both qualitative and quantitative performance features which could serve as guidelines for selection of a virtualization scheme for similar testbeds.

  48. Bhat, Divyashri and Riga, Niky and Zink, Michael, "Towards seamless application delivery using software defined exchanges." Teletraffic Congress (ITC), 2014 26th International, IEEE, 2014. doi:10.1109/itc.2014.6932971. http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/itc.2014.6932971

    Abstract: Content Delivery over the Internet continues to be a challenge as there is no centralized control system [1]. Software Defined Networking has paved the way to provide this control of network traffic. OpenFlow is now being standardized as part of the Open Networking Foundation, and Software Defined Exchange provides a framework to use OpenFlow for multidomain routing. Prototype deployments of Software Defined Exchanges have recently come into existence as a platform for Future Internet architecture to eliminate the need for core routing technology used in today's Internet. In this paper, we look at how application delivery, in particular, Dynamic Adaptive Streaming over HTTP (DASH) and Nowcasting take advantage of Software Defined Exchange. We compare unsophisticated controllers to more sophisticated ones which we call a ” load balancer” and find that implementing a good reactive controller for inter-domain routing can result in better network utilization and better application performance.

  49. Bhat, Divyashri and Wang, Cong and Rizk, Amr and Zink, Michael, "A load balancing approach for adaptive bitrate streaming in Information Centric networks." Multimedia & Expo Workshops (ICMEW), 2015 IEEE International Conference on, IEEE, 2015. doi:10.1109/icmew.2015.7169802. http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/icmew.2015.7169802

    Abstract: The Information Centric Networking (ICN) paradigm promises deconstraining the current Internet architecture by allowing clients to directly address the desired content throughout the network. For the Internet this is a further evolutionary step from the idea of a narrow-waist core that only transports requests/replies to an intelligent architecture searching for and providing content. Multi-sourcing, which is one of the core ideas of ICN, constitutes a serious challenge for prevalent Internet applications such as video streaming. In this work we show how prominent adaptive video streaming protocols can benefit from the load balancing capabilities that are native to ICN. We examine the performance of content retrieval in ICN over Ethernet in a real-world testbed showing the impact of multi-sourcing and content size variation on the content transfer times.

  50. Bhat, Shireesh, "Network Service Orchestration within the ChoiceNet Architecture (Doctoral dissertation)." 2017. http://www.lib.ncsu.edu/resolver/1840.20/34346

    Abstract: In this research we present Network Service Orchestration algorithms for Open Marketplaces which allow for various Data Plane Services in the routing domain to be advertised, queried, composed, purchased and provisioned. We use ChoiceNet as an example of an Open Marketplace in our work. Orchestration of services allows for constructing a ''composed service'' using the various compatible services participating in the Marketplace in response to a ''composed service'' request by the User. The Orchestration algorithm presents the User with not just ''a composed service'' but a list of ''composed service(s)'' to choose from. Our contribution can be classified into two main categories. First, we enable Orchestration by solving three key problems: a) Identify compatibility of adjacent services in a composed service; b) Provide the ability to compare service offerings from different providers and c) Develop a Planner (Orchestration Algorithm) module with request/response automation. Second, we develop three complementary algorithms which perform service Orchestration: a) Find optimal k composed services in a Marketplace, which allows combining multiple service functionalities into one service; b) Find optimal time-dependent, time-constrained composed services which supports in-advance path reservation and c) Find a optimal composed tour of services. We address the key problems for enabling Orchestration by first defining the Semantics Language for advertising the Data Plane Services to be compatible with other services which are a logical choice. In addition, we define the Protocol for interaction between the entities of ChoiceNet to achieve complete automation of the Planner. Later, we present three flavors of Planners which perform service orchestration on three different graph models which correspond to three different Network Applications.

  51. Bhat, Shireesh and Udechukwu, Robinson and Dutta, Rudra and Rouskas, George N., "Inception to application: A GENI based prototype of an open Marketplace for network services." 2016 IEEE Conference on Computer Communications Workshops (INFOCOM WKSHPS), San Francisco, CA, USA, IEEE, 2016. doi:10.1109/infcomw.2016.7562244. http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/infcomw.2016.7562244

    Abstract: Choice-based network architecture enables users the power to choose services from a set of network service offerings from multiple providers within a marketplace. To facilitate marketplace alternatives and enable fine-grain service composition, a common service specification should represent a general-extensible design for describing a service. This allows users to discover, negotiate, and purchase network services from service providers using service advertisements in the marketplace. We have successfully developed a ChoiceNet prototype which rectifies some of the shortcomings of the earlier prototypes and demonstrates a contractual agreement between multiple network service providers to realize multiple end-to-end application scenarios using the common service specification within the GENI environment. Our implementation showcases the integration of two contrasting payment models for the procurement of contractual agreements for network services. Successful agreements results in the provisioning of the advertised network services. This demo helps in visualizing the network service life cycle as seen by the Marketplace.

  52. Bhojwani, Sushil, "Interoperability in Federated Clouds (Master's thesis)." 2015. http://hdl.handle.net/1828/6732

    Abstract: Cloud Computing is the new trend in sharing resources, sharing and managing data and performing computations on a shared resource via the Internet. However, with the constant increase in demand, these resources are insufficient. So users often use another network in conjunction with the current one. All these networks accomplish the goal of providing the user with a virtual or physical machine. However, to achieve the result, virtual machine users have to maintain multitude credentials and follow a different process for each network. In this thesis, we focus on SAGEFed, a product that enables a user to use the same credentials and commands to reserve the resources on two different federated clouds, i.e., SAVI and GENI. As a part of SAGEFed, the user can acquire or reserve resources on the clouds with the same API. The same service also manages the credentials, so they do not have to manage different credentials while acquiring resources. Furthermore, SAGEFed demonstrates that any cloud that has some form of client tool can be easily integrated.

  53. Bhojwani, Sushil and Hemmings, Matt and Ingalls, Dan and Lincke, Jens and Krahn, Robert and Lary, David and McGeer, Rick and Ricart, Glenn and Roder, Marko and Coady, Yvonne and Stege, Ulrike, "The Ignite Distributed Collaborative Visualization System." SIGMETRICS Perform. Eval. Rev., ACM, New York, NY, USA, 2015. doi:10.1145/2847220.2847234. http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/2847220.2847234

    Abstract: An abstract is not available.

  54. Blanton, Ethan and Chatterjee, Sarbajit and Gangam, Sriharsha and Kala, Sumit and Sharma, Deepti and Fahmy, Sonia and Sharma, Puneet, "Design and evaluation of the S3 monitor network measurement service on GENI." 2012 Fourth International Conference on Communication Systems and Networks (COMSNETS 2012), Bangalore, India, IEEE, 2012. doi:10.1109/COMSNETS.2012.6151327. http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/COMSNETS.2012.6151327

    Abstract: Network monitoring capabilities are critical for both network operators and networked applications. In the context of an experimental test facility, network measurement is important for researchers experimenting with new network architectures and applications, as well as operators of the test facility itself. The Global Environment for Network Innovations (GENI) is a sophisticated test facility comprised of multiple ” control frameworks.” In this paper, we describe the design and implementation of S

  55. Bozakov, Zdravko and Rizk, Amr and Bhat, Divyashri and Zink, Michael, "Measurement-based flow characterization in centrally controlled networks." IEEE INFOCOM 2016 - The 35th Annual IEEE International Conference on Computer Communications, San Francisco, CA, USA, IEEE, 2016. doi:10.1109/infocom.2016.7524331. http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/infocom.2016.7524331

    Abstract: In this work we outline a framework for measurement-based performance evaluation in SDN environments. The SDN paradigm, which is based on a strict separation of the network logic from the underlying physical substrate, necessitates a comprehensive global view of the network state. To augment the network representation, we propose mechanisms for extracting traffic characteristics from network observations which are used to derive performance metrics. Such metrics can be exploited by SDN applications to optimize the performance of SDN services. Given the bursty nature of network traffic and the well known adverse impact of this property on network performance, we propose an approach for extracting flow autocorrelations from switch counters. Our main contribution is a random sampling approach that reduces the monitoring overhead while enabling a fine grained characterization of the flow autocorrelation structure. We analytically evaluate the impact of random sampling and demonstrate how services may use the estimated traffic properties to compute useful performance metrics.

  56. Brinn, Marshall, "GENI Architecture Foundation." The GENI Book, Springer International Publishing, 2016. doi:10.1007/978-3-319-33769-2_5. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-33769-2_5

  57. Brinn, Marshall and Bastin, NIcholas and Bavier, Andrew and Berman, Mark and Chase, Jeffrey and Ricci, Robert, "Trust as the Foundation of Resource Exchange in GENI." Proceedings of the 10th EAI International Conference on Testbeds and Research Infrastructures for the Development of Networks & Communities, Vancouver, Canada, ACM, 2015. doi:10.4108/icst.tridentcom.2015.259683. http://dx.doi.org/10.4108/icst.tridentcom.2015.259683

    Abstract: Researchers and educators in computer science and other domains are increasingly turning to distributed test beds that offer access to a variety of resources, including networking, computation, storage, sensing, and actuation. The provisioning of resources from their owners to interested experimenters requires establishing sufficient mutual trust between these parties. Building such trust directly between researchers and resource owners will not scale as the number of experimenters and resource owners grows. The NSF GENI (Global Environment for Network Innovation) project has focused on establishing scalable mechanisms for maintaining such trust based on common approaches for authentication, authorization and accountability. Such trust reflects the actual trust relationships and agreements among humans or real-world organizations. We describe here GENI's approaches for federated trust based on mutually trusted authorities, and implemented via cryptographically signed credentials and shared policies.

  58. Bronzino, Francesco and Han, Chao and Chen, Yang and Nagaraja, Kiran and Yang, Xiaowei and Seskar, Ivan and Raychaudhuri, Dipankar, "In-Network Compute Extensions for Rate-Adaptive Content Delivery in Mobile Networks." Network Protocols (ICNP), 2014 IEEE 22nd International Conference on, IEEE, 2014. doi:10.1109/icnp.2014.81. http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/icnp.2014.81

    Abstract: Traffic from mobile wireless networks has been growing at a fast pace in recent years and is expected to surpass wired traffic very soon. Service providers face significant challenges at such scales including providing seamless mobility, efficient data delivery, security, and provisioning capacity at the wireless edge. In the Mobility First project, we have been exploring clean slate enhancements to the network protocols that can inherently provide support for at-scale mobility and trustworthiness in the Internet. An extensible data plane using pluggable compute-layer services is a key component of this architecture. We believe these extensions can be used to implement in-network services to enhance mobile end-user experience by either off-loading work and/or traffic from mobile devices, or by enabling en-route service-adaptation through context-awareness (e.g., Knowing contemporary access bandwidth). In this work we present details of the architectural support for in-network services within Mobility First, and propose protocol and service-API extensions to flexibly address these pluggable services from end-points. As a demonstrative example, we implement an in network service that does rate adaptation when delivering video streams to mobile devices that experience variable connection quality. We present details of our deployment and evaluation of the non-IP protocols along with compute-layer extensions on the GENI test bed, where we used a set of programmable nodes across 7 distributed sites to configure a Mobility First network with hosts, routers, and in-network compute services.

  59. Brown, D. and Ascigil, O. and Nasir, H. and Carpenter, C. and Griffioen, J. and Calvert, K., "Designing a GENI Experimenter Tool to Support the Choice Net Internet Architecture." Network Protocols (ICNP), 2014 IEEE 22nd International Conference on, IEEE, 2014. doi:10.1109/icnp.2014.88. http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/icnp.2014.88

    Abstract: Test beds such as GENI provide an ideal environment for experimenting with future internet architectures such as Choice Net. Unlike the narrow waist of the current Internet (IP), Choice Net encourages alternatives and competition at the network layer via an economic plane that allows users to choose and purchase precisely the services they need. In this paper we describe our experiences implementing the Choice Net architecture on GENI. Some features of GENI, such as the ability to program the network layer, to leverage existing protocols and software, to run real applications generating realistic traffic, and the ability to perform long-running experiments made GENI an ideal platform for Choice Net experimentation. However, we found that GENI currently lacks the tools needed to make it easy to use these features. To address this issue, we designed and implemented a GENI Experimenter Tool specifically designed and tailored to perform tasks commonly needed by experimenters such as dynamically configuring nodes, loading and compiling node-specific code, executing Click modules, running commands on sets of nodes, accessing the local file system on nodes, and dynamically logging into nodes.

  60. Brown, D. and Nasir, H. and Carpenter, C. and Ascigil, O. and Griffioen, J. and Calvert, K., "ChoiceNet gaming: Changing the gaming experience with economics." Computer Games: AI, Animation, Mobile, Multimedia, Educational and Serious Games (CGAMES), 2014, IEEE, 2014. doi:10.1109/cgames.2014.6934146. http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/cgames.2014.6934146

    Abstract: When playing online games, the user experience is often dictated by the performance of the network. To deliver the best possible gaming experience, game developers often find themselves developing work-arounds that try to mask the lack of control they have over of the existing TCP/IP Internet. ChoiceNet, an emerging future Internet architecture, attempts to give applications enhanced control (choice) over the service they receive from the network. In particular, ChoiceNet supports an economic plane in which applications can purchase services from any provider. Because providers are compensated, they are motivated to offer a variety of innovative, excellent services, enabling applications to select the service best suited for its needs. Instead of coding work-arounds, game developers can obtain precisely the network service that is needed to optimize the game experience. In this paper, we describe the emerging ChoiceNet archi- tecture and show how computer games can benefit from the alternatives enabled by ChoiceNet. To demonstrate the benefits of the ChoiceNet architecture, we implemented a first person shooter game that uses ChoiceNet to ” purchase” and then send data over the purchased path resulting in substantially lower latency than the default path. We describe the ChoiceNet services used to implement the game, and we present performance results that show a significant reduction in latency. We also show how ChoiceNet can be used to purchase reliable (non-lossy) communication paths that improve the user's experience.

  61. Bumgardner, V. K. Cody, "Contributions to Edge Computing (Doctoral dissertation)." 2017. doi:https://doi.org/10.13023/ETD.2017.086. http://uknowledge.uky.edu/cs_etds/56/

    Abstract: Efforts related to Internet of Things (IoT), Cyber-Physical Systems (CPS), Machine to Machine (M2M) technologies, Industrial Internet, and Smart Cities aim to improve society through the coordination of distributed devices and analysis of resulting data. By the year 2020 there will be an estimated 50 billion network connected devices globally and 43 trillion gigabytes of electronic data. Current practices of moving data directly from end-devices to remote and potentially distant cloud computing services will not be sufficient to manage future device and data growth. Edge Computing is the migration of computational functionality to sources of data generation. The importance of edge computing increases with the size and complexity of devices and resulting data. In addition, the coordination of global edge-to-edge communications, shared resources, high-level application scheduling, monitoring, measurement, and Quality of Service (QoS) enforcement will be critical to address the rapid growth of connected devices and associated data. We present a new distributed agent-based framework designed to address the challenges of edge computing. This actor-model framework implementation is designed to manage large numbers of geographically distributed services, comprised from heterogeneous resources and communication protocols, in support of low-latency real-time streaming applications. As part of this framework, an application description language was developed and implemented. Using the application description language a number of high-order management modules were implemented including solutions for resource and workload comparison, performance observation, scheduling, and provisioning. A number of hypothetical and real-world use cases are described to support the framework implementation.

  62. Calyam, P. and Rajagopalan, S. and Selvadhurai, A. and Mohan, S. and Venkataraman, A. and Berryman, A. and Ramnath, R., "Leveraging OpenFlow for resource placement of virtual desktop cloud applications." Integrated Network Management (IM 2013), 2013 IFIP/IEEE International Symposium on, 2013.

    Abstract: Popular applications such as email, photo/video galleries, and file storage are increasingly being supported by cloud platforms in residential, academia and industry communities. The next frontier for these user communities will be to transition `traditional desktops' that have dedicated hardware and software configurations into `virtual desktop clouds' that are accessible via thin-clients. In this paper, we describe an intelligent resource placement framework for thin-client based virtual desktops. The framework leverages principles of softwaredefined networking and features a `unified resource broker' that uses special `marker packets' for: (a) ” route setup” when handling non-IP traffic between thin-client sites and data centers, (b) ” path selection” and ” load balancing” of virtual desktop flows to improve performance of interactive applications and video playback, and to cope with faults such as link-failures or Denialof-Service cyber-attacks. In addition, we detail our framework implementation within a virtual desktop cloud (VDC) setup in a multi-domain Global Environment for Network Innovations (GENI) Future Internet testbed spanning backbone and access networks. We present empirical results from our experimentation that leverages OpenFlow programmable networking, as well as perfSONAR instrumentation-and-measurement capabilities for validating our framework in GENI under realistic settings. Our results demonstrate the importance of scheduling regulated measurements that can be used for intelligent resource placement decisions. Our results also show the feasibility and benefits of using OpenFlow controller applications for path selection and load balancing between thin-client sites and data centers in VDCs.

  63. Calyam, P. and Seetharam, S. and Antequera, R. B., "GENI Laboratory Exercises Development for a Cloud Computing Course." Research and Educational Experiment Workshop (GREE), 2014 Third GENI, IEEE, 2014. doi:10.1109/gree.2014.15. http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/gree.2014.15

    Abstract: Cloud computing education involves integration of computing theories and information technologies in new and interesting ways. It can enable students to architect scalable infrastructures and develop web-service based applications utilizing distributed systems. In this paper, we describe our efforts, experiences and findings in the development of laboratory exercises that utilize GENI infrastructure in a cloud computing course offered at University of Missouri in Fall 2013. Three sets of laboratory exercises were developed and administered for 30 undergraduate/graduate students to help them gain skills in computer and network virtualization, and also to prepare them for distributed system programming projects. We found that the GENI infrastructure provides unique capabilities for student training, and combining it with lab exercises that use public clouds such as Amazon Web Services can provide an overall rich set of hands-on learning opportunities.

  64. Calyam, P. and Sridharan, M. and Xu, Yingxiao and Zhu, Kunpeng and Berryman, A. and Patali, R. and Venkataraman, A., "Enabling performance intelligence for application adaptation in the Future Internet." Communications and Networks, Journal of, 2011. doi:10.1109/JCN.2011.6157475. http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/JCN.2011.6157475

    Abstract: Today's Internet which provides communication channels with best-effort end-to-end performance is rapidly evolving into an autonomic global computing platform. Achieving autonomicity in the Future Internet will require a performance architecture that (a) allows users to request and own 'slices' of geographically-distributed host and network resources, (b) measures and monitors end-to-end host and network status, (c) enables analysis of the measurements within expert systems, and (d) provides performance intelligence in a timely manner for application adaptations to improve performance and scalability. We de- scribe the requirements and design of one such F̈uture Internet performance architecture ̈(FIPA), and present our reference implementation of FIPA called 'OnTimeMeasure.' OnTimeMeasure comprises of several measurement-related services that can interact with each other and with existing measurement frameworks to enable performance intelligence. We also explain our OnTimeMea- sure deployment in the global environment for network innovations (GENI) infrastructure collaborative research initiative to build a sliceable Future Internet. Further, we present an application- adaptation case study in GENI that uses OnTimeMeasure-enabled performance intelligence in the context of dynamic resource allocation within thin-client based virtual desktop clouds. We show how a virtual desktop cloud provider in the Future Internet can use the performance intelligence to increase cloud scalability, while simultaneously delivering satisfactory user quality-of-experience.

  65. Calyam, Prasad and Mishra, Anup and Antequera, Ronny B. and Chemodanov, Dmitrii and Berryman, Alex and Zhu, Kunpeng and Abbott, Carmen and Skubic, Marjorie, "Synchronous Big Data analytics for personalized and remote physical therapy." Pervasive and Mobile Computing, 2015. doi:10.1016/j.pmcj.2015.09.004. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.pmcj.2015.09.004

    Abstract: With gigabit networking becoming economically feasible and widely installed at homes, there are new opportunities to revisit in-home, personalized telehealth services. In this paper, we describe a novel telehealth eldercare service that we developed viz., ” PhysicalTherapy-as-a-Service” (PTaaS) that connects a remote physical therapist at a clinic to a senior at home. The service leverages a high-speed, low-latency network connection through an interactive interface built on top of Microsoft Kinect motion sensing capabilities. The interface that is built using user-centered design principles for wellness coaching exercises is essentially a 'Synchronous Big Data' application due to its: (i) high data-in-motion velocity (i.e., peak data rate is ≈400 Mbps), (ii) considerable variety (i.e., measurements include 3D sensing, network health, user opinion surveys and video clips of RGB, skeletal and depth data), and (iii) large volume (i.e., several GB of measurement data for a simple exercise activity). The successful PTaaS delivery through this interface is dependent on the veracity analytics needed for correlation of the real-time Big Data streams within a session, in order to assess exercise balance of the senior without any bias due to network quality effects. Our experiments with PTaaS in an actual testbed involving senior homes in Kansas City with Google Fiber connections and our university clinic demonstrate the network configuration and time synchronization related challenges in order to perform online analytics. Our findings provide insights on how to: (a) enable suitable resource calibration and perform network troubleshooting for high user experience for both the therapist and the senior, and (b) realize a Big Data architecture for PTaaS and other similar personalized healthcare services to be remotely delivered at a large-scale in a reliable, secure and cost-effective manner.

  66. Calyam, Prasad and Rajagopalan, Sudharsan and Seetharam, Sripriya and Selvadhurai, Arunprasath and Salah, Khaled and Ramnath, Rajiv, "VDC-Analyst: Design and verification of virtual desktop cloud resource allocations." Computer Networks, 2014. doi:10.1016/j.comnet.2014.02.022. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.comnet.2014.02.022

    Abstract: One of the significant challenges for Cloud Service Providers (CSPs) hosting ” virtual desktop cloud” (VDC) infrastructures is to deliver a satisfactory quality of experience (QoE) to the user. In order to maximize the user QoE without expensive resource overprovisioning, there is a need to design and verify resource allocation schemes for a comprehensive set of VDC configurations. In this paper, we present ” VDC-Analyst”, a novel tool that can capture critical quality metrics such as Net Utility and Service Response Time, which can be used to quantify VDC platform readiness. This tool allows CSPs, researchers and educators to design and verify various resource allocation schemes using both simulation and emulation in two modes: ” Run Simulation” and ” Run Experiment”, respectively. The Run Simulation mode allows users to test and visualize resource provisioning and placement schemes on a simulation framework. Run Experiment mode allows testing on a real software-defined network testbed using emulated virtual desktop application traffic to create a realistic environment. Results from using our tool demonstrate that a significant increase in perceived user QoE can be achieved by using a combination of the following techniques incorporated in the tool: (i) optimizing Net Utility through a ” Cost-Aware Utility-Maximal Resource Allocation Algorithm”, (ii) estimating values for Service Response Time using a ” Multi-stage Queuing Model”, and (iii) appropriate load balancing through software-defined networking adaptations in the VDC testbed.

  67. Calyam, Prasad and Venkataraman, Aishwarya and Berryman, Alex and Faerman, Marcio, "Experiences from Virtual Desktop CloudExperiments in GENI." First GENI Research and Educational Experiment Workshop (GREE 2012), Los Angeles, 2012.

    Abstract: Popular applications such as email, photo/video galleries, and file storage are increasingly being supported by cloud platforms in residential, academia and industry communities. The next frontier for these user communities will be to transition 'traditional desktops' that have dedicated hardware and software configurations into 'virtual desktop clouds' that are accessible via thin-clients. In this paper, we describe experiences from our research and development of virtual desktop cloud experiments in GENI. Our experimentation goal is to investigate and develop optimal resource allocation frameworks and performance bench- marking tools that can enable provisioning (i.e., resource sizing) and placement (i.e., resource mapping) of thin-client based virtual desktops at Internet-scale. We first motivate why virtual desktop cloud experiments cannot be done only at a table-top level, and why infrastructures such as GENI are essential. Next, we detail the methodology of our completed ” provisioning” experiments, and our work-in-progress ” placement” experiments in GENI that leverage multiple kinds of GENI resources such as aggregates, measurement services and experimenter workflow tools, as well as commercial software. Lastly, we present our vision on how our experiment slice setup and application development experiences, as well as outcomes can be leveraged in classroom labs, and 'living labs' that use GENI resources to foster training and wide- adoption of Future Internet applications.

  68. Cameron, Katherine and Brooks, R. R. and Deng, Juan and Yu, Lu and Wang, K. C. and Martin, James, "WiMAX: Bandwidth Contention Resolution Vulnerability to Denial of Service Attacks." First GENI Research and Educational Experiment Workshop (GREE 2012), Los Angeles, 2012.

    Abstract: Wireless communications is part of everyday life and 4G technology, including WiMAX, offers higher data rates and wider coverage than predecessor 3G technologies. Many security vulnerabilities have been discovered in 3G protocols and these vulnerabilities may still exist in next generation 4G protocols. This paper examines how system parameters for the WiMAX Bandwidth Contention Resolution process can affect network vulnerability to DoS attacks. It will present software simulations that explore system parameter settings and will cover the current phase of hardware simulations.

  69. Castillo, Eduardo J. and Mountrouidou, Xenia and Li, Xiangyang, "Time Lord: Covert Timing Channel Implementation and Realistic Experimentation." Proceedings of the 2017 ACM SIGCSE Technical Symposium on Computer Science Education, Seattle, Washington, USA, ACM, New York, NY, USA, 2017. doi:10.1145/3017680.3022463. http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/3017680.3022463

    Abstract: Covert channels are unique methods for exchanging messages, since they permit sending information secretly. Unlike encryption, covert communication allows to send information covertly, using an otherwise legitimate medium of transfer, thus it is not apparent that a message is being transferred at all. There is limited research on Covert Timing Channels (CTCs), i.e., channels that manipulate packet inter-arrival time to exchange messages based on a certain encoding. Implementing and testing CTCs in real network environments is lacking in the current literature due to sensitivity to network delays that significantly affects this type of communication. Thus, it is important to implement CTC communication to analyze the challenges of creating robust, efficient, and undetectable channels in real life situations. It is also paramount to test these implementations in a wide range of realistic network conditions. In this research, we have developed and tested two implementations of CTCs. The first implementation is based on [1] using standard bits encoding and ASCII for simplicity and robustness. This implementation suffers from easy detection. On the other hand, we developed the second implementation with goal to make the channel undetectable by using encoding with five different delays, i.e., symbols, where five symbols in a specific order correspond to one letter of the alphabet. This implementation has sufficient randomness to be undetected with standard statistical mechanisms. We have tested both implementations on local networks, the Global Environment for Network Innovations (GENI) controlled environment, networks across states in the US, and internationally.

  70. Cecil, J. and Gupta, Avinash and Pirela-Cruz, Miguel and Ramanathan, Parmesh, "A cyber training framework for orthopedic surgery." Cogent Medicine, 2017. doi:10.1080/2331205x.2017.1419792. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/2331205x.2017.1419792

    Abstract: Purpose: This paper focuses on the development of a cyber training framework for an orthopaedic process termed Less Invasive Stabilization System (LISS) plating surgery. Research methodology: The methodology involved developing a simulator framework which is a complex task involving multiple systems, technologies and human experts. Expert surgeons played an important role in the design and develop the IoT based simulator. Finally, simulator's impact was validated through learning interactions with residents. Hypothesis: The hypothesis was that interactions with the simulator improve the residents' understanding of the LISS plating surgical process. Results: The results from the learning interactions con rm the hypothesis that the interactions with the simulation framework improve the residents' understanding of the LISS plating surgical process. Among the twenty-eight participants in this study, the majority showed improvements in their understanding of the LISS plating surgical process. Conclusion: This paper shows the process of design and development of simulation framework. The learning interactions conducted suggest that this IoT based framework can be used as a tool in medical education.

  71. Cecil, J. and Gupta, Avinash and Ramanathan, P. and Pirela-Cruz, Miguel, "A distributed collaborative simulation environment for orthopedic surgical training." 2017 Annual IEEE International Systems Conference (SysCon), Montreal, QC, Canada, IEEE, 2017. doi:10.1109/syscon.2017.7934721. http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/syscon.2017.7934721

    Abstract: The use of Virtual Reality (VR) simulators has increased rapidly in the field of medical surgery for training purposes. In this paper, the design and development of a Virtual Surgical Environment (VSE) for training residents in an orthopaedic surgical process called Less Invasive Stabilization System (LISS) surgery is discussed; LISS plating surgery is a process used to address fractures of the femur bone. The development of such virtual environments for educational and training purposes will accelerate and supplement existing training approaches enabling medical residents to be better prepared to serve the surgical needs of the general public. One of the important aspects of the VSE is that it is a network based simulator. Our approach explores the potential of emerging Next Generation Internet frameworks and technologies to support such distributed interaction contexts. A discussion of the validation activities is also presented, which highlights the effectiveness of the VSE for teaching medical residents and students.

  72. Chakrabortty, Aranya and Xin, Yufeng, "Hardware-in-the-Loop Simulations and Verifications of Smart Power Systems Over an Exo-GENI Testbed." 2013 Proceedings Second GENI Research and Educational Experiment Workshop, Salt Lake City, UT, IEEE, 2013. doi:10.1109/GREE.2013.12. http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/GREE.2013.12

    Abstract: In this paper we describe an advanced hardware-in- loop simulation facility for real-time demonstration and validation of power system monitoring and control algorithms, currently under construction at NC State University. This facility integrates a real-time power system emulation lab with the GENI network and its associated cloud testbeds. The dynamic responses from the power system emulator are captured via real hardware Phasor Measurement Units (PMU) that are synchronized with the time-scale of the simulations via a common GPS reference. These responses are then sent to the computing and storage resource in GENI using the IEEE C37.118 protocol, running the smart grid control and management application simulations via QoS-guaranteed communications channels, all provisioned in a dynamic fashion.

  73. Chase, Jeff and Baldin, Ilya, "A Retrospective on ORCA: Open Resource Control Architecture." The GENI Book, Springer International Publishing, 2016. doi:10.1007/978-3-319-33769-2_7. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-33769-2_7

    Abstract: ORCA is an extensible platform for building infrastructure servers based on a foundational leasing abstraction. These servers include Aggregate Managers for diverse resource providers and stateful controllers for dynamic slices. ORCA also defines a brokering architecture and control framework to link these servers together into a federated multi-domain deployment. This chapter reviews the architectural principles of ORCA and outlines how they enabled and influenced the design of the ExoGENI Racks deployment, which is built on the ORCA platform. It also sets ORCA in context with the GENI architecture as it has evolved.

  74. Chen, Kang and Shen, Haiying, "Global optimization of file availability through replication for efficient file sharing in MANETs." Network Protocols (ICNP), 2011 19th IEEE International Conference on, Vancouver, AB, Canada, IEEE, 2011. doi:10.1109/icnp.2011.6089056. http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/icnp.2011.6089056

    Abstract: File sharing applications in mobile ad hoc networks (MANETs) have attracted more and more attention in recent years. The efficiency of file querying suffers from the distinctive properties of MANETs including node mobility and limited communication range and resource. An intuitive method to alleviate this problem is to create file replicas in the network. However, despite the efforts on file replication, no research has focused on the global optimal replica sharing with minimum average querying delay. Specifically, current file replication protocols in MANETs have two shortcomings. First, they lack a rule to allocate limited resource to different files in order to minimize the average querying delay. Second, they simply consider storage as resource for replicas, but neglect the fact that the file holders' frequency of meeting other nodes also plays an important role in determining file availability. A node having a higher meeting frequency with others provides higher availability to its files. In this paper, we introduce a new concept of resource for file replication, which considers both node storage and meeting frequency. We theoretically study the influence of resource allocation on the average querying delay and derive a resource allocation rule to minimize the average querying delay. We further propose a distributed file replication protocol that follows the rule. The trace-driven experiments on both the real-world GENI testbed and NS-2 show that our protocol can achieve shorter average querying delay at lower cost than current replication protocols, which justifies the correctness of our theoretical analysis and the effectiveness of the proposed protocol.

  75. Chen, Kang and Shen, Haiying, "Cont2: Social-Aware Content and Contact Based File Search in Delay Tolerant Networks." Proceedings of the 2013 42Nd International Conference on Parallel Processing, IEEE Computer Society, Washington, DC, USA, 2013. doi:10.1109/icpp.2013.28. http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/icpp.2013.28

    Abstract: In this paper, we focus on distributed file search over a delay tolerant network (DTN) formed by mobile devices that exhibit the characteristics of social networks. Current file search methods in MANETs/DTNs are either content-based or contact-based. The former builds routing tables for node contents but is not resilient to high node mobility, while the latter exploits node contact patterns in the social networks but may lead to high latency. Recent research also reveal the importance of interests in realizing efficient file dissemination in DTNs. In this paper, we first analyze node interest and mobility from real traces, which confirms the shortcomings of a contact based method and show the importance of considering both content/interest and contact in file search. We then propose Cont2, a social-aware file search method which leverages both node social interests (content) and contact patterns to enhance search efficiency. First, considering people with common interests tend to share files and gather together, Cont2 virtually groups common-interest nodes into a community to direct file search. Second, considering human mobility follows a certain pattern, Cont2 exploits nodes that have high contact frequency with the queried content. Third, Cont2 also exploits active nodes that have more connections to others as a complementary approach to expedite file search. Trace-driven experimental on the real-world GENI test bed and NS-2 simulator show that Cont2 can significantly improve the search efficiency compared to current methods.

  76. Chen, Kang and Shen, Haiying and Zhang, Haibo, "Leveraging Social Networks for P2P Content-Based File Sharing in Mobile Ad Hoc Networks." 2011 IEEE Eighth International Conference on Mobile Ad-Hoc and Sensor Systems, Valencia, Spain, IEEE, 2011. doi:10.1109/MASS.2011.24. http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/MASS.2011.24

    Abstract: Current P2P file sharing methods in mobile ad hoc networks (MANETs) can be classified into three groups: flooding-based, advertisement-based and social contact-based. The first two groups of methods can easily generate high overhead and low scalability, and the third group fails to consider the social interests (content) of mobile nodes, which otherwise can improve file searching efficiency. In this paper, we propose a P2P content-based file sharing system for MANETs. The system uses an interest extraction algorithm to derive a node's interests from its files for complex queries. For efficient file searching, it groups common-interest nodes that frequently meet with each other as communities. Further, it takes advantage of node mobility by designating stable nodes, which has frequent contact with community members, as community coordinators for intra-community searching, and highly-mobile nodes as community ambassadors for inter-community searching. An interest-oriented file searching scheme further enhances the file searching success rate. We first deployed our system on the real-world GENI Orbit testbed with a real trace and then conducted experiment on the ns2 simulator with both real trace and simulated disconnected and connected MANET scenario. The test results show that our system significantly lowers transmission cost and improves file searching success rate compared to current methods.

  77. Chen, Kang and Xu, Ke and Winburn, Steven and Shen, Haiying and Wang, Kuang-Ching and Li, Ze, "Experimentation of a MANET Routing Algorithm on the GENI ORBIT Testbed." First GENI Research and Educational Experiment Workshop (GREE 2012), Los Angeles, 2012.

    Abstract: This paper proposes a systematic procedure for experimentation of Mobile ad hoc networks (MANETs) on the ORBIT testbed. MANETs have attracted significant re- search interests in recent years. Most of routing or file sharing algorithms in MANETs were only evaluated by theoretical analysis or simulations because of the requirement of large scale networks. However, due to the distinctive properties of MANETs, such as mobility and decentralized structure, it has been non-trivial to deploy a real testbed for the verification. The Global Environment for Network Innovations (GENI) project sponsored by the National Science Foundation (NSF) provides an exploratory environment for academic real-world experiments, such as the ORBIT testbed. A stable and repeatable procedure for experimentation on real testbeds is necessary and important to assure the validity of results. In this paper, a MANET routing algorithm, namely LORD, was tested on the ORBIT testbed, using the proposed procedure. Specifically, we first configure the wireless interface on each node to enable the communication between each pair of nodes. Then a set of methods are adopted to construct the MANETs scenario for test. The network status is monitored throughout the entire duration of experiments. Finally, the experiment results of LORD on the GENI ORBIT testbed are demonstrated.

  78. Chen, Shuoshuo and Ji, Xiang and Veeraraghavan, Malathi and Emmerson, Steve and Slezak, Joseph and Decker, Steven G., "A Cross-Layer Multicast-Push Unicast-Pull (MPUP) Architecture for Reliable File-Stream Distribution." 2016 IEEE 40th Annual Computer Software and Applications Conference (COMPSAC), Atlanta, GA, USA, IEEE, 2016. doi:10.1109/compsac.2016.28. http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/compsac.2016.28

    Abstract: The growing deployment of OpenFlow/SDN networks makes it increasingly possible to leverage network multicast services. This work proposes a novel cross-layer Multicast-Push Unicast Pull (MPUP) architecture that includes functionality in the application, transport and link layers to offer users a reliable file-stream distribution service to multiple subscribers. A prototype implementation of the MPUP architecture was realized in a new version of Local Data Manager (LDM), LDM7, a software program that has been in use since 1994 for real-time meteorology data distribution. LDM6, the currently deployed version, uses application-layer multicast. Experiments were run on the GENI infrastructure to compare LDM7 and LDM6. The two main findings are (i) LDM7 can be run at a higher sending rate than LDM6 allowing for improved performance (lower file delivery latency), and (ii) to achieve the same performance, LDM7 uses significantly lower bandwidth and compute capacity. A three-fold improvement in performance improvement was possible with LDM7, and a bandwidth reduction from 350 Mbps to 21.4 Mbps was observed with 24 receivers.

  79. Chen, X. and Cai, H. and Wolf, T., "Multi-criteria Routing in Networks with Path Choices." 2015 IEEE 23rd International Conference on Network Protocols (ICNP), IEEE, 2015. doi:10.1109/icnp.2015.36. http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/icnp.2015.36

    Abstract: Typical routing algorithms use a single criterion, such as hop count or link weight, to calculate paths. As the requirement of flexible routing arises, there are circumstances where multiple criteria are needed for routing. Though there are proposed solutions to the multi-criteria optimal path selection problem for quality-of-service routing, they usually combine all criteria into a single path optimization metric a priori. However, this approach is not feasible in scenarios where the path consumers' weightings of criteria is not known at compute time. Such circumstances require finding all the Pareto-optimal paths, i.e., all the paths that are not dominated by other paths. In this paper, we present the algorithmic foundations for efficiently computing Pareto-optimal paths. We present ParetoBFS, a variant of a breadth-first search that uses branch-and-bound techniques to find all the Pareto-optimal paths while effectively limiting the potentially very large search space. We present several sampling techniques to further increase the speed of the search while degrading the quality of the results only marginally. Our simulation results show that existing multi-criteria combinatorial optimization approaches can only search a small fraction of all the Pareto-optimal paths while ParetoBFS can obtain the whole path set in shorter time. We also present results from an implementation of ParetoBFS on a software-defined network prototype.

  80. Chen, Xinming and Wolf, Tilman and Griffioen, Jim and Ascigil, Onur and Dutta, Rudra and Rouskas, George and Bhat, Shireesh and Baldin, Ilya and Calvert, Ken, "Design of a protocol to enable economic transactions for network services." Communications (ICC), 2015 IEEE International Conference on, IEEE, 2015. doi:10.1109/icc.2015.7249175. http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/icc.2015.7249175

    Abstract: Deployment of innovative new networking services requires support by network providers. Since economic motivation plays an important role for network providers, it is critical that a network architecture intrinsically considers economic relationships. We present the design of a protocol that associates access to network services with economic contracts. We show how this protocol can be realized in fundamentally different ways, using out-of-band signaling and in-band signaling, based on two different prototype implementations. We present results that show the effectiveness of the proposed protocol and thus demonstrate a first step toward realizing an economy plane for the Internet.

  81. Cherukuri, Ramkumar and Liu, Xuan and Bavier, Andy and Sterbenz, James P. G. and Medhi, Deep, "Network virtualization in GpENI: Framework, implementation & integration experience." 12th IFIP/IEEE International Symposium on Integrated Network Management (IM 2011) and Workshops, Dublin, Ireland, IEEE, 2011. doi:10.1109/INM.2011.5990568. http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/INM.2011.5990568

    Abstract: Great Plains Environment for Network Innovation (GpENI) is an international testbed for future Internet research. A key component of GpENI is programmable network virtualization (GpENI-VINI). The scope of this paper is to present the framework, implementation and integration experience with network virtualization in GpENI. In particular, this is described through our experience of implementing and integrating the XORP (eXtensible Open Router Platform) routing platform into GpENI-VINI. Preliminary results on measurements and validation are presented.

  82. Chin, Tommy and Mountrouidou, Xenia and Li, Xiangyang and Xiong, Kaiqi, "An SDN-supported collaborative approach for DDoS flooding detection and containment." MILCOM 2015 - 2015 IEEE Military Communications Conference, Tampa, FL, USA, IEEE, 2015. doi:10.1109/milcom.2015.7357519. http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/milcom.2015.7357519

    Abstract: Software Defined Networking (SDN) has the potential to enable novel security applications that support flexible, on-demand deployment of system elements. It can offer targeted forensic evidence collection and investigation of computer network attacks. Such unique capabilities are instrumental to network intrusion detection that is challenged by large volumes of data and complex network topologies. This paper presents an innovative approach that coordinates distributed network traffic Monitors and attack Correlators supported by Open Virtual Switches (OVS). The Monitors conduct anomaly detection and the Correlators perform deep packet inspection for attack signature recognition. These elements take advantage of complementary views and information availability on both the data and control planes. Moreover, they collaboratively look for network flooding attack signature constituents that possess different characteristics in the level of information abstraction. Therefore, this approach is able to not only quickly raise an alert against potential threats, but also follow it up with careful verification to reduce false alarms. We experiment with this SDN-supported collaborative approach to detect TCP SYN flood attacks on the Global Environment for Network Innovations (GENI), a realistic virtual testbed. The response times and detection accuracy, in the context of a small to medium corporate network, have demonstrated its effectiveness and scalability.

  83. Chin, Tommy and Mountrouidou, Xenia and Li, Xiangyang and Xiong, Kaiqi, "Selective Packet Inspection to Detect DoS Flooding Using Software Defined Networking (SDN)." Distributed Computing Systems Workshops (ICDCSW), 2015 IEEE 35th International Conference on, IEEE, 2015. doi:10.1109/icdcsw.2015.27. http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/icdcsw.2015.27

    Abstract: Software-defined networking (SDN) and Open Flow have been driving new security applications and services. However, even if some of these studies provide interesting visions of what can be achieved, they stop short of presenting realistic application scenarios and experimental results. In this paper, we discuss a novel attack detection approach that coordinates monitors distributed over a network and controllers centralized on an SDN Open Virtual Switch (OVS), selectively inspecting network packets on demand. With different scale of network views and information availability, these two elements collaboratively detect signature constituents of an attack. Therefore, this approach is able to quickly issue an alert against potential threats followed by careful verification for high accuracy, while balancing the workload on the OVS. We have applied this method for detection and mitigation of TCP SYN flood attacks on Global Environment for Network Innovations (GENI). This realistic experimentation has provided us with insightful findings helpful toward a systematic methodology of SDN-supported attack detection and containment.

  84. Chin, Tommy and Xiong, Kaiqi, "A Forensic Methodology for Software-Defined Network Switches." Advances in Digital Forensics XIII, Springer International Publishing, Cham, 2017. doi:10.1007/978-3-319-67208-3_6. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-67208-3_6

    Abstract: This chapter presents a forensic methodology for computing systems in a software-defined networking environment that consists of an application plane, control plane and data plane. The methodology involves a forensic examination of the software-defined networking infrastructure from the perspective of a switch. Memory images of a live switch and southbound communications are leveraged to enable forensic investigators to identify and locate potential evidence for triage in real time. The methodology is evaluated using a real-world testbed exposed to network attacks. The experimental results demonstrate the effectiveness of the methodology for forensic investigations of software-defined networking infrastructures.

  85. Chin, Tommy and Xiong, Kaiqi, "Dynamic generation containment systems (DGCS): A Moving Target Defense approach." 2016 3rd International Workshop on Emerging Ideas and Trends in Engineering of Cyber-Physical Systems (EITEC), IEEE, 2016. doi:10.1109/eitec.2016.7503690. http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/eitec.2016.7503690

    Abstract: Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition (SCADA) systems are critical assets to public utility and manufacturing organizations. These systems, although critical, are prone to numerous cyber security related threats and attacks. To combat such challenges, we propose a Dynamic Generated Containment System (DGCS), a moving target defense model as a method of threat evasion. Under the proposed approach, we employ the use of intrusion detection systems (IDS) in conjunction with virtualization solution - Docker. The proposed approach provides an individual Docker container for each threat detected by our IDS. We conduct several experiments using high performance computing systems to measure and demonstrate our proposed approach.

  86. Chin, Tommy and Xiong, Kaiqi, "MPBSD: A Moving Target Defense Approach for Base Station Security in Wireless Sensor Networks." Wireless Algorithms, Systems, and Applications, Springer International Publishing, 2016. doi:10.1007/978-3-319-42836-9_43. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-42836-9_43

    Abstract: This paper addresses one major concern on how to secure the location information of a base station in a compromised Wireless Sensor Network (WSN). In this concern, disrupting or damaging the wireless base station can be catastrophic for a WSN. To aid in the mitigation of this challenge, we present Moving Proximity Base Station Defense (MPBSD), a Moving Target Defense (MTD) approach to concealing the location of a base station within a WSN. In this approach, we employ multiple base stations to serve a WSN where one of the multiple base stations is elected to serve the WSN in a specific period of time. Specifically, our approach periodically changes the designation over a period of time to provide obscurity in the location information of the base station. We further evaluate MPBSD using a real-world testbed environment utilizing Wi-Fi frequencies. Our results show that MPBSD is an effective MTD approach to securing base stations for a WSN in term of sensory performance such as end-to-end delay.

  87. Chowdhury and Boutaba, Raouf, "A survey of network virtualization." Computer Networks, 2010. doi:http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.comnet.2009.10.017. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1389128609003387

    Abstract: Due to the existence of multiple stakeholders with conflicting goals and policies, alterations to the existing Internet architecture are now limited to simple incremental updates; deployment of any new, radically different technology is next to impossible. To fend off this ossification, network virtualization has been propounded as a diversifying attribute of the future inter-networking paradigm. By introducing a plurality of heterogeneous network architectures cohabiting on a shared physical substrate, network virtualization promotes innovations and diversified applications. In this paper, we survey the existing technologies and a wide array of past and state-of-the-art projects on network virtualization followed by a discussion of major challenges in this area.

  88. Chung, Joaquin and Cox, Jacob and Clark, Russ and Owen, Henry, "FAS: Federated Auditing for Software-defined exchanges." SoutheastCon 2017, Concord, NC, USA, IEEE, 2017. doi:10.1109/secon.2017.7925261. http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/secon.2017.7925261

    Abstract: The Software-defined exchange (SDX) allows multiple independent administrative domains to share computing, storage, and networking resources. One variation on the SDX applies software-defined networking (SDN) technologies to the fabric of an Internet exchange point (IXP) to support rich policy expression among participants. Similarly, Research and Education (R&E) networks are introducing SDN at exchange points to enable network operators to provision network policies over multiple independent administrative domains. The federated nature of R&E exchange points is based on a chain of trust between participant domains. However, trust and verifiability go hand in hand, an old adage says ” trust, but verify”, so a responsible network operator would like to verify that his or her policies are honored by the SDN domains participating at an SDX. Moreover, some SDX participants do not want to reveal internal topology information while proving they correctly deployed the requested policies. For these reasons, we propose Federated Auditing for SDX (FAS), a federated auditing framework for SDX configuration verification, which reveals the minimal necessary information to an SDX central controller. We also show our initial proof-of-concept and preliminary evaluation.

  89. Chung, Joaquin and Owen, Henry and Clark, Russell, "SDX architectures: A qualitative analysis." SoutheastCon 2016, Norfolk, VA, USA, IEEE, 2016. doi:10.1109/secon.2016.7506749. http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/secon.2016.7506749

    Abstract: A novel internetworking paradigm, software-defined exchange (SDX), allows multiple independent administrative domains to share computing, storage, and networking resources. Although the term SDX is very recent, the concept has already been used by many distinct disciplines. For example, cloud-computing researchers use it to add network virtualization resources to their inter-clouds, while networking researchers use it to insert SDN technologies into the networking exchange infrastructure. Despite the different uses, the efforts of the various disciplines that share networking resources converge to a single poing enabled by the virtualization and the separation of control and data planes. This paper presents a survey of the most relevant SDX studies from various research areas, focusing on their architectures. The paper defines a taxonomy for the SDX, provides generalized architecture models, and concludes by presenting a qualitative analysis of the architectures that focuses on the scalability, resilience, peering technologies, and deployment of SDX.

  90. Chung, Joaquín and Cox, Jacob and Ibarra, Julio and Bezerra, Jerônimo and Morgan, Heidi and Clark, Russell and Owen, Henry, "AtlanticWave-SDX: An International SDX to Support Science Data Applications." International Conference for High Performance Computing, Networking, Storage and Analysis (SC15), Austin, 2015. http://amlight.net/wp-content/uploads/2015/04/AtlanticWave-SDX.pdf

    Abstract: New scientific instruments that are being designed and deployed in the coming years will dramatically increase the need for large, real-time data transfers among scientists throughout the world. One such instrument is the Large Synoptic Survey Telescope being built in Chile that will produce 6.4 GB images every 17 seconds. This paper describes an ongoing effort to meet the demands of these large data scientific instruments through the development of an international software defined exchange point (SDX) that will meet the provisioning needs for the scientific users. The specific planned and ongoing work in SDX architecture is described with specific consideration for policy specification and security.

  91. Collings, Jake and Liu, Jun, "An OpenFlow-Based Prototype of SDN-Oriented Stateful Hardware Firewalls." Network Protocols (ICNP), 2014 IEEE 22nd International Conference on, IEEE, 2014. doi:10.1109/icnp.2014.83. http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/icnp.2014.83

    Abstract: This paper describes an Open Flow-based prototype of a SDN-oriented stateful hardware firewall. The prototype of a SDN-oriented stateful hardware firewall includes an Open Flow-enabled switch and a firewall controller. The security rules are specified in the flow table in both the Open Flow-enabled switch and the firewall controller. The firewall controller is in charge of making control decisions on regulating the unidentified traffic flows. A communication channel is needed between a firewall controller and an Open Flow enabled switch. Through this channel, a switch sends to the controller with the information of unidentified flows, and the controller sends to the switch with the control decisions. Constraining this communication overhead is important to the applicability of the prototype because a high communication overhead could disturb the performance evaluation on the operation of a SDN-oriented stateful hardware firewall.

  92. Dane, L. and Gurkan, D., "GENI with a Network Processing Unit: Enriching SDN Application Experiments." Research and Educational Experiment Workshop (GREE), 2014 Third GENI, IEEE, 2014. doi:10.1109/gree.2014.27. http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/gree.2014.27

    Abstract: This paper reports the integration of Dell's specialized split data plane (SDP) OpenFlow switch into the GENI testbed. In addition, the paper outlines the research directions in network science and engineering that such a switch may enable together with a new perspective on education in network programming. An SDP switch can be used to perform some specialized processing on flows with special hardware accelerators in addition to hosting any application (running on a Linux OS) that a user may insert on the path of a flow. The SDP switch is composed of a Dell switch (PowerConnect 7024) with an internal physical connection to a sub-unit, Network Processor Unit (NPU), by Cavium Networks. Hosting an OpenvSwitch on the NPU with open hosting of Linux applications enables software-defined networking experiments. The integration challenges/process associated with this unit is presented as a future reference to other such foreign box integrations.

  93. Das, S. and Yiakoumis, Y. and Parulkar, G. and McKeown, N. and Singh, P. and Getachew, D. and Desai, P. D., "Application-aware aggregation and traffic engineering in a converged packet-circuit network." Optical Fiber Communication Conference and Exposition (OFC/NFOEC), 2011 and the National Fiber Optic Engineers Conference, IEEE, 2011. http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/xpls/abs_all.jsp?arnumber=5875210

    Abstract: We demonstrate a converged OpenFlow enabled packet-circuit network, where circuit flow properties (guarantee d bandwidth, low latency, low jitter, bandwidth-on-demand, fast recovery) provide differential treatment to dynamically aggregated packet flows for voice, video and web traffic.

  94. Dempsey, HeidiPicher, "The GENI Mesoscale Network." The GENI Book, Springer International Publishing, 2016. doi:10.1007/978-3-319-33769-2_12. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-33769-2_12

    Abstract: GENI is a national network of computation, storage, and networking resources interconnected by a deeply programmable nationwide infrastructure. The GENI mesoscale infrastructure was not built from scratch in a green-field design, but was a truly cooperative design, integration and operations effort. The challenge confronting the design and development team was to combine existing capabilities to virtualize individual resources across resource types to create an environment that supports smoothly interoperating ” slices” of the shared GENI infrastructure.

  95. Deng, Juan and Brooks, Richard R. and Martin, James, "Assessing the Effect of WiMAX System Parameter Settings on MAC-level Local DoS Vulnerability." International Journal of Performability Engineering, 2012.

    Abstract: The research community has established that WiMAX networks suffer from Denial of Service (DoS) vulnerabilities. In this paper, we analyze how WiMAX system parameter settings increase or decrease DoS vulnerabilities of WiMAX networks. The behavior of the WiMAX MAC level protocol is sensitive to the settings of core system parameters. Unlike traditional network-based DoS attacks, attacks resulting from parameter misconfiguration are difficult for network operators to detect. We focus on bandwidth contention resolution aspects of the WiMAX MAC protocol. Simulations are performed using the ns-2 simulator. Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) techniques on the resulting simulation data identify which bandwidth contention resolution parameter combinations are crucial for configuring WiMAX to be less vulnerable to DoS attacks.

  96. Dong, Mo and Li, Qingxi and Zarchy, Doron and Godfrey, P. Brighten and Schapira, Michael, "PCC: Re-architecting Congestion Control for Consistent High Performance." 12th USENIX Symposium on Networked Systems Design and Implementation (NSDI 15), USENIX Association, Oakland, CA, 2015. https://www.usenix.org/conference/nsdi15/technical-sessions/presentation/dong

  97. Donovan, Sean and Chung, Joaquin and Sanders, Matt and Clark, Russ, "MetroSDX: A resilient edge network for the smart community." 2017 IEEE International Conference on Pervasive Computing and Communications Workshops (PerCom Workshops), Kona, Big Island, HI, USA, IEEE, 2017. doi:10.1109/percomw.2017.7917626. http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/percomw.2017.7917626

    Abstract: Smart and connected communities and their associated edge devices are creating new demands on network services. Edge network connectivity is often not resilient to failures, leading to data loss when network devices are isolated by the failure of a single service provider, while other providers are still functional. We propose MetroSDX, a neutral network design that increases the resiliency of edge networks and global and local services, improves isolation of network functions, and preserves data from edge devices when they are disconnected. MetroSDX is a software-defined exchange, a meet-me point for exchanging computing, storage, and networking resources. This work focuses on MetroSDX's approach to location specific resilience and performance in this multi-network paradigm with an eye towards addressing increased demands from the growing set of connected devices and services which will increasingly and inevitably require communication between and across elements connected to multiple networks.

  98. Duerig, Jonathon and Ricci, Robert and Stoller, Leigh and Strum, Matt and Wong, Gary and Carpenter, Charles and Fei, Zongming and Griffioen, James and Nasir, Hussamuddin and Reed, Jeremy and Wu, Xiongqi, "Getting started with GENI: a user tutorial." SIGCOMM Comput. Commun. Rev., ACM, New York, NY, USA, 2012. doi:10.1145/2096149.2096161. http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/2096149.2096161

    Abstract: GENI, the Global Environment for Network Innovations, is a National Science Foundation project to create a v̈irtual laboratory at the frontiers of network science and engineering for exploring future internets at scale. ̈It provides researchers, educators, and students with resources that they can use to build their own networks that span the country and - through federation - the world. GENI enables experimenters to try out bold new network architectures and designs for networked systems, and to deploy and evaluate these systems on a diverse set of resources over a large footprint. This tutorial is a starting point for running experiments on GENI. It provides an overview of GENI and covers the process of creating a network and running a simple experiment using two tools: the Flack GUI and the INSTOOLS instrumentation service.

  99. Duerig, Jonathon and Ricci, Robert and Stoller, Leigh and Wong, Gary and Chikkulapelly, Srikanth and Seok, Woojin, "Designing a Federated Testbed as a Distributed System." 8th International ICST Conference on Testbeds and Research Infrastructures for the Development of Networks and Communities (TRIDENTCOM 2012), 2012.

    Abstract: Traditionally, testbeds for networking and systems research have been stand-alone facilities: each is owned and operated by a single administrative entity, and is intended to be used independently of other testbeds. However, this isolated facility model is at odds with researchers' ever-increasing needs for experiments at larger scale and with a broader diversity of network technologies. The research community will be much better served by a federated model. In this model, each federated testbed maintains its own autonomy and unique strengths, but all federates work together to make their resources available under a common framework. Our challenge, then, is to design a federated testbed framework that balances competing needs: We must establish trust, but at the same time maintain the autonomy of each federated facility. While providing a unified interface to a broad set of resources, we need to expose the diversity that makes them valuable. Finally, our federation should work smoothly in a coordinated fashion, but avoid central points of failure and inter-facility dependencies. We argue that treating testbed design as a federated distributed systems problem is an effective approach to achieving this balance. The technique is illustrated through the example of ProtoGENI, a system we have designed, built, and operated according to the federated model.

  100. Dumba, Braulio and Sun, Guobao and Mekky, Hesham and Zhang, Zhi-Li, "Experience in Implementing & Deploying a Non-IP Routing Protocol VIRO in GENI." Network Protocols (ICNP), 2014 IEEE 22nd International Conference on, IEEE, 2014. doi:10.1109/icnp.2014.85. http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/icnp.2014.85

    Abstract: In this paper, we describe our experience in implementing a non-IP routing protocol - Virtual Id Routing (VIRO) - using the OVS-SDN platform in GENI. As a novel, p̈lug-&-play,̈ routing paradigm for future dynamic networks, VIRO decouples routing/forwarding from addressing by introducing a topology-aware, structured virtual id layer to encode the locations of switches and devices in the physical topology for scalable and resilient routing. Despite its general m̈atch-action ̈forwarding function, the existing OVS-SDN platform is closely tied to the conventional Ethernet/IP/TCP header formats, and cannot be directly used to implement the new VIRO routing/forwarding paradigm. As a result, we repurpose the Ethernet MAC address to represent VIRO virtual id, modify and extend the OVS (both within the user space and the kernel space) to implement the VIRO forwarding functions. We also utilize a set of local POX controllers (one per VIRO switch) to emulate the VIRO distributed control plane and one global POX controller to realize the VIRO (centralized) management plane. We evaluate our prototype implementation through the Mininet emulation and GENI deployment test and discuss some lessons learned using the test-bed.

  101. Duplyakin, Dmitry and Johnson, David and Ricci, Robert, "The Part-Time Cloud: Enabling Balanced Elasticity Between Diverse Computing Environments." Proceedings of the 8th Workshop on Scientific Cloud Computing, Washington, DC, USA, ACM, New York, NY, USA, 2017. doi:10.1145/3086567.3086568. http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/3086567.3086568

    Abstract: Clouds, HPC clusters, HTC systems, and testbeds all serve different parts of the computing ecosystem: each are designed for different types of workloads and suited to different types of research and commercial users. We propose that an effective way to share resources among these diverse applications is to not shoehorn them all into the same resource management framework, but to partition a common hardware substrate among different frameworks: for example, to have part of a cluster managed by a cloud framework such as OpenStack, part of it managed by an HPC scheduler such as SLURM, etc. In order to efficiently manage such a shared resource, it must be possible to adjust the set of resources controlled by each in an elastic manner. While resource allocation and scheduling within each of these types of environments are well studied, what we consider in this paper is elasticity between them. Our goal is to enable each management framework to separately manage the resources currently within its own domain, scheduling jobs, VMs, etc. according to its own needs and policies. At the same time, the frameworks can coordinate with one another so that when resources must be moved between them, it can be done in the most fair and efficient manner possible. We evaluate our ideas using a prototype that shares resources between a testbed and an HPC cluster, and with simulations using real workload traces. We find that with only minimal information flow it is possible to elastically adjust resource assignments while each framework optimizes for its own internal criteria.

  102. Duplyakin, Dmitry and Ricci, Robert, "Introducing configuration management capabilities into CloudLab experiments." 2016 IEEE Conference on Computer Communications Workshops (INFOCOM WKSHPS), San Francisco, CA, USA, IEEE, 2016. doi:10.1109/infcomw.2016.7562042. http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/infcomw.2016.7562042

    Abstract: Users of CloudLab (and other GENI-derived testbeds) commonly use image snapshots to preserve their working environments and to share them with other users. While snapshots re-create software environments byte-for-byte, they are not conducive to composing multiple environments, nor are they good for experiments that must run across many versions of their environments with subtle differences. This paper describes our initial work on an alternative experiment management system. This system is built on expendable instances of the Chef configuration management system, and can be used ” on top of” existing testbeds.

  103. Edwards, Sarah and Liu, Xuan and Riga, Niky, "Creating Repeatable Computer Science and Networking Experiments on Shared, Public Testbeds." SIGOPS Oper. Syst. Rev., ACM, New York, NY, USA, 2015. doi:10.1145/2723872.2723884. http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/2723872.2723884

    Abstract: There are many compelling reasons to use a shared, public testbed such as GENI, Emulab, or PlanetLab to conduct experiments in computer science and networking. These testbeds support creating experiments with a large and diverse set of resources. Moreover these testbeds are constructed to inherently support the repeatability of experiments as required for scientifically sound research. Finally, the artifacts needed for a researcher to repeat their own experiment can be shared so that others can readily repeat the experiment in the same environment. However using a shared, public testbed is different from conducting experiments on resources either owned by the experimenter or someone the experimenter knows. Experiments on shared, public testbeds are more likely to use large topologies, use scarce resources, and need to be tolerant to outages and maintenances in the testbed. In addition, experimenters may not have access to low-level debugging information. This paper describes a methodology for new experimenters to write and deploy repeatable and sharable experiments which deal with these challenges by: having a clear plan; automating the execution and analysis of an experiment by following best practices from software engineering and system administration; and building scalable experiments. In addition, the paper describes a case study run on the GENI testbed which illustrates the methodology described.

  104. El Alaoui, Sara, "Routing Optimization in Interplanetary Networks (Master's Thesis)." 2015. http://scholar.google.com/scholar_url?url=http://digitalcommons.unl.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi%3Farticle%3D1110%26context%3Dcomputerscidiss&hl=en&sa=X&scisig=AAGBfm3bqGZQbbqEX7SG7r5YDIw5epl3sg&nossl=1&oi=scholaralrt

    Abstract: Interplanetary Internet or Interplanetary Networking (IPN) is envisaged as a space network which interconnects spacecrafts, satellites, rovers and orbiters of different planets and comets for efficient exchange of scientific data such as telemetry and images. IPNs are classified among challenged networks because of the unpredictable changes in the network and the large varying delays in communication. These net- works are hard to model using static graphs and do not behave optimally when operated using the static networks' standards and techniques. Delay Tolerant Networking (DTN), in its different implementations, is one of the suggested solutions to overcome these networks' challenges. DTN has different routing techniques, among which Contact Graph Routing (CGR) is the more widely used in IPNs. In this thesis, we identify the shortcoming of CGR that results from overlooking the future contacts, and we propose the Earliest Arrival Optimal Delivery Ratio (EAODR) Routing that examines all the paths both with the desired earliest departure time and in the future in order to choose the earliest arrival path from a given node. EAODR finds the route that delivers the exchanged message (a. k. a. bundle) at most at the same time as CGR's route. In order to do that, we propose a Modified Temporal Graph (MTG) model that provides a near-real-time representation of the deterministic dynamic networks. We base EAODR routing algorithm on the MTG model. Our results show that we can reduce the delay by 12.9% compared to CGR when we apply our algorithm to over 50 combinations of bundle sizes and transmission times.

  105. El Alaoui, Sara and Palusa, Saichand and Ramamurthy, Byrav, "The Interplanetary Internet Implemented on the GENI Testbed." 2015 IEEE Global Communications Conference (GLOBECOM), IEEE, 2015. doi:10.1109/glocom.2014.7417313. http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/stamp/stamp.jsp?tp=&arnumber=7417313&isnumber=7416057

    Abstract: Interplanetary Internet or Interplanetary Networking is envisaged as a space network which interconnects spacecrafts, satellites, rovers and orbiters of different planets and comets for efficient exchange of scientific data such as telemetry and images. In this paper, we implement a layout of the Interplanetary Internet (IPN) with the Interplanetary Overlay Network (ION) software module that uses Contact Graph Routing (CGR). The experiments are then implemented on the Global Environment for Network Innovations (GENI) testbed. Along with realistic contact plans (CP) of the nodes, this network implementation was used to run experiments testing the performance of Delay Tolerant Networking (DTN) with and without cross links between Mars orbiters. The experiments showed that in an Earth-Mars communication network using two Mars orbiters, allowing cross links between the orbiters results in increasing the amount of data transferred by roughly 9.2%. Data sent from Mars Rover to the Earth stations also increases by 35.7% when a third satellite (Mars Express) was added to the network without cross links. Finally, when cross links are allowed across all satellites orbiting Mars and serving as relay nodes between the Earth stations and Mars rover, the communication was enhanced by almost 46%. We conclude that by adding cross links, the performance of the network is enhanced for a better transmission of data from Mars to the Earth, which is very pertinent for the scalability of the network.

  106. Elliott, Chip and Falk, Aaron, "An update on the GENI project." SIGCOMM Comput. Commun. Rev., ACM, New York, NY, USA, 2009. doi:10.1145/1568613.1568620. http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/1568613.1568620

    Abstract: Environment for Network Innovations. Early prototypes of GENI are starting to come online as an end-to-end system and network researchers are invited to participate by engaging in the design process or using GENI to conduct experiments.

  107. Elliott, Steven D., "Exploring the Challenges and Opportunities of Implementing Software-Defined Networking in a Research Testbed (Master's thesis)." 2015. http://repository.lib.ncsu.edu/ir/bitstream/1840.16/10164/1/etd.pdf

    Abstract: Designing a new network and upgrading existing network infrastructure are complex and arduous tasks. These projects are further complicated in campus, regional, and international research networks given the large bandwidth and unique segmentation requirements coupled with the unknown implications of testing new network protocols. The software-defined networking (SDN) revolution promises to alleviate these challenges by separating the network control plane from the data plane [208]. This allows for a more flexible and programmable network. While SDN has delivered large dividends to early adopters, it is still a monumental undertaking to re-architect an existing network to use new technology. To ease the transition burden, many research networks have chosen either a hybrid SDN solution or a clean-slate approach. Unfortunately, neither of these approaches can avoid the limitations of existing SDN implementations. For example, software-defined networking can introduce an increase in packet delay in a previously low-latency network. Therefore, it is vital for administrators to have an indepth understanding of these new challenges during the SDN transition. OpenFlow (OF) [209], the protocol many SDN controllers use to communicate with network devices, also has several drawbacks that network architects need to discern before designing the network. Therefore, care must be taken when designing and implementing a software-defined network. This thesis takes an in-depth look at Stanford University, GENI, and OFELIA as case study examples of campus, national, and international research networks that utilize SDN concepts. Additionally, we detail the planning of the future MCNC SDN that will connect several North Carolina research institutions using a high-speed software-defined network. After dissecting the design and implementation of these software-defined research networks, we present common challenges and lessons learned. Our analysis uncovered some common issues in existing software-defined networks. For example, there are problems with the Spanning Tree Protocol (STP), switch/OpenFlow compatibility, hybrid OpenFlow/legacy switch implementations, and the FlowVisor network slicing tool. These potential issues are discussed in detail. Trends include implementation of OpenFlow version 1.3, use of commercial-quality controllers, and a transition to inexpensive network hardware through the use of software switches and NetFPGAs. We hope the findings presented in this thesis will allow network architects to avoid some of the difficulties that arise in design, implementation, and policy decisions when campus and other research networks are transitioning to a software-defined approach.

  108. Erazo, Miguel A. and Liu, Jason, "On enabling real-time large-scale network simulation in GENI: the PrimoGENI approach." Proceedings of the 3rd International ICST Conference on Simulation Tools and Techniques, Torremolinos, Malaga, Spain, ICST (Institute for Computer Sciences, Social-Informatics and Telecommunications Engineering), ICST, Brussels, Belgium, Belgium, 2010. doi:10.4108/ICST.SIMUTOOLS2010.8636. http://dx.doi.org/10.4108/ICST.SIMUTOOLS2010.8636

    Abstract: The Global Environment for Network Innovations (GENI) is a community-driven research and development effort to build a collaborative and exploratory network experimentation platform, a v̈irtual laboratory ̈for the design, implementation and evaluation of future Internets. In this paper, we present an overview of PrimoGENI, a GENI project with the goal of extending the GENI suite of interoperable infrastructure to allow network experiments at scale, involving physical, simulated and emulated network entities.

  109. Erazo, Miguel A. and Rong, Rong and Liu, Jason, "Symbiotic Network Simulation and Emulation." ACM Trans. Model. Comput. Simul., ACM, New York, NY, USA, 2015. doi:10.1145/2717308. http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/2717308

    Abstract: A testbed capable of representing detailed operations of complex applications under diverse network conditions is invaluable for understanding the design and performance of new protocols and applications before their real deployment. We introduce a novel method that combines high-performance large-scale network simulation and high-fidelity network emulation, and thus enables real instances of network applications and protocols to run in real operating environments and be tested under simulated network settings. Using our approach, network simulation and emulation can form a symbiotic relationship, through which they are synchronized for an accurate representation of the network-scale traffic behavior. We introduce a model downscaling method along with an efficient queuing model and a traffic reproduction technique, which can significantly reduce the synchronization overhead and improve accuracy. We validate our approach with extensive experiments via simulation and with a real-system implementation. We also present a case study using our approach to evaluate a multipath data transport protocol.

  110. Esposito, Flavio and Wang, Yuefeng and Matta, Ibrahim and Day, John, "Dynamic Layer Instantiation as a Service." Lombard, IL, USENIX Association, Berkeley, CA, USA, 2013. https://www.usenix.org/system/files/nsdip13-paper11.pdf

    Abstract: We demonstrate the dynamic layer instantiation feature of RINA by creating on the fly a new, higher level Virtual Private Cloud DIF. The demonstration includes two IPC processes, VPC1 and VPC2, that initially use two separate private DIFs — an Enterprise DIF and a Cloud Provider DIF — to communicate with their respective local processes. Later on, an enterprise application process App1 asks for a flow service, so as to communicate with App2, a remote application process on the Cloud Provider DIF. Such request, handled by the underlying communication process VPC1, cannot occur unless there is a common underlying Virtual Private Cloud DIF to which both VPC1 and VPC2 subscribe. We demonstrate this dynamic instantiation of the DIF layer over the GENI testbed.

  111. Faber, Ted and Schwab, Stephen and Wroclawski, John, "Authorization and Access Control: ABAC." The GENI Book, Springer International Publishing, 2016. doi:10.1007/978-3-319-33769-2_10. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-33769-2_10

    Abstract: GENI's goal of wide-scale collaboration on infrastructure owned by independent and diverse stakeholders stresses current access control systems to the breaking point. Challenges not well addressed by current systems include, at minimum, support for distributed identity and policy management, correctness and auditability, and approachability. The Attribute Based Access Control (ABAC) system is an attribute-based authorization system that combines attributes using a simple reasoning system to provide authorization that (1) expresses delegation and other authorization models efficiently and scalably; (2) provides auditing information that includes both the decision and reasoning; and (3) supports multiple authentication frameworks as entry points into the attribute space. The GENI project has taken this powerful theoretical system and matured it into a form ready for practical use.

  112. Feamster, Nick and Gao, Lixin and Rexford, Jennifer, "How to lease the internet in your spare time." SIGCOMM Comput. Commun. Rev., ACM, New York, NY, USA, 2007. doi:10.1145/1198255.1198265. http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/1198255.1198265

    Abstract: Today's Internet Service Providers (ISPs) serve two roles: managing their network infrastructure and providing (arguably limited) services to end users. We argue that coupling these roles impedes the deployment of new protocols and architectures, and that the future Internet should support two separate entities: infrastructure providers (who manage the physical infrastructure) and service providers (who deploy network protocols and offer end-to-end services). We present a high-level design for Cabo, an architecture that enables this separation; we also describe challenges associated with realizing this architecture

  113. Feamster, Nick and Nayak, Ankur and Kim, Hyojoon and Clark, Russell and Mundada, Yogesh and Ramachandran, Anirudh and bin Tariq, Mukarram, "Decoupling policy from configuration in campus and enterprise networks." 2010 17th IEEE Workshop on Local & Metropolitan Area Networks (LANMAN), Long Branch, NJ, USA, IEEE, 2010. doi:10.1109/LANMAN.2010.5507162. http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/LANMAN.2010.5507162

    Abstract: This paper surveys our ongoing work on the use of software-defined networking to simplify two acute policy problems in campus and enterprise network operations: access control and information flow control. We describe how the current coupling of high-level policy with low-level configuration makes these problems challenging today. We describe the specific policy problems faced by campus and enterprise network operators; illustrate our approach, which leverages recent trends in separating the network's ” control plane” from the data plane; and show how this approach can be applied to simplify these two enterprise network management tasks. We also describe our ongoing deployment efforts to build a campus network testbed where trial designs can be deployed and evaluated. We close with a summary of current and future research challenges for solving challenges within enterprise networks within the context of this new paradigm.

  114. Fei, Zongming and Xu, Qingrong and Lu, Hui, "Generating large network topologies for GENI experiments." SOUTHEASTCON 2014, IEEE, IEEE, 2014. doi:10.1109/secon.2014.6950726. http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/secon.2014.6950726

    Abstract: The Global Environment for Network Innovations (GENI) is a virtual laboratory which provides the infrastructure and resources for setting up network experiments. At present, GENI experimenters need to draw the topology in detail with a tool such as Flack, describing every node and every link in the experiment. This is not a problem for small-scale experiments. However, if an experiment needs a large-scale network topology, it is difficult for experimenters to accomplish the task. To deal with the problem, this paper develops a web application that can create large-scale network topologies in the GENI environment automatically. It makes use of existing network topology generators, such as GT-ITMand INET, and adapts them to be used in the GENI environment. The system can interface with GENI seamlessly. With the tool, the task of setting up large-scale experiments by GENI experimenters is made as easy as simply specifying high-level parameters of the topology.

  115. Fei, Zongming and Yi, Ping and Yang, Jianjun, "A Performance Perspective on Choosing between Single Aggregate and Multiple Aggregates for GENI Experime nts." EAI Endorsed Transactions on Industrial Networks and Intelligent Systems, 2014. doi:10.4108/inis.1.1.e5. http://dx.doi.org/10.4108/inis.1.1.e5

    Abstract: The Global Environment for Network Innovations (GENI) provides a virtual laboratory for exploring future internets at scale. It consists of many geographically distributed aggregates for providing computing and networking resources for setting up network experiments. A key design question for GENI experimenters is where they should reserve the resources, and in particular whether they should reserve the resources from a single aggregate or from multiple aggregates. This not only depends on the nature of the experiment, but needs a better understanding of underlying GENI networks as well. This paper studies the performance of GENI networks, with a focus on the tradeoff between single aggregate and multiple aggregates in the design of GENI experiments from the performance perspective. The analysis of data collected will shed light on the decision process for designing GENI experiments.

  116. Femminella, Mauro and Francescangeli, Roberto and Reali, Gianluca and Lee, Jae W. and Schulzrinne, Henning, "An enabling platform for autonomic management of the future internet." IEEE Network, 2011. doi:10.1109/MNET.2011.6085639. http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/MNET.2011.6085639

    Abstract: This article shows an autonomic management solution based on the recently defined programmable node architecture NetServ. The article starts with a general description of the classical network management requirements and their adaptation to the expected network evolution. After a description of the major issues characterizing the management of the expected Future Internet, the main autonomic management paradigms, and some recently introduced autonomic service platforms, we show and demonstrate the effectiveness of the NetServ architecture. Born as a means to deploy and execute networked services at runtime over programmable routers, NetServ has proved to be a suitable environment for hosting an autonomic management architecture.

  117. Fioravanti, Mark E., "Digital Quorum Sensing for Self-Organizing Malware (Doctoral dissertation)." Melbourne, Florida, 2016. https://repository.lib.fit.edu/bitstream/handle/11141/1126/FIORAVANTI-DISSERTATION.pdf?sequence=1&isAllowed=y

    Abstract: Malware authors present an interesting problem for the security community as they evolve and adapt to overcome network and host defenses. The determined adversary is a special class of malware author who may attempt to disrupt national interests. These adversaries may seek potentially novel Command and Control (C2) channels to coordinate their activities. Isolated and air-gapped networks pose an interesting challenge that these adversaries must adapt to in order to maintain persistence on these networks. In this work we propose that a determined adversary may seek to implement a digital quorum sensing system inspired by the quorum sensing systems used by some bacteria to coordinate their social behaviors. OBJECTIVES: The primary objective of this research was to characterize a potential digital quorum sensing C2 channel that relies on subtly modifying the global packet distribution on a network. METHODS: A proof of concept was developed and studied to determine if a C2 channel based on quorum sensing is feasible. Based on the results of the proof of concept, a prototype was implemented and studied in a number of different networking environments in order to more fully characterize the signal. The strength of the quorum sensing signal (the independent variable) was adjusted and through a series of statistical tests the statistical significance of the impact on the global packet distribution was determined. RESULTS: Network packet captures were analyzed from several different networks with Friedman tests. When the probability of a delaying packets was approximately in the range of (0.25,0.1) the delay was statistically significant with alpha=0.05 for the global packet distribution but not for the packet counts observed from the individual hosts. Wilcoxon rank-sum tests were used to determine which portions of the data sets contained statistically significant deviations, at a significance level of 95% (alpha=0.05). CONCLUSION: Digital quorum sensing could be used as a novel C2 channel providing a determined adversary a unique method of coordinating activities on a network without allowing the network defender to identify the infected hosts. During the experiment it was observed that this signal is easy to disrupt by altering the time synchronization between the hosts on the network.

  118. Freeman, PeterA, "The GENI Vision: Origins, Early History, Possible Futures." The GENI Book, Springer International Publishing, 2016. doi:10.1007/978-3-319-33769-2_1. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-33769-2_1

    Abstract: This paper presents the vision of GENI as first formulated at the National Science Foundation (NSF) in early 2004 and expanded during 2004–2007, identifies what forces shaped the basic idea during its formation, and comments on where it may go in the future. The paper describes motivations, concepts, and history—not technical details—that were in play between 2004 and 2007 as the GENI Project was being formulated and launched, and that continue today. Understanding the original vision and goals, basic ideas, and motivations of the GENI Project; the context in which it emerged; and the forces that shaped the Project will enable you to understand better the technical details and changes that occur in the future. I end with some comments about possible futures for GENI.

  119. Fund, Fraida and Dong, Chen and Korakis, Thanasis and Panwar, Shivendra, "A Framework for Multidimensional Measurements on an Experimental WiMAX Testbed." Testbeds and Research Infrastructure. Development of Networks and Communities, Springer Berlin Heidelberg, 2012. doi:10.1007/978-3-642-35576-9_32. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-3-642-35576-9_32

    Abstract: A major difficulty in the design, study, and implementation of wireless protocols and applications is the multitude of nondeterministic factors (e.g. interference, weather conditions, competing traffic) that can affect their performance. For this reason, testbeds that enable researchers to quantify these influences have become increasingly essential in the wireless research community. The growing sophistication of wireless testbeds and the wide array of services they can provide to researchers have advanced the field tremendously. Toward this end, we present an early implementation of an instrumentation and measurement framework that we have deployed on an open-access 802.16e wireless research testbed at the Polytechnic Institute of NYU. We have created a set of tools to allow experimenters to routinely collect measurements of environmental conditions during experiment runtime. These tools integrate high volumes of multidimensional measurement data from a diverse array of sources, including measurements from software defined radio peripherals, sensors, and network device drivers. With this, we aim to give researchers the ability to conduct rigorous and repeatable over-the-air experiments. We also foresee potential applications for this framework beyond its use in experiments, such as in long-term testbed monitoring.

  120. Fund, Fraida and Lin, Regina and Korakis, Thanasis and Panwar, Shivendra S., "How bad is the flat earth assumption? Effect of topography on wireless systems." 2016 14th International Symposium on Modeling and Optimization in Mobile, Ad Hoc, and Wireless Networks (WiOpt), IEEE, 2016. doi:10.1109/%2520wiopt.2016.7492907. http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/%2520wiopt.2016.7492907

    Abstract: A common simplifying assumption made in wireless simulation and modeling is that the world is flat, i.e. to ignore the effect of the terrain in which the wireless signal propagates. In this paper, we show with empirical measurements from an urban wireless network testbed how the terrain affects the spatial and temporal correlation of the wireless signal, and in turn, the distance or duration over which the wireless signal remains consistent. Furthermore, we suggest that this effect has practical implications for systems that make assumptions about the duration over which wireless signal quality stays roughly the same, such as adaptive transmission schemes or applications that buffer data to smooth over variations in signal quality.

  121. Fund, Fraida and Wang, Cong and Korakis, Thanasis and Zink, Michael and Panwar, Shivendra, "GENI WiMAX Performance: Evaluation and Comparison of Two Campus Testbeds." 2013 Proceedings Second GENI Research and Educational Experiment Workshop, Salt Lake City, UT, IEEE, 2013. doi:10.1109/GREE.2013.23. http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/GREE.2013.23

    Abstract: In the last few years, there has been an increasing awareness of the need to evaluate new mobile applications and protocols in realistic wireless settings, and platforms such as the GENI WiMAX testbeds have been developed to fulfill this need. However, wireless testbed users have experienced frustration when straightforward usage scenarios do not consistently agree with the high data rates that are advertised by the wireless technology. This work seeks to clarify the performance characteristics of two GENI WiMAX testbeds under various wireless signal conditions and network traffic patterns. By measuring the performance of several popular wireless Internet applications in two very different wireless environments, we gain a deeper understanding of how a researcher may expect the GENI WiMAX platform to behave. Our findings include some counterintuitive results, e.g. that increasing signal quality can reduce application throughput, and that applications using a single TCP flow may achieve as much as 72% less throughput than an application in an identical setting that uses multiple TCP flows. With this work, we hope to help other researchers design realistic experiments on wireless Internet systems, understand the perceived shortcomings of the GENI WiMAX platform, and interpret their experimental results in the context of the wireless setting in which the experiment was conducted.

  122. Fund, Fraida and Wang, Cong and Liu, Yong and Korakis, Thanasis and Zink, Michael and Panwar, Shivendra S., "Performance of DASH and WebRTC Video Services for Mobile Users." 2013 20th International Packet Video Workshop, San Jose, CA, USA, IEEE, 2013. doi:10.1109/pv.2013.6691455. http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/pv.2013.6691455

    Abstract: With the confluence of the growing market for mobile Internet devices, and users' expectations of instant access to high-quality multimedia content, the delivery of video over wireless networks has become the challenge of the decade. Dynamic Adaptive Streaming over HTTP (DASH) and WebRTC are new and evolving standards that have been developed specifically to meet this demand and enable a high-quality experience for mobile users of video on demand and real time communication services, respectively. However, there has been no systematic study of how these services are experienced by users in a realistic mobile setting. In this work, we describe measurements collected from DASH and WebRTC implementations while moving at walking speeds through an 802.16e WiMAX network. Using data from the application, network, and physical layers, in different wireless environments, we identify characteristics of the cellular data network that directly impact the quality of video service, and suggest areas for further improvement.

  123. Gangam, Sriharsha and Blanton, Ethan and Fahmy, Sonia, "Exercises for Graduate Students using GENI." First GENI Research and Educational Experiment Workshop (GREE 2012), Los Angeles, 2012.

    Abstract: GENI brings together a wide variety of heterogeneous networking infrastructure and technologies under a common platform. We propose programming exercises for graduate students to introduce GENI and enable students to conduct high fidelity networking experiments. In this paper, we focus on an exercise to study congestion control and reliability using the ProtoGENI aggregate. A planned second exercise aims to leverage GENI OpenFlow aggregates to study firewalls and QoS mechanisms. We believe that these lab exercises will expose students to key networking concepts and recent research directions, e.g., in the data center context.

  124. Gangam, Sriharsha and Fahmy, Sonia, "Mitigating interference in a network measurement service." 2011 IEEE Nineteenth IEEE International Workshop on Quality of Service, San Jose, CA, USA, IEEE, 2011. doi:10.1109/IWQOS.2011.5931347. http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/IWQOS.2011.5931347

    Abstract: Shared measurement services offer key advantages over conventional ad-hoc techniques for network monitoring. A measurement service may receive measurement requests concurrently from different applications and network administrators. These measurement requests are often served by injecting active network measurement traffic between two hosts. Two active measurements are said to interfere when the probe packets of one measurement tool are viewed as network traffic by the other. This may lead to faulty measurement readings. In this paper, we model the measurement interference problem, and show how to schedule measurement tasks to reduce interference and hence increase measurement accuracy. We propose twelve computationally tractable algorithms that decrease the total completion time (makespan) of measurement tasks, while avoiding interference. Our evaluation shows that the algorithm we refer to as Largest Area First, Busiest Node First - Earliest Interval Schedule (LAFBNF-EIS) has a mean makespan of about 5% more than the theoretical lower bound over our set of measurement workloads.

  125. Gao, Jingcheng and Xiao, Yang, "ProtoGENI DoS/DDoS Security Tests and Experiments." First GENI Research and Educational Experiment Workshop (GREE 2012), Los Angeles, 2012.

    Abstract: his paper will explain some tests and experiments to investigate selected security issues through ProtoGENI mainly during Spiral 3 time period and the beginning of Spiral 4. In this paper, we conduct multiple sets of DoS/ DDoS attacks in the current ProtoGENI testbed. These attacks show that it is very possible that ProtoGENI nodes may render vulnerabilities to such attacks.

  126. Gargees, R. and Morago, B. and Pelapur, R. and Chemodanov, D. and Calyam, P. and Oraibi, Z. and Duan, Y. and Seetharaman, G. and Palaniappan, K., "Incident-Supporting Visual Cloud Computing Utilizing Software-Defined Networking." IEEE, doi:10.1109/tcsvt.2016.2564898. http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/tcsvt.2016.2564898

    Abstract: In the event of natural or man-made disasters, providing rapid situational awareness through video/image data collected at salient incident scenes is often critical to first responders. However, computer vision techniques that can process the media-rich and data-intensive content obtained from civilian smartphones or surveillance cameras require large amounts of computational resources or ancillary data sources that may not be available at the geographical location of the incident. In this paper, we propose an incident-supporting visual cloud computing solution by defining a collection, computation and consumption (3C) architecture supporting fog computing at the network edge close to the collection/consumption sites, which is coupled with cloud offloading to a core computation, utilizing software defined networking (SDN). We evaluate our 3C architecture and algorithms using realistic virtual environment testbeds. We also describe our insights in preparing the cloud provisioning and thin-client desktop fogs to handle the elasticity and user mobility demands in a theater-scale application. In addition, we demonstrate the use of SDN for on-demand compute offload with congestion-avoiding traffic steering to enhance remote user Quality of Experience (QoE) in a regional-scale application. The optimization between fog computing at the network-edge with core cloud computing for managing visual analytics reduces latency, congestion and increases throughput.

  127. Gember, Aaron and Dragga, Chris and Akella, Aditya, "ECOS: Practical Mobile Application Offloading for Enterprises." 2nd USENIX Workshop on Hot Topics in Management of Internet, Cloud, and Enterprise Networks and Services (Hot-ICE '12), 2012. http://www.usenix.org/conference/hot-ice12/ecos-practical-mobile-application-of%EF%AC%82oading-enterprises

    Abstract: Offloading has emerged as a promising idea to allow handheld devices to access intensive applications without performance or energy costs. This could be particularly useful for enterprises seeking to run line-of-business applications on handhelds. However, we must address two practical roadblocks in order to make offloading amenable for enterprises: (i) ensuring data privacy and the use of trusted offloading resources, and (ii) accommodating offload at scale with diverse handheld objectives and compute resource capabilities. We present the design and implementation of an Enterprise-Centric Offloading System (ECOS) which augments prior offloading proposals to address these issues. ECOS uses a logically central controller to opportunistically leverage diverse compute resources, while tightly controlling where specific applications offload depending on privacy, performance, and energy constraints of users and applications. A wide range of experiments using a real prototype establish the effectiveness of our approach.

  128. Ghaffarinejad, A. and Syrotiuk, V. R., "Load Balancing in a Campus Network Using Software Defined Networking." Research and Educational Experiment Workshop (GREE), 2014 Third GENI, IEEE, 2014. doi:10.1109/gree.2014.9. http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/gree.2014.9

    Abstract: Today, commercial load balancers are often in use, including in the production network at Arizona State University (ASU). One of the main issues such load balancers face is that they use a static scheme for load distribution. However, at particular times of the academic year, such as during course registration, the network exhibits significant variations in both temporal and spatial traffic characteristics. At these times, students experience much greater latency and become frustrated with the network service. To address this problem, our aim is to develop an SDN-based approach to load balancing to better cope with the traffic variation.

  129. Gosain, Abhimanyu and Berman, Mark and Brinn, Marshall and Mitchell, Thomas and Li, Chuan and Wang, Yuehua and Jin, Hai and Hua, Jing and Zhang, Hongwei, "Enabling Campus Edge Computing Using GENI Racks and Mobile Resources." 2016 IEEE/ACM Symposium on Edge Computing (SEC), Washington, DC, USA, IEEE, 2016. doi:10.1109/sec.2016.24. http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/sec.2016.24

    Abstract: This paper presents the architecture of GENI edge cloud computing network in the form of compute and storage resources, a mobile 4G cellular edge and a high speed campus network connecting these components. This deployment is available across fifty campuses in the US, all interconnected via a nationwide Layer-2 network. We present these capabilities in the context of vehicular sensing and control applications running on police patrol cars on the Wayne State University campus allowing end–users and researchers to collect rich datasets for public safety surveillance, vehicle internal-state sensing and modeling, and emulating next generation connected vehicle technologies. In particular, the paper provides insights about the usefulness of local edge computing cloud infrastructure for novel connected vehicle applications with high sensitivity to latency and bandwidth.

  130. Gosain, Abhimanyu and Seskar, Ivan, "GENI wireless testbed: An open edge ecosystem for ubiquitous computing applications." 2017 IEEE International Conference on Pervasive Computing and Communications Workshops (PerCom Workshops), Kona, Big Island, HI, USA, IEEE, 2017. doi:10.1109/percomw.2017.7917520. http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/percomw.2017.7917520

    Abstract: This demo presents the architecture of GENI (Global Environment of Network Innovations) [1] edge cloud computing network in the form of compute and storage systems, a mobile 4G LTE edge and a high speed campus network. GENI's edge computing strategy proceeds by deploying self-contained packages of network, computing, storage resources, or GENI Racks [2] connected via high speed fiber to LTE BS(s) across twelve campuses in the US, all interconnected via a nationwide research network. The GENI mobile computing resource manager is based on the Orbit Management framework (OMF) [3] and provides seamless access to the computing resources via the GENI Portal for experimentation, scheduling, data collection and processing of ubiquitous computing applications.

  131. Gosain, Abhimanyu and Seskar, Ivan, "GENI Wireless Testbed: A Flexible Open Ecosystem for Wireless Communications Research: Demo." Proceedings of the 22Nd Annual International Conference on Mobile Computing and Networking, New York City, New York, ACM, New York, NY, USA, 2016. doi:10.1145/2973750.2985627. http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/2973750.2985627

    Abstract: This demo presents the architecture of GENI (Global Environment of Network Innovations) [1] edge cloud computing network in the form of compute and storage resources, a mobile 4G LTE edge and a high speed campus network connecting these components. GENI's edge computing strategy proceeds by deploying self-contained packages of network, computing, storage resources, or GENI Racks [2] connected via high speed fiber to LTE BS(s) across twelve campuses in the US, all interconnected via a nationwide research network. The GENI mobile computing resource manager is based on the Orbit Management framework (OMF) [3] and provides seamless access to the edge computing resources via the GENI Portal for experimentation, scheduling, data collection and processing.

  132. Grandl, Robert and Han, Dongsu and Lee, Suk B. and Lim, Hyeontaek and Machado, Michel and Mukerjee, Matthew and Naylor, David, "Supporting network evolution and incremental deployment with XIA." Proceedings of the ACM SIGCOMM 2012 conference on Applications, technologies, architectures, and protocols for computer communication, Helsinki, Finland, ACM, New York, NY, USA, 2012. doi:10.1145/2342356.2342410. http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/2342356.2342410

    Abstract: eXpressive Internet Architecture (XIA) [1] is an architecture that natively supports multiple communication types and allows networks to evolve their abstractions and functionality to accommodate new styles of communication over time. XIA embeds an elegant mechanism for handling unforeseen communication types for legacy routers. In this demonstration, we show that XIA overcomes three key barriers in network evolution (outlined below) by (1) allowing end-hosts and applications to start using new communication types (e.g., service and content) before the network supports them, (2) ensuring that upgrading a subset of routers to support new functionalities immediately benefits applications, and (3) using the same mechanisms we employ for 1 and 2 to incrementally deploy XIA in IP networks.

  133. Griffioen, J. and Fei, Zongming and Nasir, H. and Wu, Xiongqi and Reed, J. and Carpenter, C., "The design of an instrumentation system for federated and virtualized network testbeds." Network Operations and Management Symposium (NOMS), 2012 IEEE, IEEE, 2012. doi:10.1109/NOMS.2012.6212061. http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/NOMS.2012.6212061

    Abstract: Much of the GENI effort in developing network testbeds has been focused on building the control frameworks needed to allocate and initialize the network resources that make up an experiment. We argue that building the instrumentation and measurement system to monitor and capture the behavior of the network is just as important and challenging as setting up the network itself, especially in a virtualized and federated environment where getting information from experimental nodes is too complicated and too much to handle for a typical user. In this paper, we describe the design of an instrumentation and measurement infrastructure that allows users to monitor their experiments. The challenge that virtualization and federation of GENI testbeds bring to instrumentation and monitoring is how to hide the details of instrumentation setup from users so that users do not need to be experts in system administration or network management of virtualized and federated systems, but are still able to ” see” what is going on with their experiments. Our instrumentation tool sets up experiment-specific monitoring infrastructure that is tailored to capture, record, and display only information associated with that experiment. Our tools are currently available in GENI, and we present a simple example of how to use them to instrument an experiment.

  134. Griffioen, J. and Fei, Zongming and Nasir, H. and Wu, Xiongqi and Reed, J. and Carpenter, C., "GENI-Enabled Programming Experiments for Networking Classes." Research and Educational Experiment Workshop (GREE), 2013 Second GENI, IEEE, 2013. doi:10.1109/gree.2013.30. http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/gree.2013.30

    Abstract: Although GENI has been readily embraced by the research community as a testbed for exploring new network architectures and services, its use as an educational tool has not seen the same level of acceptance and usage. There are multiple reasons for this, not the least of which is a lack of good examples showing how to use GENI in an educational setting. This paper attempts to remedy this by describing our experiences using GENI in our networking classes at the University of Kentucky. Using GENI as the experimental basis for the projects in our classes allowed us to leverage several of its rich set of features including its global span of resources, programmability, virtualization, and instrumentation and measurement tools. In particular, we describe two projects that we have used in our networking classes, and we share some of the experience we gained in the process. As a result, these experiences motivated us to develop and integrate new functions into the GENI desktop in order to make it easier to access and control GENI's various resources and tools.

  135. Griffioen, James and Fei, Zongming and Nasir, Hussamuddin and Carpenter, Charles and Reed, Jeremy and Wu, Xiongqi and Rivera, "The GENI Desktop." The GENI Book, Springer International Publishing, 2016. doi:10.1007/978-3-319-33769-2_16. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-33769-2_16

    Abstract: The GENI Desktop supports users through the entire lifecycle of an experiment, including creating and setting up an experiment, running and interacting with the experiment, monitoring the experiment and collecting performance data, archiving the results and tearing down the experiment. It provides a single simple web-based graphical interface to access these functions. In addition, it also provides a command line interface for expert users to write scripts to control the whole process of their experiments. This chapter describes the design goals and features of the GENI Desktop. It also demonstrates usage examples showing how the GENI Desktop can help users with their experiments.

  136. Griffioen, James and Fei, Zongming and Nasir, Hussamuddin and Wu, Xiongqi and Reed, Jeremy and Carpenter, Charles, "Measuring experiments in GENI." Computer Networks, 2014. doi:10.1016/j.bjp.2013.10.016. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bjp.2013.10.016

    Abstract: Experimentation with new network architectures and protocols is one of the primary motivations for building future Internet testbeds such as the Global Environment for Network Innovations (GENI) testbed. A key part of experimentation is the ability to observe, measure, evaluate, and compare these new architectures and protocols. Observing an experiment's network performance requires setting up the measurement infrastructure needed to monitor and record the behavior of the network. It also requires a full set of tools and user interfaces that enable access to the measurement data both while the experiment is running and later during post-analysis. To simplify the task of measuring experiments in future Internet testbeds like GENI, we developed an instrumentation and measurement system called INSTOOLS. It automates the process of setting up the measurement infrastructure, tailoring the measurement infrastructure and the data capture to the experimental network's topology and configuration. In addition, INSTOOLS provides a suite of tools via its ” portal” service that make it easy for users to observe, measure, format, and archive data from their experiments. This paper describes the INSTOOLS system and the set of interfaces/tools it offers to users. INSTOOLS has been in use for several years, and we provide performance results that illustrate its scalability. We also present our second-generation portal, the GENI One Stop Portal, that offers a comprehensive interface to a wide range of tools.

  137. Griffioen, James and Fei, Zongming and Nasir, Hussanmuddin and Wu, Xiongqi and Reed, Jeremy and Carpenter, Charles, "Teaching with the Emerging GENI Network." Proceedings of the 2012 International Conference on Frontiers in Education: Computer Science and Computer Engineering (FECS), Las Vegas, 2012. http://worldcomp-proceedings.com/proc/p2012/FEC3780.pdf

    Abstract: Over the last few years the National Science Foundation (NSF) has been investing in and developing a new network called GENI, a wide-area testbed network for at-scale experimentation with future internet designs. The GENI network has recently become available for use and is beginning to attract users. In this paper, we take a closer look at GENI with a particular focus on how GENI can be used to enhance education in the areas of computer science and computer engineering. We describe what GENI is, the resources available in GENI, and how instructors might use GENI in their classes. Being early adopters, we describe our experience using GENI in our classes, and we point out various features and challenges of using GENI. Finally, we provide tips and pointers to instructors who are interested in incorporating GENI into their own classes.

  138. Griffioen, James and Wolf, Tilman and Calvert, Kenneth L., "A Coin-Operated Software-Defined Exchange." 2016 25th International Conference on Computer Communication and Networks (ICCCN), Waikoloa, HI, USA, IEEE, 2016. doi:10.1109/icccn.2016.7568473. http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/icccn.2016.7568473

    Abstract: Internet Exchange Points (IXPs) play a major role in the current Internet architecture, serving as the connection point between Internet Service Providers (ISPs). Software-Defined Exchange Points (SDXs)-programmable versions of Internet Exchange Points (IXPs)-have been proposed as a way to give ISPs finer-grained control over the way packets are routed between ISPs. Leveraging software-defined networking (SDN) technology, an SDX enables control software to insert forwarding rules that route traffic on the granularity of individual flows. In this paper, we describe work-in-progress developing controllers for Software-Defined Internet Exchange Points that facilitate dynamic establishment of forwarding relationships between transit ISPs. The core hypothesis of our work is that the SDX can serve as a trusted intermediary, both facilitating establishment of dynamic peering agreements between ISPs, and enforcing their routing policies. Moreover, this building block, which we dub the Coin-Operated SDX, can be used to construct much more dynamic and fine-grained end-to-end routing services than are possible in today's infrastructure. In our model, each ISP independently but cooperatively defines the policies that the SDX enforces on its behalf. The SDX may also serve as a clearinghouse for the inter-ISP economic transactions that drive these policies, i.e., as Economic SDX (ESDX). We describe the overall architecture of a Coin-Op SDX, as well as the specific operations it must support to offer dynamic services. We believe that Coin-Op SDX can play a critical role in future software-defined inter-domain Internet infrastructure.

  139. Group, GENI Planning, "GENI Design Principles." Computer, IEEE, 2006. doi:10.1109/mc.2006.307. http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/mc.2006.307

    Abstract: The Global Environment for Network Innovations is a major planned initiative of the US National Science Foundation to build an open, large-scale, realistic experimental facility for evaluating new network architectures. The facility's goal is to change the way we design networked and distributed systems, creating over time new paradigms that integrate rigorous theoretical understanding with compelling and thorough experimental validation. The research that GENI enables can lead to a future Internet that is more secure, available, manageable, and efficient, and better at handling mobile nodes. GENI is intended to support two general kinds of activities: running controlled experiments to evaluate design, implementation, and engineering choices; and deploying prototype systems and learning from observations of how they behave under real usage

  140. Guan, Xinjie and Choi, Baek-Young and Song, Sejun, "Reliability and Scalability Issues in Software Defined Network Frameworks." Research and Educational Experiment Workshop (GREE), 2013 Second GENI, IEEE, 2013. doi:10.1109/gree.2013.28. http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/gree.2013.28

    Abstract: Software Defined Network (SDN) structure has been proposed for its flexibility in deployment and management. As an implementation of SDN structure, OpenFlow protocol decouples data plane and control plane so that flexible and programmable installation and management of forwarding rules are allowed. However, on the other hand, the decoupled structure raises additional computational and network resources consumption that even may lead to fatal disasters. In this study, we examine the issues of reliability and scalability of SDN under disaster scenarios on a GENI test-bed. Observations from our experiments show that more attention should be paid to improve the reliability and scalability of SDN and its frameworks.

  141. Gupta, Arpit and Vanbever, Laurent and Shahbaz, Muhammad and Donovan, Sean P. and Schlinker, Brandon and Feamster, Nick and Rexford, Jennifer and Shenker, Scott and Clark, Russ and Katz-Bassett, Ethan, "SDX: A Software Defined Internet Exchange." Proceedings of the 2014 ACM Conference on SIGCOMM, Chicago, Illinois, USA, ACM, New York, NY, USA, 2014. doi:10.1145/2619239.2626300. http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/2619239.2626300

    Abstract: BGP severely constrains how networks can deliver traffic over the Internet. Today's networks can only forward traffic based on the destination IP prefix, by selecting among routes offered by their immediate neighbors. We believe Software Defined Networking (SDN) could revolutionize wide-area traffic delivery, by offering direct control over packet-processing rules that match on multiple header fields and perform a variety of actions. Internet exchange points (IXPs) are a compelling place to start, given their central role in interconnecting many networks and their growing importance in bringing popular content closer to end users. To realize a Software Defined IXP (an S̈DX)̈, we must create compelling applications, such as äpplication-specific peering-̈--where two networks peer only for (say) streaming video traffic. We also need new programming abstractions that allow participating networks to create and run these applications and a runtime that both behaves correctly when interacting with BGP and ensures that applications do not interfere with each other. Finally, we must ensure that the system scales, both in rule-table size and computational overhead. In this paper, we tackle these challenges and demonstrate the flexibility and scalability of our solutions through controlled and in-the-wild experiments. Our experiments demonstrate that our SDX implementation can implement representative policies for hundreds of participants who advertise full routing tables while achieving sub-second convergence in response to configuration changes and routing updates.

  142. Hartpence, Bruce and Rosario, Rossi, "Software Defined Networking for Systems and Network Administration Programs." The USENIX Journal of Education in System Administration, 2016. https://www.usenix.org/sites/default/files/jesa_0201_issue.pdf#page=21

    Abstract: Academic programs can be very successful when they include industry best practices, innovations and techniques in addition to theory and background. This approach has historically been a tenet of the networking and systems administration program at the Rochester Institute of Technology. Software-defined networking is an excellent example of a technology which combines theory and emerging practice. Software Defined Networking or SDN includes components that stretch across networking and systems administration curricula including servers or controllers, virtualization, OpenFlow enabled network elements, communication pathways, opportunities for automation, telemetry from the network, dynamic response to system demand and more. These characteristics, and because SDN experiments and courses can be implemented in either virtual or non-virtual facilities, make SDN an outstanding platform for teaching the principles of network and systems administration. Graduate students can also take advantage of the environment encompassed by SDN topologies to further their understanding of systems design, management, testing and communication protocols. This paper will describe some of the SDN projects run at the Rochester Institute of Technology (RIT), the impact on curriculum and some of the environments used. The challenges associated with running the projects and courses within a lab environment will also be illustrated. How and why many of the ideas and new industrial developments were integrated into the classroom will be central to the ideas presented.

  143. Hemmings, Matt and Krahn, Robert and Lary, David and McGeer, Rick and Ricart, Glenn and Röder, Marko, "The Ignite Distributed Collaborative Scientific Visualization System." The GENI Book, Springer International Publishing, 2016. doi:10.1007/978-3-319-33769-2_19. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-33769-2_19

    Abstract: We describe the Ignite Distributed Collaborative Visualization System (IDCVS), a system which permits real-time interaction and visual collaboration around large data sets on thin devices for users distributed about the wide area. The IDCVS provides seamless interaction and immediate updates even under heavy load and when users are widely separated: the design goal was to fetch a 1 MB data set from a server and render it within 150 ms, for a user anywhere in the world, and reflect changes made by a user in one location to all other users within the bound given by inter-user network latency. Scientific collaboration and interaction is the initial use case for the IDCVS, since eScience is characterized by large data sets. The visualizer can be used for any application where the data can be visualized on a web page. The visualizer consists of many replicated components, distributed across the wide area, so that an instance of the visualizer is close to any user: the design goal is to place an instance of the visualizer with an 20-ms latency of any user. It is the first exemplar of a new class of application enabled by the Distributed Cloud: real-time interaction with large data sets on arbitrarily thin devices, anywhere. The IDCVS features modular design, so it functions as a specialized Platform-as-a-Service: writing a new collaborative visualization application is as simple as designing a web page and distributing a data server. The system was demonstrated successfully on a significant worldwide air pollution data set, with values on 10, 25, 50, and 100 km worldwide grids, monthly over an 18-year period. It was demonstrated on a wide variety of clients, including laptop, tablet, and smartphone. The system itself has been deployed at over 20 sites worldwide. Distribution and deployment across

  144. Hemmings, Matthew and Ingalls, Daniel and Krahn, Robert and McGeer, Rick and Ricart, Glenn and Roder, Marko and Stege, Ulrike, "LiveTalk: A Framework for Collaborative Browser-Based Replicated-Computation Applications." 2016 28th International Teletraffic Congress (ITC 28), Würzburg, Germany, IEEE, 2016. doi:10.1109/itc-28.2016.144. http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/itc-28.2016.144

    Abstract: In this paper we describe LiveTalk, a framework for Collaborative Browser-based Replicated-Computation applications. LiveTalk permits multiple users separated across the wide area to interact with separate copies of a single application, sharing a single virtual workspace, using very little network bandwidth. LiveTalk features an integrated, browser-based programming environment with native graphics and live evaluation, an integrated, pluggable web server, and a simple messaging service that serves to coordinate activity on shared application sessions, and provides for multiple, mutually-isolated sessions. The first use case for LiveTalk are collaborative big-data visualizations running on thin-client devices such as cellular phones, tablets, and netbooks. These applications form part of a new class of application where the distributed Cloud is leveraged to provide low latency, and high-bandwidth access to geographically disparate users while maintaining the feel of immediacy associated with local computation. The primary motivation of this work is to permit low latency, collaborative applications to be built quickly and easily, while requiring no setup for use by the end-user.

  145. Herron, Jon-Paul, "GENI Meta-Operations Center." 2008 IEEE Fourth International Conference on eScience, Indianapolis, IN, USA, IEEE, 2008. doi:10.1109/eScience.2008.103. http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/eScience.2008.103

    Abstract: NSF's GENI program represents an opportunity to build the kind of programmable, virtualized testbed scientists exploring the future of networking will need to support their research. As with any other scientific instrument, it will be crucial that the GENI infrastructure offer repeatable, consistent results to the researchers using it.The GENI Meta-Operations Center, operated by the Global Research NOC at Indiana University, will develop the software, protocols, and processes needed to ensure the repeatability, consistency, and efficiency of GENI.

  146. Huang, Shu and Xu, Hao and Xin, Yufeng and Brieger, L. and Moore, R. and Rajasekar, A., "A Framework for Integration of Rule-Oriented Data Management Policies with Network Policies." Research and Educational Experiment Workshop (GREE), 2014 Third GENI, IEEE, 2014. doi:10.1109/gree.2014.19. http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/gree.2014.19

    Abstract: Traditionally data management software running on top of the Internet has very limited primitives to interact with the networking layer. This limitation has become a major road-block to develop next generation data management applications requiring high-bandwidth and dynamic network configuration. In this work, we present a policy-driven software framework that acts as an adaptation layer between the data management software and SDN networks. This framework allows a tight coupling between the data grid and the network and therefore makes complex workflow-like cross-layer computation possible. We have prototyped this adaptation layer integrated with iRODS, a popular policy-driven data grid software and Floodlight, a popular OpenFlow controller, and demonstrate how network policies become part of the overall data grid policies to improve the application performance.

  147. Huang, Shufeng and Griffioen, J. and Calvert, K. L., "Fast-Tracking GENI Experiments Using HyperNets." Research and Educational Experiment Workshop (GREE), 2013 Second GENI, IEEE, 2013. doi:10.1109/gree.2013.10. http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/gree.2013.10

    Abstract: Although the underlying network resources needed to support virtualized networks are rapidly becoming available, the tools and abstractions needed to effectively make use of these virtual networks is severely lacking. Although networks like GENI are now available to experimenters, creating an experimental network can still be a daunting and error-prone task. While virtual networks enable experimenters to build tailored networks from the g̈round up,̈ starting from scratch is rarely what an experimenter wants to do. Moreover, the challenges of incorporating real-world users into GENI experiments make it difficult to benefit real users or obtain realistic traffic. In this paper we describe a new service designed to simplify the process of setting up and running GENI experiments while at the same time adding support for real-world users to join GENI experiments. Our approach is based on a network hypervisor service used to deploy ḦyperNets:̈ pre-defined experimental environments that can be quickly and easily created by experimenters. To illustrate the utility and simplicity of our approach, we describe two example HyperNets, and show how our network hypervisor service is able to automatically deploy them on GENI. We then present some initial performance results from our implentation on GENI. Because our network hypervisor is itself a client of GENI (i.e., it calls the GENI AM APIs to create HyperNets), we briefly discuss our experience using GENI and the challenges we encountered mapping HyperNets onto the GENI framework.

  148. Huang, Shufeng and Griffioen, James, "Network Hypervisors: Managing the Emerging SDN Chaos." Computer Communications and Networks (ICCCN), 2013 22nd International Conference on, IEEE, 2013. doi:10.1109/icccn.2013.6614160. http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/icccn.2013.6614160

    Abstract: Software-Defined Networking (SDN) has been widely recognized as a promising way to deploy new services and protocols in future networks. The programmability and control offered by SDN networks enables users and applications to define virtually every aspect of the network architecture. Unfortunately, this flexibility comes at a cost - a cost that has the potential to significantly limit its adoption. First, in order to offer complete flexibility, today's SDN networks provide low-level API's on which almost any type of service can be written. In the process, it can actually become more difficult to implement the higher level complex services needed by future networks. Second, emerging SDN networks exhibit a heterogeneity reminiscent of the early Internet, with limited ability to piece together the various SDN platforms being deployed. In this paper we propose a new way to construct SDN networks consisting of multiple SDN providers offering virtualizable networking resources across the Internet. At the heart of our approach is a Network Hypervisor service that is capable of internetworking various SDN providers together. Moreover, our Network Hypervisor builds on the low-level APIs provided by SDNs to create a unified set of high-level abstractions and APIs that greatly simplify the task of building and deploying complex network services over SDN.

  149. Huang, Shufeng and Griffioen, James and Calvert, Ken, "PVNs: Making Virtualized Network Infrastructure Usable." ACM/IEEE Symposium on Architectures for Networking and Communications Systems (ANCS '12), 2012. doi:10.1145/2396556.2396590. http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/2396556.2396590

    Abstract: Network virtualization is becoming a fundamental building block of future Internet architectures. Although the underlying network infrastructure needed to dynamically create and deploy custom virtual networks is rapidly taking shape ( e.g., GENI), constructing and using a virtual network is still a challenging and labor intensive task, one best left to experts. In this paper, we present the concept of a Packaged Virtual Network (PVN), that enables normal users to easily download, deploy and use application-specific virtual networks. At the heart of our approach is a PVN Hypervisor that ” runs” a PVN by allocating the virtual network resources needed by the PVN and then connecting the PVN's participants into the network on demand. To demonstrate our PVN approach, we implemented a multicast PVN that runs on the PVN hypervisor prototype using ProtoGENI as the underlying virtual network, allowing average users to create their own private multicast network.

  150. Javed, Umar and Cunha, Italo and Choffnes, David and Katz-Bassett, Ethan and Anderson, Thomas and Krishnamurthy, Arvind, "PoiRoot: Investigating the Root Cause of Interdomain Path Changes." Proceedings of the ACM SIGCOMM 2013 conference, ACM, New York, NY, USA, 2013. doi:10.1145/2486001.2486036. http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/2486001.2486036

    Abstract: Interdomain path changes occur frequently. Because routing protocols expose insufficient information to reason about all changes, the general problem of identifying the root cause remains unsolved. In this work, we design and evaluate PoiRoot, a real-time system that allows a provider to accurately isolate the root cause (the network responsible) of path changes affecting its prefixes. First, we develop a new model describing path changes and use it to provably identify the set of all potentially responsible networks. Next, we develop a recursive algorithm that accurately isolates the root cause of any path change. We observe that the algorithm requires monitoring paths that are generally not visible using standard measurement tools. To address this limitation, we combine existing measurement tools in new ways to acquire path information required for isolating the root cause of a path change. We evaluate PoiRoot on path changes obtained through controlled Internet experiments, simulations, and ïn-the-wild ̈measurements. We demonstrate that PoiRoot is highly accurate, works well even with partial information, and generally narrows down the root cause to a single network or two neighboring ones. On controlled experiments PoiRoot is 100% accurate, as opposed to prior work which is accurate only 61.7% of the time.

  151. Javed, Uzzam and Iqbal, Azeem and Saleh, Saad and Haider, Syed A. and Ilyas, Muhammad U., "A Stochastic Model for Transit Latency in OpenFlow SDNs." Computer Networks, 2016. doi:10.1016/j.comnet.2016.12.015. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.comnet.2016.12.015

    Abstract: Software defined networks (SDNs) introduced the concept of decoupling control and data planes which is a paradigm shift. The OpenFlow protocol is one of a number of technologies that enables this decoupling and, in effect, commodifies network equipment. As of now, there is still limited work that has been done towards modeling the transit delay across OpenFlow switches experienced by network traffic. In this work we develop a stochastic model for the path latency in Open vSwitch (used together with a POX controller) based on measurements made in experiments performed on three different platforms which include 1) Mininet, 2) MikroTik RouterBoard 750GL and 3) GENI testbed softswitch. We propose a log-normal mix model (LNMM) and show that it offers a R^2 value of greater than 0.90 for most of our experiments. We also demonstrate how the M/M/1 models proposed in earlier studies is a poor fit.

  152. Jin, Ruofan and Wang, Bing, "Malware Detection for Mobile Devices Using Software-Defined Networking." Research and Educational Experiment Workshop (GREE), 2013 Second GENI, IEEE, 2013. doi:10.1109/gree.2013.24. http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/gree.2013.24

    Abstract: The rapid adoption of mobile devices comes with the growing prevalence of mobile malware. Mobile malware poses serious threats to personal information and creates challenges in securing network. Traditional network services provide connectivity but do not have any direct mechanism for security protection. The emergence of Software-Defined Networking (SDN) provides a unique opportunity to achieve network security in a more efficient and flexible manner. In this paper, we analyze the behaviors of mobile malware, propose several mobile malware detection algorithms, and design and implement a malware detection system using SDN. Our system detects mobile malware by identifying suspicious network activities through real-time traffic analysis, which only requires connection establishment packets. Specifically, our detection algorithms are implemented as modules inside the OpenFlow controller, and the security rules can be imposed in real time. We have tested our system prototype using both a local testbed and GENI infrastructure. Test results confirm the feasibility of our approach. In addition, the stress testing results show that even unoptimized implementations of our algorithms do not affect the performance of the OpenFlow controller significantly.

  153. Jofre, Jordi and Velayos, Celia and Landi, Giada and Giertych, Michał and Hume, Alastair C. and Francis, Gareth and Vico Oton, Albert, "Federation of the BonFIRE multi-cloud infrastructure with networking facilities." Computer Networks, 2014. doi:10.1016/j.bjp.2013.11.012. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bjp.2013.11.012

    Abstract: Network performance in terms of throughput, latency, packet loss or jitter significantly influences user's quality of experience of cloud applications. Network services impact on cloud applications performance and this impact is even more significant when the cloud infrastructure spreads over different administrative domains, such as in a federated cloud or hybrid-cloud scenarios. Given this strong coupling between cloud application performance and network performance there is great value to be gained by supporting advanced controlled networking functionalities between distributed cloud infrastructures. These functionalities would be useful to the Future Internet (FI) experimentation community as well as future production clouds. This paper describes an architecture and a set of procedures to interconnect a multi-cloud environment with advanced facilities for controlled networking. This integration allows the provisioning of customized network functions and services in support of experiments running in a multi-cloud test-bed. The possibility to control the network connectivity is a key feature to provide better performance for the experimenters' cloud applications. We focus on the details of federating three advanced networking facilities with the BonFIRE multi-cloud environment. These three networking facilities are: FEDERICA, which supports controlled routing; GÉANT's Bandwidth-on-Demand service and OFELIA that uses OpenFlow to provide Software Defined Network functionalities. The interconnections with FEDERICA and GÉANT are already active, while OFELIA is envisaged as future work for a third facility to interconnect.

  154. Jourjon, Guillaume and Marquez-Barja, Johann M. and Rakotoarivelo, Thierry and Mikroyannidis, Alexander and Lampropoulos, Kostas and Denazis, Spyros and Tranoris, Christos and Pareit, Daan and Domingue, John and DaSilva, Luiz A. and Ott, Max, "FORGE Toolkit: Leveraging Distributed Systems in eLearning Platforms." IEEE, 2015. doi:10.1109/tetc.2015.2511454. http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/tetc.2015.2511454

    Abstract: While more and more services become virtualised and always accessible in our society, laboratories supporting Computer Science (CS) lectures have mainly remained offline and class-based. This apparent abnormality is due to several limiting factors, discussed in the literature, such as the high cost of deploying and maintaining computer network testbeds and the lack of standardisation for the presentation of eLearning platforms. In this paper, we present the FORGE toolkit, which leverages experimentation facilities currently deployed in international initiatives for the development of e-learning materials. Thus, we solve the institutional challenge mentioned in the ACM/IEEE 2013 CS curricula concerning the access and maintenance of specialised and heterogeneous hardware thanks to a seamless integration with the networking testbed community. Moreover, this project builds an ecosystem where teaching and educational materials, tools and experiments are available under open scheme and policies. We demonstrate how it already meets most of the requirements from the Network and Communication component of CS 2013 and some of the labs of the Cisco academy. Finally, we present experience reports illustrating the potential benefits of this framework based on first deployments in four post-graduate courses in prestigious institutions around the world.

  155. Ju, Xi and Zhang, Hongwei and Zeng, Wenjie and Sridharan, Mukundan and Li, Jing and Arora, Anish and Ramnath, Rajiv and Xin, Yufeng, "LENS: resource specification for wireless sensor network experimentation infrastructures." Proceedings of the 6th ACM international workshop on Wireless network testbeds, experimental evaluation and characterization, Las Vegas, Nevada, USA, ACM, New York, NY, USA, 2011. doi:10.1145/2030718.2030727. http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/2030718.2030727

    Abstract: As a first step towards predictable, repeatable WSN experimentation, we propose the resource specification language LENS (a.k.a. Language for Embedded Networked Sensing) for WSN experimentation infrastructures. Using the Resource Description Framework (RDF) and the Web Ontology Language (OWL), LENS defines a semantic ontology for WSN resources; LENS enables explicit control and measurement of uncertainty factors, and it enables reasoning about the relationships between WSN resources. Focusing on basic concepts of WSNs, LENS supports resource specification in a wide range of WSN experimentation infrastructures, and it is extensible to support potentially unforeseen technologies. LENS is also compatible with specification languages for other network resources such as optical networks. As a part of the NSF GENI initiative, we have implemented LENS in the KanseiGenie control framework, and LENS has been actively used to support experimentation in the federated WSN infrastructure involving Kansei and NetEye. Enabling reasoning about uncertainty factors in experimentation, LENS is expected to serve as a basis for developing methodologies and tools for predictable, repeatable WSN experimentation.

  156. Juluri, Parikshit, "Measurement And Improvement of Quality-of-Experience For Online Video Streaming Services (Doctoral dissertation)." 2015. https://mospace.umsystem.edu/xmlui/bitstream/handle/10355/46696/JuluriMeaImpQua.pdf?sequence=1&isAllowed=y

    Abstract: HTTP based online video streaming services have been consistently dominating the online traffic for the past few years. Measuring and improving the performance of these services is an important challenge. Traditional Quality-of-Service (QoS) metrics such as packet loss, jitter and delay which were used for networked services are not easily understood by the users. Instead, Quality-of-Experience (QoE) metrics which capture the overall satisfaction are more suitable for measuring the quality as perceived by the users. However, these QoE metrics have not yet been standardized and their measurement and improvement poses unique challenges. In this work we first present a comprehensive survey of the different set of QoE metrics and the measurement methodologies suitable for HTTP based online video streaming services. We then present our active QoE measurement tool Pytomo that measures the QoE of YouTube videos. A case study on the measurement of QoE of YouTube videos when accessed by residential users from three different Internet Service Providers (ISP) in a metropolitan area is discussed. This is the first work that has collected QoE data from actual residential users using active measurements for YouTube videos. Based on these measurements we were able to study and compare the QoE of YouTube videos across multiple ISPs. We also were able to correlate the QoE observed with the server clusters used for the different users. Based on this correlation we were able to identify the server clusters that were experiencing diminished QoE. DynamicAdaptive Streaming overHTTP (DASH) is an HTTP based video streaming that enables the video players to adapt the video quality based on the network conditions. We next present a rate adaptation algorithm that improves the QoE of DASH video streaming services that selects the most optimum video quality. With DASH the video server hosts multiple representation of the same video and each representation is divided into small segments of constant playback duration. The DASH player downloads the appropriate representation based on the network conditions, thus, adapting the video quality to match the conditions. Currently deployed Adaptive Bitrate (ABR) algorithms use throughput and buffer occupancy to predict segment fetch times. These algorithms assume that the segments are of equal size. However, due to the encoding schemes employed this assumption does not hold. In order to overcome these limitations, we propose a novel Segment Aware Rate Adaptation algorithm (SARA) that leverages the knowledge of the segment size variations to improve the prediction of segment fetch times. Using an emulated player in a geographically distributed virtual network setup, we compare the performance of SARA with existing ABR algorithms. We demonstrate that SARA helps to improve the QoE of the DASH video streaming with improved convergence time, better bitrate switching performance and better video quality. We also show that unlike the existing adaptation schemes, SARA provides a consistent QoE irrespective of the segment size distributions.

  157. Juluri, Parikshit and Tamarapalli, Venkatesh and Medhi, Deep, "QoE management in DASH systems using the segment aware rate adaptation algorithm." NOMS 2016 - 2016 IEEE/IFIP Network Operations and Management Symposium, IEEE, 2016. doi:10.1109/noms.2016.7502805. http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/noms.2016.7502805

    Abstract: Dynamic Adaptive Streaming over HTTP (DASH) enables the video player to adapt the bitrate of the video while streaming to ensure playback without interruptions even with varying throughput. A DASH server hosts multiple representations of the same video, each of which is broken down into small segments of fixed playback duration. The video bitrate adaptation is purely driven by the player at the endhost. Typically, the player employs an Adaptive Bitrate (ABR) algorithm, that determines the most appropriate representation for the next segment to be downloaded, based on the current network conditions and user preferences. The aim of an ABR algorithm is to dynamically manage the Quality of Experience (QoE) of the user during the playback. ABR algorithms manage the QoE by maximizing the bitrate while at the same time trying to minimize the other QoE metrics: playback start time, duration and number of buffering events, and the number of bitrate switching events. Typically, the ABR algorithms manage the QoE by using the measured network throughput and buffer occupancy to adapt the playback bitrate. However, due to the video encoding schemes employed, the sizes of the individual segments may vary significantly. For low bandwidth networks, fluctuation in the segment sizes results in inaccurate estimation the expected segment fetch times, thereby resulting in inaccurate estimation of the optimum bitrate. In this paper we demonstrate how the Segment-Aware Rate Adaptation (SARA) algorithm, that considers the measured throughput, buffer occupancy, and the variation in segment sizes helps in better management of the users' QoE in a DASH system. By comparing with a typical throughput-based and buffer-based adaptation algorithm under varying network conditions, we demonstrate that SARA manages the QoE better, especially in a low bandwidth network. We also developed AStream, an open-source Python-based emulated DASH-video player that was used to evaluate three different ABR algor- thms and measure the QoE metrics with each of them.

  158. Juluri, Parikshit and Tamarapalli, Venkatesh and Medhi, Deep, "SARA: Segment aware rate adaptation algorithm for dynamic adaptive streaming over HTTP." Communication Workshop (ICCW), 2015 IEEE International Conference on, IEEE, 2015. doi:10.1109/iccw.2015.7247436. http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/iccw.2015.7247436

    Abstract: Dynamic adaptive HTTP (DASH) based streaming is steadily becoming the most popular online video streaming technique. DASH streaming provides seamless playback by adapting the video quality to the network conditions during the video playback. A DASH server supports adaptive streaming by hosting multiple representations of the video and each representation is divided into small segments of equal playback duration. At the client end, the video player uses an adaptive bitrate selection (ABR) algorithm to decide the bitrate to be selected for each segment depending on the current network conditions. Currently, proposed ABR algorithms ignore the fact that the segment sizes significantly vary for a given video bitrate. Due to this, even though an ABR algorithm is able to measure the network bandwidth, it may fail to predict the time to download the next segment In this paper, we propose a segment-aware rate adaptation (SARA) algorithm that considers the segment size variation in addition to the estimated path bandwidth and the current buffer occupancy to accurately predict the time required to download the next segment We also developed an open source Python based emulated DASH video player, that was used to compare the performance of SARA and a basic ABR. Our results show that SARA provides a significant gain over the basic algorithm in the video quality delivered, without noticeably impacting the video switching rates.

  159. Kanada, Yasusi and Tarui, Toshiaki, "Federation-less federation of ProtoGENI and VNode platforms." Information Networking (ICOIN), 2015 International Conference on, IEEE, 2015. doi:10.1109/icoin.2015.7057895. http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/icoin.2015.7057895

    Abstract: Our previous work enabled ” federation-less federation”, which means a federation of multiple network-virtualization platforms that do not support federation functions, and applied this method to a homogeneous federation of platforms called the ” VNode” infrastructures. In this study, this method was applied to a heterogeneous federation of the ProtoGENI and the ” VNode”. We intended to federate these platforms through a single management interface. However, the federation architecture of GENI, which is called the slice-based federation architecture (SFA), cannot be used for single-interface federation but we could not modify the ProtoGENI platform to enable it. Therefore, a method for applying federation-less-federation to ProtoGENI was developed. It enabled federation of these platforms by adding several nodes but without modifying preexisting platforms. This method was applied to federation of the ProtoGENI platform at the University of Utah and two VNode infrastructures in Japan, the slice creation and deletion time was measured and evaluated to be acceptable. Although this federation-less-federation implementation still has several minor problems, it was proved to be useful for experiments and demonstrations.

  160. Kangarlou, A. and Xu, Dongyan and Kozat, U. C. and Padala, P. and Lantz, B. and Igarashi, K., "In-network live snapshot service for recovering virtual infrastructures." Network, IEEE, IEEE, 2011. doi:10.1109/mnet.2011.5958003. http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/mnet.2011.5958003

    Abstract: Infrastructure as a Service (IaaS) has become an increasingly popular type of service for both private and public clouds. The virtual infrastructures that enable IaaS support multitenancy by multiplexing the computational resources of data centers and result in substantial reductions in operational costs. Since hardware and software failures occur on a routine basis in large-scale systems, it is imperative for cloud providers to offer various failure recovery options for distributed services hosted on such infrastructures. In this article we present GENI-VIOLIN, a new cloud capability that can checkpoint a stateful distributed service while incurring very low overhead. The unique aspect of GENI-VIOLIN compared to previous work is that GENI-VIOLIN exploits programmable OpenFlow switches to provide checkpointing services in the network, thereby requiring minimal changes to the end host virtualization framework. We have developed a prototype of GENI-VIOLIN using the GENI infrastructure, and have demonstrated GENI-VIOLIN's checkpoint and restore capability across multiple GENI sites.

  161. Katz-Bassett, Ethan and Choffnes, David R. and Cunha, Ítalo and Scott, Colin and Anderson, Thomas and Krishnamurthy, Arvind, "Machiavellian Routing: Improving Internet Availability with BGP Poisoning." Proceedings of the 10th ACM Workshop on Hot Topics in Networks, Cambridge, Massachusetts, ACM, New York, NY, USA, 2011. doi:10.1145/2070562.2070573. http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/2070562.2070573

    Abstract: We propose a new approach to mitigate disruptions of Internet connectivity. The Internet was designed to always find a route if there is a policy-compliant path; however, in many cases, connectivity is disrupted despite the existence of an underlying valid path. The research community has done considerable work on this problem, much of it focused on short-term outages that occur during route convergence. There has been less progress on addressing avoidable long-lasting outages. Our measurements show that long-lasting events contribute significantly to overall unavailability. To address these long-term problems, we develop a system, Machiavellian routing, for automatic failure remediation, centered around the use of BGP poisoning. With poisoning, an edge network can cause other networks to send traffic to it via paths that avoid a problem in a particular transit ISP. We describe the key challenges to using poisoning to improve Internet connectivity, and we develop a set of techniques to use it predictably, accurately, and effectively.

  162. Katz-Bassett, Ethan and Scott, Colin and Choffnes, David R. and Cunha, Ítalo and Valancius, Vytautas and Feamster, Nick and Madhyastha, Harsha V. and Anderson, Thomas and Krishnamurthy, Arvind, "LIFEGUARD: Practical Repair of Persistent Route Failures." Proceedings of the ACM SIGCOMM 2012 conference, ACM, New York, NY, USA, 2012. doi:10.1145/2377677.2377756. http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/2377677.2377756

    Abstract: The Internet was designed to always find a route if there is a policy-compliant path. However, in many cases, connectivity is disrupted despite the existence of an underlying valid path. The research community has focused on short-term outages that occur during route convergence. There has been less progress on addressing avoidable long-lasting outages. Our measurements show that long-lasting events contribute significantly to overall unavailability. To address these problems, we develop LIFEGUARD, a system for automatic failure localization and remediation. LIFEGUARD uses active measurements and a historical path atlas to locate faults, even in the presence of asymmetric paths and failures. Given the ability to locate faults, we argue that the Internet protocols should allow edge ISPs to steer traffic to them around failures, without requiring the involvement of the network causing the failure. Although the Internet does not explicitly support this functionality today, we show how to approximate it using carefully crafted BGP messages. LIFEGUARD employs a set of techniques to reroute around failures with low impact on working routes. Deploying LIFEGUARD on the Internet, we find that it can effectively route traffic around an AS without causing widespread disruption.

  163. Khurshid, Ahmed and Zhou, Wenxuan and Caesar, Matthew and Godfrey, P. Brighten, "VeriFlow: verifying network-wide invariants in real time." Proceedings of the first workshop on Hot topics in software defined networks, Helsinki, Finland, ACM, New York, NY, USA, 2012. doi:10.1145/2342441.2342452. http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/2342441.2342452

    Abstract: Networks are complex and prone to bugs. Existing tools that check configuration files and data-plane state operate offline at timescales of seconds to hours, and cannot detect or prevent bugs as they arise. Is it possible to check network-wide invariants in real time, as the network state evolves? The key challenge here is to achieve extremely low latency during the checks so that network performance is not affected. In this paper, we present a preliminary design, VeriFlow, which suggests that this goal is achievable. VeriFlow is a layer between a software-defined networking controller and network devices that checks for network-wide invariant violations dynamically as each forwarding rule is inserted. Based on an implementation using a Mininet OpenFlow network and Route Views trace data, we find that VeriFlow can perform rigorous checking within hundreds of microseconds per rule insertion.

  164. Kim, Dae Y. and Mathy, Laurent and Campanella, Mauro and Summerhill, Rick and Williams, James and Shimojo, Shinji and Kitamura, Yasuichi and Otsuki, Hideaki, "Future Internet: Challenges in Virtualization and Federation." 2009 Fifth Advanced International Conference on Telecommunications, Venice/Mestre, Italy, IEEE, 2009. doi:10.1109/AICT.2009.8. http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/AICT.2009.8

    Abstract: Future Internet is a clean-slate research activity in the quest of new networking technologies to overcome the limits of the current Internet. In its experimental research, virtualization and federation are emerging as essential features, especially in the construction and operation of the testbeds. Moreover, they are believed to sustain as the fundamental features of the Future Internet itself. Visions and experiences on virtualization and federation are given by leading experts from US, EU, and Asia.

  165. Kim, Dongkyun and Kim, Joobum and Wang, Gicheol and Park, Jin-Hyung and Kim, Seung-Hae, "K-GENI testbed deployment and federated meta operations experiment over GENI and KREONET." Computer Networks, 2014. doi:10.1016/j.bjp.2013.11.016. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bjp.2013.11.016

    Abstract: The classical Internet has confronted many drawbacks in terms of network security, scalability, and performance, although it has strongly influenced the development and evolution of diverse network technologies, applications, and services. Therefore, new innovative research on the Future Internet has been performed to resolve the inherent weaknesses of the traditional Internet, which, in turn, requires new at-scale network testbeds and research infrastructure for large-scale experiments. In this context, K-GENI has been developed as an international programmable Future Internet testbed in the GENI spiral-2 program, and it has been operational between the USA (GENI) and Korea (KREONET) since 2010. The K-GENI testbed and the related collaborative efforts will be introduced with two major topics in this paper: (1) the design and deployment of the K-GENI testbed and (2) the federated meta operations between the K-GENI and GENI testbeds. Regarding the second topic in particular, we will describe how meta operations are federated across K-GENI between GMOC (GENI Meta Operations Center) and DvNOC (Distributed virtual Network Operations Center on KREONET/K-GENI), which is the first trial of an international experiment on the federated network operations over GENI.

  166. Kim, Hyunjun and Lee, Sungwon, "FiRST Cloud Aggregate Manager development over FiRST: Future Internet testbed." The International Conference on Information Network 2012, Bali, Indonesia, IEEE, 2012. doi:10.1109/ICOIN.2012.6164436. http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/ICOIN.2012.6164436

    Abstract: FiRST (Future Internet Research for Sustainable Test-bed) is the future internet platform development project being performed in Korea. The goal of the project is to create the virtualized and dynamic service creation environments over future internet networks; it is an experimental project to realize future innovative service ideas over real network environments. Among this, cloud computing is the key enabler to control and allocate virtualized network resources (such as CPU, storage, and virtualized network configuration) for the requested services. However, researches on interworking between future internet and cloud computing is in initial phase. In this paper, we propose the FiRST Cloud Aggregate Manager (AM) based on GENI (Global Environment for Network Innovation) AM Application Programming Interface (API) for the federation between future internet test-bed and open source OpenStack cloud computing platform. After that, we propose the zero-client service for mobile cloud management. In order to control the zero-client service, we develop Cloud Mobility Client/Server. And, we validate and verified our FiRST Cloud AM and zero-client service by developing experimental test-bed. Through this test-bed, we confirm that the proposed FiRST Cloud AM and zero-client service efficiently interworks with future internet control plane framework by using GENI Control Framework (GCF) tools.

  167. Kline, Donald and Quan, John, "Attribute description service for large-scale networks." Proceedings of the 2nd international conference on Human centered design, Orlando, FL, USA, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, Heidelberg, 2011. doi:10.1007/978-3-642-21753-1_58. http://portal.acm.org/citation.cfm?id=2021672.2021735

    Abstract: An analysis of requesting resources from large-scale networks reveals a fundamental challenge. As the network grows, more and more resources become available, and so finding resources that fit experimental test criteria becomes difficult and time consuming. For example, the National Science Foundation sponsors GENI--an experimental network with a goal to gain enough resources to model the Internet at scale. Currently, GENI contains relatively few contributed resources donated from businesses and academia, and so matching resources to tests is rather simple. However, experimenters plan to conduct network experiments that are very complex and difficult to accurately model by using the vast numbers of resources expected in GENI. When GENI reaches its final state, finding the right resources that fit experimental test criteria out of many thousands of donated resources may be as difficult as conducting the experiment itself. This dilemma underscores the importance of establishing an attribute description service that promotes a standardized language for all interactions between the end users and the large-scale network.

  168. Kobayashi, Masayoshi and Seetharaman, Srini and Parulkar, Guru and Appenzeller, Guido and Little, Joseph and van Reijendam, Johan and Weissmann, Paul and McKeown, Nick, "Maturing of OpenFlow and Software-defined Networking through deployments." Computer Networks, 2014. doi:10.1016/j.bjp.2013.10.011. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bjp.2013.10.011

    Abstract: Software-defined Networking (SDN) has emerged as a new paradigm of networking that enables network operators, owners, vendors, and even third parties to innovate and create new capabilities at a faster pace. The SDN paradigm shows potential for all domains of use, including data centers, cellular providers, service providers, enterprises, and homes. Over a three-year period, we deployed SDN technology at our campus and at several other campuses nation-wide with the help of partners. These deployments included the first-ever SDN prototype in a lab for a (small) global deployment. The four-phased deployments and demonstration of new networking capabilities enabled by SDN played an important role in maturing SDN and its ecosystem. We share our experiences and lessons learned that have to do with demonstration of SDN's potential; its influence on successive versions of OpenFlow specification; evolution of SDN architecture; performance of SDN and various components; and growing the ecosystem.

  169. Koning, Ralph and de Graaff, Ben and de Laat, Cees and Meijer, Robert and Grosso, Paola, "Interactive analysis of SDN-driven defence against distributed denial of service attacks." 2016 IEEE NetSoft Conference and Workshops (NetSoft), IEEE, 2016. doi:10.1109/netsoft.2016.7502489. http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/netsoft.2016.7502489

    Abstract: The Secure Autonomous Response Networks (SARNET) framework introduces a mechanism to respond autonomously to security attacks in Software Defined Networks (SDN). Still the range of responses possible and their effectiveness need to be properly evaluated such that the decision making process and the self-learning capability of such systems are optimized. To this purpose we developed a touch-table driven interactive SARNET prototype, named VNET, and we demonstrated its use through real-time monitoring and control of real and virtualised networks. By observing users interacting with the system at SC15 in Austin, we concluded that in a SDN it is possible to achieve high effectiveness of responses by carefully choosing a relatively minor number of actions.

  170. Krishnappa, D. K. and Irwin, D. and Lyons, E. and Zink, M., "CloudCast: Cloud Computing for Short-Term Weather Forecasts." Computing in Science & Engineering, IEEE, 2013. doi:10.1109/mcse.2013.43. http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/mcse.2013.43

    Abstract: CloudCast provides personalized short-term weather forecasts to clients based on their current location using cloud services, generating accurate forecasts tens of minutes in the future for small areas. Results show that it takes less than two minutes from the start of data sampling to deliver a 15-minute forecast to a client.

  171. Krishnappa, Dilip K. and Lyons, Eric and Irwin, David and Zink, Michael, "Performance of GENI Cloud Testbeds for Real Time Scientific Application." First GENI Research and Educational Experiment Workshop (GREE 2012), Los Angeles, 2012.

    Abstract: Dedicating high end servers for short-term execution of scientific applications such as weather forecasting wastes resources. Cloud platforms IaaS model seems well suited for applications which are executed on an irregular basis and for short duration. In this paper, we evaluate the performance of research testbed cloud platforms such as GENICloud and ORCA cloud clusters for our real-time scientific application of short-term weather forecasting called Nowcasting. In this paper, we evaluate the network capabilities of these research cloud testbeds for our real-time application of weather forecasting. In addition, we evaluate the computation time of executing Nowcasting on each cloud platform for weather data collected from real weather events. We also evaluate the total time taken to generate and transmit short-term forecast images to end users with live data from our own radar on campus. We also compare the performance of each of these clusters for Nowcasting with commercial cloud services such as Amazon's EC2. The results obtained from our measurement show that cloud testbeds are suitable for real-time application experiments to be carried out on a cloud platform.

  172. Krishnappa, Dilip K. and Lyons, Eric and Irwin, David and Zink, Michael, "Network capabilities of cloud services for a real time scientific application." 37th Annual IEEE Conference on Local Computer Networks, Clearwater Beach, FL, USA, IEEE, 2012. doi:10.1109/lcn.2012.6423665. http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/lcn.2012.6423665

    Abstract: Dedicating high-end servers for executing scientific applications that run intermittently, such as severe weather detection or generalized weather forecasting, wastes resources. While the Infrastructure-as-a-Service (IaaS) model used by today's cloud platforms is well-suited for the bursty computational demands of these applications, it is unclear if the network capabilities of today's cloud platforms are sufficient. In this paper, we analyze the networking capabilities of multiple commercial (Amazon's EC2 and Rackspace) and research (GENICloud and ExoGENI cloud) platforms in the context of a Nowcasting application, a forecasting algorithm for highly accurate, near-term, e.g., 5-20 minutes, weather predictions. The application has both computational and network requirements. While it executes rarely, whenever severe weather approaches, it benefits from an IaaS model; However, since its results are time-critical, enough bandwidth must be available to transmit radar data to cloud platforms before it becomes stale. We conduct network capacity measurements between radar sites and cloud platforms throughout the country. Our results indicate that ExoGENI cloud performs the best for both serial and parallel data transfer with an average throughput of 110.22 Mbps and 17.2 Mbps, respectively. We also found that the cloud services perform better in the distributed data transfer case, where a subset of nodes transmit data in parallel to a cloud instance. Ultimately, we conclude that commercial and research clouds are capable of providing sufficient bandwidth for our real-time Nowcasting application.

  173. Kuai, Meng and Hong, Xiaoyan and Flores, R. R., "Evaluating Interest Broadcast in Vehicular Named Data Networking." Research and Educational Experiment Workshop (GREE), 2014 Third GENI, IEEE, 2014. doi:10.1109/gree.2014.23. http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/gree.2014.23

    Abstract: Vehicular Ad-hoc Networks (VANETs) are expected to provide assistance to various applications, such as accident notification and emergency announcement. Named Data Networking (NDN) has been recognized as a more suitable architecture than TCP/IP for application in VANETs due to its ability to handle high mobility and intermittent connectivity. The Vehicular NDN (V-NDN) has further made special architectural modifications for VANETs. However, V-NDN can be challenged in its extensive use of broadcast in dense network situations. For example, broadcasting of interest packets could lead to more collisions. In this study, we explore the broadcast performance of V-NDN using the ORBIT testbed. Our experimental results show that VNDN suffers an increased loss ratio in dense network scenarios because of Wifi broadcast collision, and it is important to find a suitable range of values to be distributed by the collision avoidance timer before transmission.

  174. Lara, Adrian, "Using Software-Defined Networking to Improve Campus, Transport and Future Internet Architectures (Doctoral dissertation)." 2015. http://digitalcommons.unl.edu/computerscidiss/93/

    Abstract: Software-defined Networking (SDN) promises to redefine the future of networking. Indeed, SDN-based networks have unique capabilities such as centralized control, flow abstraction, dynamic updating of forwarding rules and software-based traffic analysis. SDN-based networks decouple the data plane from the control plane, migrating the latter to a software controller. By adding a software layer between network devices and applications, features such as network virtualization and automated management are simpler to achieve. In this dissertation, we show how SDN-based deployments simplify network management at multiple scales such as campus and transport networks, as well as future Internet architectures. First, we propose OpenSec, an SDN-based security framework that allows network operators to implement security policies in campus networks. Second, we propose the eXtensible Traffic Engineering Framework (XTEF) to enable application-driven traffic engineering and provision transport network resources using on-demand Wavelength Division Multiplexing (WDM) tunnels. Third, we demonstrate how SDN can be used to dynamically create intra-domain cut-through switching tunnels to bypass the routing layer in MobilityFirst. Finally, we propose how to extend the cut-through capabilities to inter-domain routing in MobilityFirst. In our work, we run experiments on the GENI testbed (Global Environment for Network Innovations), the ORBIT (Open-Access Research Testbed for Next-Generation Wireless Networks) and Mininet. The results show that SDN can be used to simplify policy-based network management, virtualize an entire WAN as a single switch, create Wavelength Division Multiplexing (WDM) tunnels on demand and create inter-domain tunnels using techniques that scale better than traditional distributed methods.

  175. Lara, Adrian and Mukherjee, Shreyasee and Ramamurthy, Byrav and Raychaudhuri, Dipankar and Ramakrishnan, K. K., "Inter-Domain Routing with Cut-Through Switching for the MobilityFirst Future Internet Architecture." IEEE International Conference on Communications (ICC 2016), Kuala Lumpur, 2016. doi:10.1109/ICC.2016.7510715. http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/ICC.2016.7510715

    Abstract: Future Internet projects such as MobilityFirst and Named Data Networking have proposed novel mechanisms to replace the Internet Protocol to better support content delivery and mobility. However, the problem of efficient data transfer across the network core has not been adequately investigated. We tackle the challenge of inter-domain cut-through switching using software-defined networking (SDN). First, we propose and solve an optimization problem that minimizes the total transfer time using inter-domain tunnels. Second, we propose an SDN-based routing framework for the MobilityFirst architecture capable of dynamically creating such tunnels. The main novelty of this framework is to name tunnels as network objects to simplify how tunnels are created and maintained. To validate our framework, we implement on the GENI (Global Environment for Network Innovations) testbed a prototype for the MobilityFirst architecture. Our experiments with the optimization problem show that the inter-domain latency between controllers plays a key role on how tunnels are setup. Furthermore, our implementation experiments show that the control plane delay can be reduced by 75% when using inter- domain tunnels. Finally, we show how our framework needs fewer messages than current protocols such as label distribution protocol (LDP) to setup intra-domain and inter-domain tunnels.

  176. Lara, Adrian and Ramamurthy, Byrav and Nagaraja, Kiran and Krishnamoorthy, Aravind and Raychaudhuri, Dipankar, "Using OpenFlow to provide cut-through switching in MobilityFirst." Photonic Network Communications, Springer US, 2014. doi:10.1007/s11107-014-0461-3. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11107-014-0461-3

    Abstract: Mobile devices are expected to become the Internet's predominant technology. Current protocols such as TCP/IP were not originally designed with mobility as a key consideration, and therefore underperform under challenging mobile and wireless conditions. MobilityFirst, a clean slate architecture proposal, embraces several key concepts centered around secure identifiers that inherently support mobility and trustworthiness as key requirements of the network architecture. This includes a hop-by-hop segmented data transport based on a globally unique identifier. This allows late and dynamic rebinding of end-point addresses to support mobility. While this provides critical gains in wireless segments, some overheads are incurred even in stable segments such as in the core. Bypassing routing-layer decisions in these cases, with lower layer cut-through forwarding, can improve said gains. In this work, we introduce a general bypass capability within the MobilityFirst architecture that provides better performance and enables both individual and aggregate flow-level traffic control. Furthermore, we present an OpenFlow-based proof-of-concept implementation of the bypass function using layer 2 VLAN tagging. We run experiments on the ORBIT and Global Environment for Network Innovations (GENI) testbeds to evaluate the performance and scalability of the solution. By implementing the bypass functionality, we are able to significantly reduce the number of messages processed by the controller as well as the number of flow rules that need to be pushed into the switches.

  177. Lauer, Gregory and Irwin, Ryan and Kappler, Chris and Nishioka, Itaru, "Distributed Resource Control Using Shadowed Subgraphs." Proceedings of the Ninth ACM Conference on Emerging Networking Experiments and Technologies, Santa Barbara, California, USA, ACM, New York, NY, USA, 2013. doi:10.1145/2535372.2535410. http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/2535372.2535410

    Abstract: As software defined networks (SDN) grow in size and in number, the problem of coordinating the actions of multiple SDN controllers will grow in importance. In this paper, we propose a way of organizing SDN control based on coordinated subgraph shadowing. Graphs are a natural way to think about and describe SDN activity. Subgraphs provide a means to share a subset of a network's resources. Shadowing provides a means to dynamically update shared subgraphs. Leveraging advances in graph databases and our shadowing messaging technique, we discuss our implementation of a multi-domain virtual private network (VPN) using multi-protocol label switching (MPLS).

  178. Lee, Jae W., "Towards a Common System Architecture for Dynamically Deploying Network Services in Routers and End Hosts (Doctoral dissertation)." 2012. http://academiccommons.columbia.edu/download/fedora_content/download/ac:147210/CONTENT/Lee_columbia_0054D_10773.pdf

    Abstract: The architectural simplicity of the core Internet is a double-edged sword. On the one hand, its agnostic nature paved the way for endless innovations of end-to-end applications. On the other hand, the inherent limitation of this simplicity makes it difficult to add new functions to the network core itself. This is exacerbated by the conservative tendency of commercial entities to l̈eave well-enough alone,̈ leading to the current situation often referred to as the ossification of the Internet. For decades, there has been practically no new functionality that has been added to the core Internet on a large scale. This thesis explores the possibility of enabling in-network services towards the goal of overcoming the ossification of the Internet. Our ultimate goal is to provide a common run-time environment supported by all Internet nodes and a wide-area deployment mechanism, so that network services can be freely installed, removed, and migrated among Internet nodes of all kinds–from a backbone router to a set-top box at home. In that vision of a future Internet, there is little difference between servers and routers for the purpose of running network services. Services can run anywhere on the Internet. Application service providers will have the freedom to choose the best place to run their code. This thesis presents NetServ, our first step to realize the vision of network services running anywhere on the Internet. NetServ is a node architecture for dynamically deploying in-network services on edge routers. Network functions and applications are implemented as software modules which can be deployed at any NetServ-enabled node on the Internet, subject to policy restrictions. The NetServ framework provides a common execution environment for service modules and the ability to dynamically install and remove the services without restarting the nodes. There are many challenges in designing such a system. The main contribution of this thesis lies in meeting those challenges. First, we recognize that the primary impetus for adopting new technologies is economics. To address the challenge of providing economic incentives for enabling in-network services, we demonstrate how NetServ can facilitate an economic alliance between content providers and ISPs. Using NetServ, content providers and the ISPs operating at the network edge (aka eyeball ISPs) can enter into a mutually beneficial economic relationship. ISPs make their NetServ-enabled edge routers available for hosting content providers' applications and contents. Content providers can operate closer to end users by deploying code modules on NetServ-enabled edge routers. We make our case by presenting NetServ applications which represent four concrete use cases. Second, our node architecture must support both traditional server applications and in-network packet processing applications since content providers' applications running on ISPs' routers will combine the traits of both. To address this challenge, NetServ framework can host a packet processing module that sits in the data path, a server module that uses the TCP/IP stack in the traditional way, or a combined module that does both. NetServ provides a unified runtime environment between routers and servers, taking us a step closer to the vision of the unified runtime available on all Internet nodes. Third, we must provide a fast and streamlined deployment mechanism. Content providers should be able to deploy their applications at any NetServ-enabled edge router on the Inter- net, given that they have proper authorizations. Moreover, in some application scenarios, content providers may not know the exact locations of the target routers. Content providers need a way to send a message to install or remove an application module towards a network destination, and have the NetServ-enabled routers located in the path catch and act on the message. To address this challenge, we adopted on-path signaling as the deployment mechanism for NetServ. A NetServ signaling message is sent in an IP packet towards a destination. The packet gets forwarded by IP routers as usual, but when it transits a NetServ-enabled router, the message gets intercepted and passed to the NetServ control layer. Fourth, a NetServ-enabled router must support the concurrent executions of multiple without restarting the nodes. There are many challenges in designing such a system. The main contribution of this thesis lies in meeting those challenges. First, we recognize that the primary impetus for adopting new technologies is economics. To address the challenge of providing economic incentives for enabling in-network services, we demonstrate how NetServ can facilitate an economic alliance between content providers and ISPs. Using NetServ, content providers and the ISPs operating at the network edge (aka eyeball ISPs) can enter into a mutually beneficial economic relationship. ISPs make their NetServ-enabled edge routers available for hosting content providers' applications and contents. Content providers can operate closer to end users by deploying code modules on NetServ-enabled edge routers. We make our case by presenting NetServ applications which represent four concrete use cases. Second, our node architecture must support both traditional server applications and in-network packet processing applications since content providers' applications running on ISPs' routers will combine the traits of both. To address this challenge, NetServ framework can host a packet processing module that sits in the data path, a server module that uses the TCP/IP stack in the traditional way, or a combined module that does both. NetServ provides a unified runtime environment between routers and servers, taking us a step closer to the vision of the unified runtime available on all Internet nodes. Third, we must provide a fast and streamlined deployment mechanism. Content providers should be able to deploy their applications at any NetServ-enabled edge router on the Internet, given that they have proper authorizations. Moreover, in some application scenarios, content providers may not know the exact locations of the target routers. Content providers need a way to send a message to install or remove an application module towards a network destination, and have the NetServ-enabled routers located in the path catch and act on the message. To address this challenge, we adopted on-path signaling as the deployment mechanism for NetServ. A NetServ signaling message is sent in an IP packet towards a destination. The packet gets forwarded by IP routers as usual, but when it transits a NetServ-enabled router, the message gets intercepted and passed to the NetServ control layer. Fourth, a NetServ-enabled router must support the concurrent executions of multiple content providers' applications. Each content provider's execution environment must be isolated from one another, and the resource usage of each must be controlled. To address the challenge of providing a robust multi-user execution environment, we chose to run NetServ modules in user space. This is in stark contrast to most programmable routers, which run service modules in kernel space for fast packet processing. Furthermore, NetServ modules are written in Java and run in Java Virtual Machines (JVMs). Our choice of user space execution and JVM allows us to leverage the decades of technology advances in operating systems, virtualization, and Java. Lastly, in order to host the services of a large number of content providers, NetServ must be able to scale beyond the single-box architecture. We address this challenge with the multi-box lateral expansion of NetServ using the OpenFlow forwarding engine. In this extended architecture, multiple NetServ nodes are attached to an OpenFlow switch, which provides a physically separate forwarding plane. The scalability of user services is no longer limited to a single NetServ box. Additionally, this thesis presents our prior work on improving service discovery in local and global networks. The service discovery work makes indirect contribution because the limitations of local and overlay networks encountered during those studies eventually led us to investigate in-network services, which resulted in NetServ. Specifically, we investigate the issues involved in bootstrapping large-scale structured overlay networks, present a tool to merge service announcements from multiple local networks, and propose an enhancement to structured overlay networks using link-local multicast.

  179. Lee, Jae W. and Francescangeli, Roberto and Janak, Jan and Srinivasan, Suman and Baset, Salman A. and Schulzrinne, Henning and Despotovic, Zoran and Kellerer, Wolfgang, "NetServ: Active Networking 2.0." 2011 IEEE International Conference on Communications Workshops (ICC), Kyoto, Japan, IEEE, 2011. doi:10.1109/iccw.2011.5963554. http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/iccw.2011.5963554

    Abstract: We present NetServ, a node architecture for deploying in-network services in the next generation Internet. NetServ-enabled network nodes provide a common execution environment, where network services implemented as modules can be dynamically installed and removed. We demonstrate three such modules. MicroCDN is a dynamic content distribution network (CDN) service which implements a content caching strategy specific to a content provider. The NAT Keep-alive module offloads the processing of keep-alive messages from SIP servers. The Media Relay module allows any NetServ node to act as a media relay, eliminating the need to manage standalone relay servers. NetServ aims to revive the Active Networking vision. It was too far ahead of its time a decade ago, but we believe its time has finally arrived.

  180. Lee, Ki S. and Wang, Han and Weatherspoon, Hakim, "SoNIC: Precise Realtime Software Access and Control of Wired Networks." Proceedings of the 10th USENIX Conference on Networked Systems Design and Implementation, Lombard, IL, USENIX Association, Berkeley, CA, USA, 2013. http://portal.acm.org/citation.cfm?id=2482626.2482648

    Abstract: The physical and data link layers of the network stack contain valuable information. Unfortunately, a systems programmer would never know. These two layers are often inaccessible in software and much of their potential goes untapped. In this paper we introduce SoNIC, Software-defined Network Interface Card, which provides access to the physical and data link layers in software by implementing them in software. In other words, by implementing the creation of the physical layer bitstream in software and the transmission of this bitstream in hardware, SoNIC provides complete control over the entire network stack in realtime. SoNIC utilizes commodity off-the-shelf multi-core processors to implement parts of the physical layer in software, and employs an FPGA board to transmit optical signal over the wire. Our evaluations demonstrate that SoNIC can communicate with other network components while providing realtime access to the entire network stack in software. As an example of SoNIC's fine-granularity control, it can perform precise network measurements, accurately characterizing network components such as routers, switches, and network interface cards. Further, SoNIC enables timing channels with nanosecond modulations that are undetectable in software.

  181. Leon-Garcia, Alberto and Bannazadeh, Hadi, "SAVI Testbed for Applications on Software-Defined Infrastructure." The GENI Book, Springer International Publishing, 2016. doi:10.1007/978-3-319-33769-2_22. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-33769-2_22

    Abstract: In this chapter we introduce the Canadian project ” Smart Applications on Virtual Infrastructures” that explores the design of future application platforms. First we present our original vision of a future application and content marketplace and specify requirements for application platforms. We identify multi-tier clouds that include a ” Smart Edge” as essential to supporting low-latency and high- bandwidth applications. We describe a design for the Smart Edge that uses an integrated management system that virtualizes converged heterogeneous computing and networking resources and uses service orientation to provide software-defined infrastructure and platform services. Our implementation of Smart Edge clusters is presented and the deployment of these in a national testbed is described. The Janus integrated management system is introduced and we explain how it builds on OpenStack and Open Flow. We describe experiments and applications that are being conducted on the SAVI testbed. We then describe the federation of the SAVI testbed with GENI and we conclude with our plans for using the SAVI testbed as a foundation for smart city platforms.

  182. Li, Dawei and Hong, Xiaoyan, "Practical exploitation on system vulnerability of ProtoGENI." Proceedings of the 49th Annual Southeast Regional Conference, Kennesaw, Georgia, ACM, New York, NY, USA, 2011. doi:10.1145/2016039.2016073. http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/2016039.2016073

    Abstract: Global Environment for Network Innovations (GENI) is a unique virtual laboratory for at-scale networking experimentation exploring future Internets. The successful development of GENI has to consider security problems from the design and prototyping stages. However, in many cases, system vulnerability cannot be found unless through real experimentation bearing purposeful and meaningful designs. In this paper, we introduce some of our efforts in exploring the security vulnerabilities in ProtoGENI, a prototype implementation and deployment of GENI. Our results show potential breach on security of GENI in terms of availability. We make suggestions on potential defense strategies in order to improve the ProtoGENI security and its development.

  183. Li, Dawei and Hong, Xiaoyan and Bowman, Jason, "Evaluation of Security Vulnerabilities by Using ProtoGENI as a Launchpad." IEEE Global Communications Conference (GLOBECOM 2011), 2011. ftp://202.38.75.7/pub/%D0%C2%CE%C4%BC%FE%BC%D0%20(2)/DATA/PID1102190.PDF

    Abstract: In this paper we analyze the security architecture of ProtoGENI. ProtoGENI is a prototype control framework implementation of GENI (Global Environment for Network Innovations). We perform a variety of experiments in an effort to identify potential vulnerabilities presented in the current implementation. We classify our attacks into three types: data plane to data plane, data plane to control plane, and data plane to Internet. Our results indicate the potential for a breach of confidentiality and availability internally within ProtoGENI, as well as risks to external Internet. We make suggestions outlining possible defense strategies to improve ProtoGENI security and aid in future development

  184. Li, Ting and Liu, Jason, "Cluster-Based Spatiotemporal Background Traffic Generation for Network Simulation." ACM Trans. Model. Comput. Simul., ACM, New York, NY, USA, 2014. doi:10.1145/2667222. http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/2667222

    Abstract: To reduce the computational complexity of large-scale network simulation, one needs to distinguish foreground traffic generated by the target applications one intends to study from background traffic that represents the bulk of the network traffic generated by other applications. Background traffic competes with foreground traffic for network resources and consequently plays an important role in determining the behavior of network applications. Existing background traffic models either operate only at coarse time granularity or focus only on individual links. There is little insight on how to meaningfully apply realistic background traffic over the entire network. In this article, we propose a method for generating background traffic with spatial and temporal characteristics observed from real traffic traces. We apply data clustering techniques to describe the behavior of end hosts as a function of multidimensional attributes and group them into distinct classes, and then map the classes to simulated routers so that we can generate traffic in accordance with the cluster-level statistics. The proposed traffic generator makes no assumption on the target network topology. It is also capable of scaling the generated traffic so that the traffic intensity can be varied accordingly in order to test applications under different and yet realistic network conditions. Experiments show that our method is able to generate traffic that maintains the same spatial and temporal characteristics as in the observed traffic traces.

  185. Li, Ting and Van Vorst, Nathanael and Liu, Jason, "A Rate-based TCP Traffic Model to Accelerate Network Simulation." Simulation, Society for Computer Simulation International, San Diego, CA, USA, 2013. doi:10.1177/0037549712469892. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0037549712469892

    Abstract: Traditional discrete-event simulation of large-scale networks at the packet level is computationally expensive. This article presents a fast rate-based transmission control protocol (RTCP) traffic model designed to reduce the time and space complexity for simulating network traffic whilst maintaining good accuracy. A distinct feature of the proposed model is that the transmission control protocol (TCP) congestion control behavior is represented using analytical models that describe the send rate at the traffic source as a function of the round-trip time and the packet loss rate at different phases of a TCP connection. Rather than modeling at the granularity of individual packets visiting the intermediate routers, the model approximates traffic flows as a series of rate windows, each consisting of a number of packets considered to possess the same arrival rate. The model calculates the queuing delays and the packet losses as these rate windows traverse the individual network queues along the flow path. The proposed RTCP model is able to achieve a performance advantage over other TCP models, by integrating analytical solutions and aggregating traffic using rate windows. Empirical results show that the RTCP model can correctly capture the overall TCP behavior and achieve a speedup of more than two orders of magnitude over the corresponding detailed packet-oriented simulation.

  186. Li, Ting and Van Vorst, Nathanael and Rong, Rong and Liu, Jason, "Simulation studies of OpenFlow-based in-network caching strategies." Proceedings of the 15th Communications and Networking Simulation Symposium, Orlando, Florida, Society for Computer Simulation International, San Diego, CA, USA, 2012. http://portal.acm.org/citation.cfm?id=2331762.2331774

    Abstract: We propose an in-network caching architecture using Open-Flow to coordinate caching decisions in the network. Our scheme, called CacheFlow, extends the cache-and-forward concept by moving contents closer to the clients hop-by-hop using TCP for sending requests and retrieving contents. As such, CacheFlow can be incrementally implemented and deployed in the real network. In this paper, we present a simulation study of several caching policies, including a random cache policy, a statically optimal cache placement policy and a new disk placement strategy that places popular contents at the c̈enter ̈of the network. Experimental results show that simple in-network caching policies can be realized using today's technology to improve network performance.

  187. Liu, J. and Abu Obaida, M. and Dos Santos, F., "Toward PrimoGENI Constellation for Distributed At-Scale Hybrid Network Test." Research and Educational Experiment Workshop (GREE), 2014 Third GENI, IEEE, 2014. doi:10.1109/gree.2014.10. http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/gree.2014.10

    Abstract: PrimoGENI provides a GENI aggregate interface through which experimenters can launch large-scale network experiments on GENI resources consisting of both simulated network and real instances of network applications directly running on either virtual or physical machines. Real network traffic generated by the network applications can be introduced into the simulated network in real time and be subjected to proper delays and losses according to the simulated network conditions. To leverage the previous PrimoGENI prototype activities, PrimoGENI Constellation is a newly launched project, which will focus specifically on facilitating distributed at-scale hybrid experiments for real-world high-impact applications. In this paper, we provide an overview of the major achievements of PrimoGENI, and more importantly, discuss the ongoing efforts in PrimoGENI Constellation aiming to achieve the full potential of the hybrid network experiment approach. The main thrusts of PrimoGENI Constellation include: 1) supporting at-scale network experiments potentially distributed on different types of GENI resources in accordance with the GENI experiment workflow, 2) focusing on target applications supporting prominent and high-impact future Internet research, and 3) building the user community through extensive education and research training, and online archives of experiment results and user experiences.

  188. Liu, Jason and Marcondes, Cesar and Ahmed, Musa and Rong, Rong, "Toward Scalable Emulation of Future Internet Applications with Simulation Symbiosis." 2015 IEEE/ACM 19th International Symposium on Distributed Simulation and Real Time Applications (DS-RT), Chengdu, China, IEEE, 2015. doi:10.1109/ds-rt.2015.19. http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/ds-rt.2015.19

    Abstract: Mininet is a popular container-based emulation environment built on Linux for testing Open Flow applications. Using Mininet, one can compose an experimental network using a set of virtual hosts and virtual switches with flexibility. However, it is well understood that Mininet can only provide a limited capacity, both for CPU and network I/O, due to its underlying physical constraints. We propose a method for combining simulation and emulation to improve the scalability of network experiments. This is achieved by applying the symbiotic approach to effectively integrate emulation and simulation for hybrid experimentation. In this case, one can use Mininet to directly run Open Flow applications on the virtual machines and software switches, with network connectivity represented by detailed simulation at scale.

  189. Liu, Jun and O'Neil, Thomas and Desell, Travis and Carlson, Ross, "Work-in-Progress: Empirical Verification of A Subset Sum Hypothesis in GENI Cloud." First GENI Research and Educational Experiment Workshop (GREE 2012), Los Angeles, 2012.

  190. Liu, Lei and Peng, Wei-Ren and Casellas, Ramon and Tsuritani, Takehiro and Morita, Itsuro and Martinez, Ricardo and Munoz, Raul and Suzuki, Masatoshi and Ben Yoo, S. J., "Dynamic OpenFlow-Based Lightpath Restoration in Elastic Optical Networks on the GENI Testbed." Lightwave Technology, Journal of, IEEE, 2015. doi:10.1109/jlt.2014.2388194. http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/jlt.2014.2388194

    Abstract: Elastic optical networking (EON), with its flexible use of the optical spectrum, is a promising solution for future metro/core optical networking. For the deployment of EON in a real-operational scenario, the dynamic lightpath restoration, driven by an intelligent control plane, is a necessary network function. Dynamic restoration can restore network services automatically and, thus, greatly reduce the operational cost, compared with traditional manual or semistatic lightpath restoration strategies enabled by network operators via a network management system. To this end, in this paper, we present an OpenFlow-enabled dynamic lightpath restoration in elastic optical networks, detailing the restoration framework and algorithm, the failure isolation mechanism, and the proposed OpenFlow protocol extensions. We quantitatively present the restoration performance via control plane experimental tests on the Global Environment for Network Innovations testbed.

  191. Liu, Lei and Zhu, Zuqing and Wang, Xiong and Song, Guanghua and Chen, Cen and Chen, Xiaoliang and Ma, Shoujiang and Feng, Xiaotao and Proietti, Roberto and Yoo, S. J. B., "Field Trial of Broker-based Multi-domain Software-Defined Heterogeneous Wireline-Wireless-Optical Networks." Optical Fiber Communication Conference, Los Angeles, California, OSA, 2015. doi:10.1364/ofc.2015.th3j.5. http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/ofc.2015.th3j.5

    Abstract: Driven by a broker-based OpenFlow control plane, we report the first field trial of software-defined heterogeneous wireline-wireless-optical multi-domain networks connecting UC Davis Campus, USTC, California OpenFlow Testbed Network (COTN) and Energy Sciences Network (ESNet).

  192. Liu, Shuhao and Li, Baochun, "Stemflow: Software-Defined Inter-Datacenter Overlay as a Service." IEEE Journal on Selected Areas in Communications, 2017. doi:10.1109/jsac.2017.2760159. http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/jsac.2017.2760159

    Abstract: Modern Internet applications are typically hosted in the public cloud, with multiple server instances running within geographically distributed datacenters. Thanks to the abundantly available bandwidth on wide-area links that interconnect these datacenters, it is conceivable that bandwidth-intensive applications may improve their performance by relaying their traffic through such an inter-datacenter network. However, there does not yet exist a cloud service that provides a turn-key solution to tap into such available bandwidth resources conveniently. In this paper, we design and implement Stemflow, a new system framework that provides Inter-Datacenter Overlay as a Service based on the software-defined networking principle. It offers an attractive foundation that helps an Internet application to transparently improve its scalability and performance by using inter-datacenter networks for its traffic. With Stemflow, all deployed server instances will construct an overlay atop an interdatacenter network, and the routing decisions to relay application traffic are made by a centralized controller. The algorithms needed to make these decisions are customized to meet the needs of individual applications, and are cached within the data plane. We motivate and describe the design decisions, and present an extensive experimental evaluation in public cloud infrastructures, using two example applications as our case studies.

  193. Liu, Xuan, "Dynamic Virtual Network Restoration with Optimal Standby Virtual Router Selection (Doctoral dissertation)." 2015. https://mospace.umsystem.edu/xmlui/bitstream/handle/10355/46697/LiuDynVirNet.pdf?sequence=1&isAllowed=y

    Abstract: Network virtualization technologies allow service providers to request partitioned, QoS guaranteed and fault-tolerant virtual networks provisioned by the substrate network provider (i.e., physical infrastructure provider). A virtualized networking environment (VNE) has common features such as partition, flexibility, etc., but fault-tolerance requires additional efforts to provide survivability against failures on either virtual networks or the substrate network. Two common survivability paradigms are protection (proactive) and restoration (reactive). In the protection scheme, the substrate network provider (SNP) allocates redundant resources (e.g., nodes, paths, bandwidths, etc) to protect against potential failures in the VNE. In the restoration scheme, the SNP dynamically allocates resources to restore the networks, and it usually occurs after the failure is detected. In this dissertation, we design a restoration scheme that can be dynamically implemented in a centralized manner by an SNP to achieve survivability against node failures in the VNE. The proposed restoration scheme is designed to be integrated with a protection scheme, where the SNP allocates spare virtual routers (VRs) as standbys for the virtual networks (VN) and they are ready to serve in the restoration scheme after a node failure has been identified. These standby virtual routers (S-VR) are reserved as a sharedbackup for any single node failure, and during the restoration procedure, one of the S-VR will be selected to replace the failed VR. In this work, we present an optimal S-VR selection approach to simultaneously restore multiple VNs affected by failed VRs, where these VRs may be affected by failures within themselves or at their substrate host (i.e., power outage, hardware failures, maintenance, etc.). Furthermore, the restoration scheme is embedded into a dynamic reconfiguration scheme (DRS), so that the affected VNs can be dynamically restored by a centralized virtual network manager (VNM). We first introduce a dynamic reconfiguration scheme (DRS) against node failures in a VNE, and then present an experimental study by implementing this DRS over a realistic VNE using GpENI testbed. For this experimental study, we ran the DRS to restore one VN with a single-VR failure, and the results showed that with a proper S-VR selection, the performance of the affected VN could be well restored. Next, we proposed an Mixed-Integer Linear Programming (MILP) model with dual–goals to optimally select S-VRs to restore all VNs affected by VR failures while load balancing. We also present a heuristic algorithm based on the model. By considering a number of factors, we present numerical studies to show how the optimal selection is affected. The results show that the proposed heuristic's performance is close to the optimization model when there were sufficient standby virtual routers for each virtual network and the substrate nodes have the capability to support multiple standby virtual routers to be in service simultaneously. Finally, we present the design of a software-defined resilient VNE with the optimal S-VR selection model, and discuss a prototype implementation on the GENI testbed.

  194. Liu, Xuan and Edwards, Sarah and Riga, Niky and Medhi, Deep, "Design of a software-defined resilient virtualized networking environment." Design of Reliable Communication Networks (DRCN), 2015 11th International Conference on the, IEEE, 2015. doi:10.1109/drcn.2015.7148999. http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/drcn.2015.7148999

    Abstract: Network virtualization enables programmability to the substrate network provider who provisions and manages virtual networks (VNs) for service providers. A mix of software-defined and autonomic technology improves the flexibility of network management, including dynamic reconfiguration in the virtualized networking environment (VNE). Virtual router (VR)s run at a logical level where software failures may be more frequent. Thus, a VR failure is more frequent than a physical router failure on the substrate network. In this paper, we present a software-defined resilient virtualized networking environment where a VN topology can be restored by using a preserved standby virtual router (S-VR) after a VR failure. We illustrate a preliminary autonomic setup of a VNE on the GENI testbed.

  195. Liu, Xuan and Medhi, Deepankar, "Optimally Selecting Standby Virtual Routers for Node Failures in a Virtual Network Environment." IEEE Transactions on Network and Service Management, 2017. doi:10.1109/tnsm.2017.2695492. http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/tnsm.2017.2695492

    Abstract: In a virtual network environment, a substrate network provider allocates computing and networking resources for service providers who request virtual networks to be created for particular services, and it also has the capability to provide resilient virtual network management with redundant resources, such as dynamic virtual network restoration from failures. In this work, we consider the situation where the substrate network provider desires to have standby virtual routers ready to serve virtual networks under node failures. Such a failure can affect one or more virtual routers in multiple virtual networks. The goal of our work is to make the optimal selection of standby virtual routers so that virtual networks can be dynamically reconfigured back to their original topologies right after the failures. We present an optimization formulation and a heuristic for this problem. By considering a number of factors, we present numerical studies to show how the optimal selection was affected by those factors, and the proposed heuristic's performance was close to the optimization model when there were sufficient standby virtual routers for each virtual network and the substrate nodes have the capability to support multiple standby virtual routers to be in service concurrently.

  196. Luna, Nicholas and Shetty, Sachin and Rogers, Tamara and Xiong, Kaiqi, "Assessment of Router Vulnerabilities on PlanetLab Infrastructure for Secure Cloud Computing." First GENI Research and Educational Experiment Workshop (GREE 2012), Los Angeles, 2012.

    Abstract: In recent times, the cloud computing based delivery model has been proven to reduce enterprise IT costs and complexities. In contrast to traditional enterprise IT solutions, the cloud computing model moves the application software and data to remote servers in large datacenters, which raises many security challenges. One of the critical challenges is the inability to characterize the impact of the vulnerabilities of routers on the cloud security and performance guarantees. In this paper, we analyze the degree of security provided by routers to data sharing applications deployed in cloud environments that span administrative and network domains. Our analysis is based on examining the security level of network applications on routers which lie between nodes on Planetlab infrastructure. We assume that some of the PlanetLab nodes will share the same wide area network path as the cloud servers. Our preliminary results confirm that the majority of the routers are plagued by insecure network protocols, leading to vulnerable routers. These results confirm our hypothesis that the security of the network infrastructure needs to be upgraded to assure the protection of information exchanged on the wide area network path.

  197. Müeller, Paul and Fischer, Stefan, "Europe's Mission in Next-Generation Networking with Special Emphasis on the German-Lab Project." The GENI Book, Springer International Publishing, 2016. doi:10.1007/978-3-319-33769-2_21. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-33769-2_21

    Abstract: In this contribution we give a rough overview of the European and particularly the German approaches to next generation networking, or more specifically Future-Internet Research and Experimentation. We can identify three different classes of projects in these approaches. The first class is related to basic research that is covered by projects within Objective 1.1 (Future Networks) of Framework Program 7 (FP7) of the European Commission (EC). This can be compared to the Future-Internet Architecture (FIA) projects of the National Science Foundation (NSF) in the US. The second class of projects is related to experimentation. The FIRE (Future-Internet Research and Experimentation) projects of the EC can be considered in this context, which are more or less comparable to the GENI approach. The third class is more application-driven and covered by the Public Private Partnership (PPP) projects of the EC. This class of projects can be compared to the USIgnite program. A slightly different approach was taken by the German- Lab (G-Lab) project where basic research projects and experimentation were smoothly intertwined, and also covered application-oriented aspects like mobility, virtualization or security in its second phase. All these projects from the EU, and the G-Lab approach will be described in more detail throughout this contribution, based on typical examples.

  198. Maccherani, E. and Femminella, M. and Lee, J. W. and Francescangeli, R. and Janak, J. and Reali, G. and Schulzrinne, H., "Extending the NetServ autonomic management capabilities using OpenFlow." 2012 IEEE Network Operations and Management Symposium, Maui, HI, IEEE, 2012. doi:10.1109/NOMS.2012.6211961. http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/NOMS.2012.6211961

    Abstract: Autonomic management capabilities of the Future Internet can be provided through a recently proposed service architecture called NetServ. It consists of the interconnection of programmable nodes which enable dynamic deployment and execution of network and application services. This paper shows how this architecture can be further improved by introducing the OpenFlow architecture and implementing the OpenFlow controller as a NetServ service, thus improving both the NetServ management performance and its flexibility. These achievements are demonstrated experimentally on the GENI environment, showing the platform self-protecting capabilities in case of a SIP DoS attack.

  199. Mahindra, R. and Bhanage, G. D. and Hadjichristofi, G. and Seskar, I. and Raychaudhuri, D. and Zhang, Y. Y., "Space Versus Time Separation for Wireless Virtualization on an Indoor Grid." Next Generation Internet Networks, 2008. NGI 2008, IEEE, 2008. doi:10.1109/NGI.2008.36. http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/NGI.2008.36

    Abstract: The decreasing cost of wireless hardware and ever increasing number of wireless testbeds has led to a shift in the protocol evaluation paradigm from simulations towards emulation. In addition, with a large number of users demanding experimental resources and lack of space and time for deploying more hardware, fair resource sharing among independent co-existing experiments is important. We study the proposed approaches to wireless virtualization with a focus on schemes conserving wireless channels rather than nodes. Our detailed comparison reveals that while experiments sharing a channel by space separation achieve better efficiency than those relying on time separation of a channel, the isolation between experiments in both cases is comparable. We propose and implement a policy manager to alleviate the isolation problem and suggest scenarios in which either of the schemes would provide a suitable virtualization solution.

  200. Mahindra, R. and Bhanage, G. and Hadjichristofi, G. and Ganu, S. and Kamat, P. and Seskar, I. and Raychaudhuri, D., "Integration of heterogeneous networking testbeds." Proceedings of the 4th International Conference on Testbeds and research infrastructures for the development of networks & communities, Innsbruck, Austria, ICST (Institute for Computer Sciences, Social-Informatics and Telecommunications Engineering), ICST, Brussels, Belgium, Belgium, 2008. http://portal.acm.org/citation.cfm?id=1390609

    Abstract: As networking research expands into new frontiers, the research community has felt a need for a heterogeneous networking research infrastructure to experiment with the interaction and integration of different types of networks, and to test the performance of various networking protocols in realistic environments. This requirement has led to the Global Environment for Network Innovations (GENI) initiative to create a global infrastructure for conducting networking experiments across diverse substrates such as wired (local and wide-area), wireless, sensor and cellular networks. In this paper, we discuss and present two models for building such an experimental infrastructure. The first model enables a wired testbed to link with wireless edge nodes during an experiment, whereas the second model enables a wireless testbed to link to wired testbeds. Proof-of-concept experiments are also presented reinforcing the usefulness of the models in terms of facilitating experiments over the integrated heterogeneous infrastructure.

  201. Malishevskiy, A. and Gurkan, D. and Dane, L. and Narisetty, R. and Narayan, S. and Bailey, S., "OpenFlow-Based Network Management with Visualization of Managed Elements." Research and Educational Experiment Workshop (GREE), 2014 Third GENI, IEEE, 2014. doi:10.1109/gree.2014.21. http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/gree.2014.21

    Abstract: The new software defined networking (SDN) paradigm advocates separating the data plane and the control plane, making network switches simple packet forwarding devices and leaving a logically-centralized software to control the behavior of the network. SDN introduces new possibilities for a centralized network management and configuration. The main benefit is having the programmability of the forwarding tables according to the needs of the applications. Therefore, efficient and effective management of network resources becomes even more crucial in providing effective control plane functionality to the applications. OpenFlow standardization efforts at the Open Networking Foundation resulted in an OpenFlow Configuration (OFConfig) specification to address the management of resources in networks with OpenFlow-enabled switches. We report the implementation of an intuitively easy to use interface for the OpenFlow-capable logical devices as managed resources in a SDN.

  202. Mambretti, J. and Chen, J. and Yeh, F., "Software-Defined Network Exchanges (SDXs) and Infrastructure (SDI): Emerging innovations in SDN and SDI interdomain multi-layer services and capabilities." Science and Technology Conference (Modern Networking Technologies) (MoNeTeC), 2014 First International, IEEE, 2014. doi:10.1109/monetec.2014.6995590. http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/monetec.2014.6995590

    Abstract: Software-Defined-Networking (SDN) is quickly transforming the networking landscape. Programmable networking based on many types of virtualization techniques, including SDN, enable high levels of abstraction for network services, control and management functions, and underlying technology resources. These approaches enable network designers to create a much wider range of services and capability, including through Software Defined Networking Exchanges (SDXs) than can be provided with traditional networks and exchange facilities, enabling a) many more dynamic provisioning options, including in real time b) faster implementation of new and enhanced services c) enabling applications, edge processes and even individuals to directly control core resources; e) substantially improved options for creating customizable networks and e) enhanced operational efficiency and effectiveness. In addition, these capabilities are now being extended to other types of Software Defined Infrastructure (SDI), including clouds, compute grids, storage devices, instruments, and many other types of edge devices.

  203. Mambretti, Joe and Chen, Jim and Yeh, Fei, "Software-Defined Network Exchanges (SDXs): Architecture, services, capabilities, and foundation technologies." Teletraffic Congress (ITC), 2014 26th International, IEEE, 2014. doi:10.1109/itc.2014.6932970. http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/itc.2014.6932970

    Abstract: Software Defined Networks (SDNs), primarily based on OpenFlow, are being deployed in single domain networks around the world. The popularity of SDNs has given rise to multiple considerations about designing, implementing, and operating Software-Defined Network Exchanges (SDXs), to enable SDNs to interconnect SDN islands and to extend SDNs across multiple domains. These goals can be accomplished only by developing new techniques that extend the single domain orientation of current SDN/OpenFlow approaches to include capabilities for multidomain control, including those for resource discovery, signaling, and dynamic provisioning. Several networking research communities have begun to investigate these concepts. Early architectural models of SDXs have been designed and implemented as prototypes. These SDXs are being used to conduct experiments and to demonstrate the potentials of SDXs.

  204. Mambretti, Joe and Chen, Jim and Yeh, Fei, "Next Generation Virtual Network Architecture for Multi-tenant Distributed Clouds: Challenges and Emerging Techniques." Proceedings of the 4th Workshop on Distributed Cloud Computing, Chicago, Illinois, ACM, New York, NY, USA, 2016. doi:10.1145/2955193.2955194. http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/2955193.2955194

    Abstract: Providing services for multiple tenants within a single or federated distributed cloud environment requires a variety of special considerations related to network design, provisioning, and operations. Especially important are multiple topics concerning the implementation of multiple parallel programmable virtual networks for large numbers of tenants, who require autonomous management, control, and data planes. This paper provides an overview of some of the challenges that arise from developing and implementing parallel programmable virtual networks, describes experiences with several experimental techniques for addressing those challenges based on large scale distributed testbeds, and presents the results of the experiments that were conducted. Distributed environments used include a distributed cloud testbed, the Chameleon Cloud, sponsored by the National Science Foundation's NSFCloud program, the NSF's Global Environment for Network Innovations (GENI), an international distributed OpenFlow testbed, and the Open Science Data Cloud.

  205. Mambretti, Joe and Chen, Jim and Yeh, Fei, "Creating environments for innovation: Designing and implementing advanced experimental network research testbeds based on the Global Lambda Integrated Facility and the StarLight Exchange." Computer Networks, 2014. doi:10.1016/j.bjp.2013.12.024. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bjp.2013.12.024

    Abstract: Large scale national and international experimental research environments are required to advance communication services and supporting network architecture, technology, and infrastructure. Theories and concepts are often explored using simulation and modeling techniques within labs or on small scale testbeds. However, while such testbeds are valuable resources for the research process, these facilities alone cannot provide an appropriate approximation of the real world conditions required to explore ideas at scale. Very large scale global, experimental network research capabilities are required to deeply investigate innovative concepts. For many years, network testbeds were created to address fairly specific, well defined, limited research goals, and they were implemented for fairly short periods. Recently, taking advantage of a number of macro information technology trends, such as virtualization and programmable resources, several network research communities have been developing innovative types of network research environments. Instead of designing traditional network testbeds, research communities are designing large scale, highly flexible distributed platforms that can be used to create many different types of testbeds. Also, rather than creating short term testbeds for limited research objectives, these new environments are being designed as long term persistent resources to support many types of experimental research. This paper describes the motivations for this trend, provides several examples of large scale distributed network research environments based on the Global Lambda Integrated Facility (GLIF) and the StarLight Exchange Facility, including the Global Environment for Network Innovation (GENI), and indicates emerging future trends for these types of environments.

  206. Mambretti, Joe and Chen, Jim and Yeh, Fei and Ge, Jingguo and You, Junling and Li, Tong and de Laat, Cees and Grosso, Paola and Liu, Te-Lung and Luo, Mon-Yen and Nakao, Aki and Müller, Paul and van der Pol, Ronald and Reed, Martin and Stanton, Michael and Yang, Chu-Sing, "Creating a Worldwide Network for the Global Environment for Network Innovations (GENI) and Related Experimental Environments." The GENI Book, Springer International Publishing, 2016. doi:10.1007/978-3-319-33769-2_24. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-33769-2_24

    Abstract: Many important societal activities are global in scope, and as these activities continually expand world-wide, they are increasingly based on a foundation of advanced communication services and underlying innovative network architecture, technology, and core infrastructure. To continue progress in these areas, research activities cannot be limited to campus labs and small local testbeds or even to national testbeds. Researchers must be able to explore concepts at scale— to conduct experiments on world-wide testbeds that approximate the attributes of the real world. Today, it is possible to take advantage of several macro information technology trends, especially virtualization and capabilities for programming technology resources at a highly granulated level, to design, implement and operate network research environments at a global scale. GENI is developing such an environment, as are research communities in a number of other countries. Recently, these communities have not only been investigating techniques for federating these research environments across multiple domains, but they have also been demonstration prototypes of such federations. This chapter provides an overview of key topics and experimental activities related to GENI international networking and to related projects throughout the world.

  207. Mambretti, Joe and Chen, Jim and Yeh, Fei and Grossman, Robert and Nash, Piers and Heath, Alison and Arya, Renuka and Agrawal, Stuti and Zhang, Zhenyu, "Designing and deploying a bioinformatics software-defined network exchange (SDX): Architecture, services, capabilities, and foundation technologies." 2017 20th Conference on Innovations in Clouds, Internet and Networks (ICIN), Paris, IEEE, 2017. doi:10.1109/icin.2017.7899403. http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/icin.2017.7899403

    Abstract: This paper describes a Bioinformatics Software Defined Network Exchange (SDX) or BioSDX, which has been designed, deployed, and demonstrated by a multi-organizational research consortium to enable bioinformatics knowledge discovery supported by dynamic networking services. This BioSDX uses precision networking to support precision medicine. The BioSDX is based on recent technical developments in infrastructure abstraction that enables new types of tools and services utilizing programmable network infrastructure through high levels of resource virtualization. Combined with close integration of programmable cloud computing facilities, the BioSDX is an important advance in supporting the new paradigm of data intensive bioinformatics across multiple disciplines, including computational genomics and precision medicine.

  208. Mandal, A. and Ruth, P. and Baldin, I. and Xin, Yufeng and Castillo, C. and Rynge, M. and Deelman, E., "Leveraging and Adapting ExoGENI Infrastructure for Data-Driven Domain Science Workflows." Research and Educational Experiment Workshop (GREE), 2014 Third GENI, IEEE, 2014. doi:10.1109/gree.2014.12. http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/gree.2014.12

    Abstract: In this paper, we present our ongoing work on a novel use of networked cloud infrastructures like GENI for running adaptive domain science applications. We specifically report our recent experience at the SC'13 conference with showcasing a dynamically adaptable cloud infrastructure driven by the demand of a data-driven scientific workflow. Our work used resources from ExoGENI - a Networked Infrastructure-as-a-Service (NIaaS) testbed funded through NSF's Global Environment for Network Innovation (GENI) project. We used on-ramps to compute and data resources in the RENCI SC'13 booth to a large dynamically provisioned 'slice' spanning multiple ExoGENI cloud sites that were interconnected using dynamically provisioned connections from Internet2, NLR and ESnet. The slice was used to execute a scientific workflow driven from a computer in the RENCI SC'13 booth connected to the slice via SCinet. A closed-loop control mechanism leveraging a monitoring infrastructure based on persistent queries adapted the slice to the demands of the workflow as it executed.

  209. Mandal, A. and Xin, Yufeng and Baldine, I. and Ruth, P. and Heerman, C. and Chase, J. and Orlikowski, V. and Yumerefendi, A., "Provisioning and Evaluating Multi-domain Networked Clouds for Hadoop-based Applications." Cloud Computing Technology and Science (CloudCom), 2011 IEEE Third International Conference on, 2011. doi:10.1109/CloudCom.2011.107. http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/CloudCom.2011.107

  210. Mandal, Anirban and Ruth, Paul and Baldin, Ilya and Xin, Yufeng and Castillo, Claris and Rynge, Mats and Deelman, Ewa, "Evaluating I/O Aware Network Management for Scientific Workflows on Networked Clouds." Proceedings of the Third International Workshop on Network-Aware Data Management, Denver, Colorado, ACM, New York, NY, USA, 2013. doi:10.1145/2534695.2534698. http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/2534695.2534698

    Abstract: This paper presents a performance evaluation of scientific workflows on networked cloud systems with particular emphasis on evaluating the effect of provisioned network bandwidth on application I/O performance. The experiments were run on ExoGENI, a widely distributed networked infrastructure as a service (NIaaS) testbed. ExoGENI orchestrates a federation of independent cloud sites located around the world along with backbone circuit providers. The evaluation used a representative data-intensive scientific workflow application called Montage. The application was deployed on a virtualized HTCondor environment provisioned dynamically from the ExoGENI networked cloud testbed, and managed by the Pegasus workflow manager. The results of our experiments show the effect of modifying provisioned network bandwidth on disk I/O throughput and workflow execution time. The marginal benefit as perceived by the workflow reduces as the network bandwidth allocation increases to a point where disk I/O saturates. There is little or no benefit from increasing network bandwidth beyond this inflection point. The results also underline the importance of network and I/O performance isolation for predictable application performance, and are applicable for general data-intensive workloads. Insights from this work will also be useful for real-time monitoring, application steering and infrastructure planning for data-intensive workloads on networked cloud platforms.

  211. Mandvekar, L. and Qiao, Chunming and Husain, M. I., "Enabling Wide Area Single System Image Experimentation on the GENI Platform." Research and Educational Experiment Workshop (GREE), 2013 Second GENI, IEEE, 2013. doi:10.1109/gree.2013.27. http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/gree.2013.27

    Abstract: The Single System Image (SSI) clustering technology hides the distributed nature of the participating resources, and makes them appear as a single homogeneous computing resource to the user. An SSI cluster can utilize all the available processing power and memory from its participating resources. However, using the current implementations, an SSI can only be formed using nodes which are within one-hop distance of each other. This implies that nodes have to be within the same broadcast domain / Local Area Network (LAN) in order to participate in an SSI cluster. This limits the full potential of SSIs. In this research, we propose enhancements to the existing SSI technology to overcome the one-hop limitation, thus enabling nodes over a WAN to form SSI clusters. GENI provides a perfect platform for such experimentation. In this paper, we report our initial success in enabling Transparent Interprocess Communication Protocol (TIPC) over wide area nodes in GENI and progress in backporting the TIPC 2.0 protocol, with support for communication over WANs, to Kerrighed, an open-source software for creating SSIs.

  212. Mandvekar, Lokesh and Sathyaraja, Anandatirtha and Qiao, Chunming, "Socially Aware Single System Images." First GENI Research and Educational Experiment Workshop (GREE 2012), Los Angeles, 2012.

    Abstract: Cloud computing enables users to get access to huge amounts of computing resources as desired. There are many popular commercial cloud service providers which provide resources to users at a price. These providers can not be trusted as far as privacy of data is concerned. On the other hand, people do trust their close friends, relatives and other social contacts, albeit, to varying degrees. This paper reports the work-in-progress on S3I(Socially Aware Single System Images) which allows users to form computing clusters using resources owned by their social contacts. It tries to utilize the trust found between people in real life and translate it to provide trustworthy resource sharing between them.

  213. Marasevic, J. and Janak, J. and Schulzrinne, H. and Zussman, G., "WiMAX in the Classroom: Designing a Cellular Networking Hands-On Lab." Research and Educational Experiment Workshop (GREE), 2013 Second GENI, IEEE, 2013. doi:10.1109/gree.2013.29. http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/gree.2013.29

    Abstract: Wireless networking has recently gained tremendous attention in research and education. Since the concepts taught in wireless courses are difficult to acquire only through lectures, hands-on lab experience is indispensable. While Wi-Fi based networking labs have been introduced before, to the best of our knowledge, labs that use a cellular technology have not been designed yet. Therefore, we present a WiMAX hands-on lab designed for a graduate course in wireless and mobile networking. The lab is based on the mobile WiMAX hardware and software developed and deployed within the GENI WiMAX project. We provide a brief overview of the course and of the main concepts taught in the WiMAX lecture. Then, we describe in detail our WiMAX network and the structure of the lab experiment. The effectiveness in achieving the learning objectives is evaluated via the lab reports submitted by the students. Finally, we review some of the lessons we learned during design and implementation of this lab. These can provide important insights to designers of similar labs.

  214. Martin, Vincent and Coulaby, Adama and Schaff, Nathan and Tan, Chiu C. and Lin, Shan, "Bandwidth Prediction on a WiMAX Network." Mobile Ad Hoc and Sensor Systems (MASS), 2014 IEEE 11th International Conference on, IEEE, 2014. doi:10.1109/mass.2014.75. http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/mass.2014.75

    Abstract: The IEEE 802.16 standard (WiMAX) is an important next-generation networking technology which promises highspeed network access for both mobile and fixed users. In this paper we present a method to estimate link quality for devices connected to Temple University's WiMAX network as they traverse both the main campus and the city of Philadelphia via foot and motor vehicle. This is accomplished by first measuring receive signal strength indicator (RSSI), carrier to interference plus noise ratio (CINR), and bandwidth. After capturing these values, we then analyze the data to provide an estimation of the actual system rate. We then present an approach to predict future states of link quality both while stationary at Temple and when traversing Philadelphia via bus.

  215. Maziku, H. and Shetty, S., "Network Aware VM Migration in Cloud Data Centers." Research and Educational Experiment Workshop (GREE), 2014 Third GENI, IEEE, 2014. doi:10.1109/gree.2014.18. http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/gree.2014.18

    Abstract: Host virtualization allows data centers to live migrate an entire virtual Machine (VM) to support data center maintenance, disaster avoidance and workload balancing. Live VM Migration can consume nearly the entire bandwidth for memory intensive applications which impacts the performance of competing flows in the network. A network-aware VM Migration operation ensures a fair share allocation of network resources, leading to a seamless Virtual Machine mobility while minimizing degradation of network performance. Recently, VMPatrol was proposed as a network aware VM Migration model which uses a single physical machine and QoS policies to simulate and implement a cost of migration model. However, the performance evaluation of VMPatrol was conducted in an emulated environment. In this paper, we empirically evaluate the performance of VMPatrol in an experimental GENI testbed characterized by wide-area network dynamics and realistic traffic scenarios. We deploy OpenFlow end to end QoS policies to reserve minimum bandwidths required for successful VM Migration. Preliminary results demonstrate that enforcing QoS policies in terms of bandwidth reservation relieves the network of possible overloads during migration. The results indicate that time taken to complete VM Migration depends on VM's memory size, VM page dirty rate and the available bandwidth. The results also indicate that length of stop copy phase and minimum required progress amount are critical parameters in estimating the VM migration cost.

  216. Maziku, Hellen and Shetty, Sachin and Rogers, Tamara, "Measurement-based IP Geolocation of Routers on Planetlab Infrastructure." First GENI Research and Educational Experiment Workshop (GREE 2012), Los Angeles, 2012.

    Abstract: Location aware applications can benefit from a more accurate yet robust IP geolocation framework. Various approaches to IP geolocation have been well documented. The most recent approach casts IP geolocation as a machine learn- ing classification problem. This approach makes it possible to incorporate both delay and non delay based information. The accuracy of IP geolocation can be improved by incorporating additional types of geolocation information rather relying on network delay alone. To enhance the classification accuracy of the existing classification framework, we expand it to include 6 features (3 of which are novel). We use PlanetLab as a testbed to generate our measurement set. We select 67 PlanetLab nodes within the United States with known geographic location as our landmarks. We test the accuracy of our framework on 23,843 routers given ping measurements from the 67 landmarks. With only three features (average delay, average hops and population density) tested, our new classifier gives a reduced average error distance of 157.81 miles and a median error distance of 0 miles, compared to the present classifier that gives an average error distance of 253.34 miles. This is very promising as we move on to the next phase of incorporating data for the remaining 5 features. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first proposed framework that aims to improve the accuracy of the present classifier based IP geolocation.

  217. McGeer, Rick and Berman, Mark and Elliott, Chip and Ricci, Robert, "The GENI Book." The GENI Book, Springer International Publishing, Cham, 2016. doi:10.1007/978-3-319-33769-2. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-33769-2

    Abstract: This book, edited by four of the leaders of the National Science Foundation's Global Environment and Network Innovations (GENI) project, gives the reader a tour of the history, architecture, future, and applications of GENI. Built over the past decade by hundreds of leading computer scientists and engineers, GENI is a nationwide network used daily by thousands of computer scientists to explore the next Cloud and Internet and the applications and services they enable, which will transform our communities and our lives. Since by design it runs on existing computing and networking equipment and over the standard commodity Internet, it is poised for explosive growth and transformational impact over the next five years. Over 70 of the builders of GENI have contributed to present its development, architecture, and implementation, both as a standalone US project and as a federated peer with similar projects worldwide, forming the core of a worldwide network. Applications and services enabled by GENI, from smarter cities to intensive collaboration to immersive education, are discussed. The book also explores the concepts and technologies that transform the Internet from a shared transport network to a collection of ” slices” -- private, on-the-fly application-specific nationwide networks with guarantees of privacy and responsiveness. The reader will learn the motivation for building GENI and the experience of its precursor infrastructures, the architecture and implementation of the GENI infrastructure, its deployment across the United States and worldwide, the new network applications and services enabled by and running on the GENI infrastructure, and its international collaborations and extensions. This book is useful for academics in the networking and distributed systems areas, Chief Information Officers in the academic, private, and government sectors, and network and information architects.

  218. McGeer, Rick and Ricci, Robert, "The InstaGENI Project." The GENI Book, Springer International Publishing, 2016. doi:10.1007/978-3-319-33769-2_14. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-33769-2_14

    Abstract: In this chapter we describe InstaGENI, built in response to the GENI Mesoscale initiative (Berman et al., Comput Netw 61:5–23, 2014). InstaGENI was designed both as a distributed cloud, to permit experimenters to run distributed systems and networking experiments, across the wide area, and as a meta-cloud, to permit systems researchers to build experimental clouds within the underlying InstaGENI cloud. InstaGENI consists of more than 36 sites spread across the GENI infrastructure, interconnected by a nationwide, deeply-programmable layer- 2 network. Each site is capable of functioning as an autonomous, standalone cloud, with builtin HaaS, IaaS, and OpenFlow (The Openflow Switch Specification. http://OpenFlowSwitch.org; McKeown et al., ACM SIGCOMM CCR 38(2):69– 74, 2008) native support. Sites are also and by default linked, to offer slices across the entire GENI Mesoscale infrastructure. InstaGENI targeted and has realized its key design goals of expandability, reliability, resistance to partition, ease of maintenance upgrade, high distribution, and affordability. InstaGENI offers a highly-scalable infrastructure with OpenFlow native both between and across sites. It has demonstrated a high degree of autonomy and remote management, and has demonstrated its meta-cloud properties by hosting an IaaS and PaaS service within it, GENI PlanetLab and the GENI Experiment Engine (Bavier et al., The GENI experiment engine. In: Proceedings of Tridentcom, 2015).

  219. McKeown, Nick and Anderson, Tom and Balakrishnan, Hari and Parulkar, Guru and Peterson, Larry and Rexford, Jennifer and Shenker, Scott and Turner, Jonathan, "OpenFlow: enabling innovation in campus networks." SIGCOMM Comput. Commun. Rev., ACM, New York, NY, USA, 2008. doi:10.1145/1355734.1355746. http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/1355734.1355746

    Abstract: This whitepaper proposes OpenFlow: a way for researchers to run experimental protocols in the networks they use every day. OpenFlow is based on an Ethernet switch, with an internal flow-table, and a standardized interface to add and remove flow entries. Our goal is to encourage networking vendors to add OpenFlow to their switch products for deployment in college campus backbones and wiring closets. We believe that OpenFlow is a pragmatic compromise: on one hand, it allows researchers to run experiments on heterogeneous switches in a uniform way at line-rate and with high port-density; while on the other hand, vendors do not need to expose the internal workings of their switches. In addition to allowing researchers to evaluate their ideas in real-world traffic settings, OpenFlow could serve as a useful campus component in proposed large-scale testbeds like GENI. Two buildings at Stanford University will soon run OpenFlow networks, using commercial Ethernet switches and routers. We will work to encourage deployment at other schools; and We encourage you to consider deploying OpenFlow in your university network too.

  220. Medhi, Deep and Ramamurthy, Byrav and Scoglio, Caterina and Rohrer, Justin P. and Çetinkaya, Egemen K. and Cherukuri, Ramkumar and Liu, Xuan and Angu, Pragatheeswaran and Bavier, Andy and Buffington, Cort and Sterbenz, James P. G., "The GpENI testbed: Network infrastructure, implementation experience, and experimentation." Computer Networks, 2014. doi:10.1016/j.bjp.2013.12.027. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bjp.2013.12.027

    Abstract: The Great Plains Environment for Network Innovation (GpENI) is an international programmable network testbed centered initially in the Midwest US with the goal to provide programmability across the entire protocol stack. In this paper, we present the overall GpENI framework and our implementation experience for the programmable routing environment and the dynamic circuit network (DCN). GpENI is built to provide a collaborative research infrastructure enabling the research community to conduct experiments in Future Internet architecture. We present illustrative examples of our experimentation in the GpENI platform.

  221. Mehto, RInkel and Sachdeva, Monika and Behal, Sunny, "Performance Measurement of Web Services under UDP Attack using GENI Testbed." International Journal of Innovations in Engineering and Technology (IJIET), 2016. http://ijiet.com/wp-content/uploads/2017/01/64.pdf

    Abstract: Today, Internet is the primary medium for communication which is used by number of users across the Network. As one of the major security problems in the current Internet, a denial-of-service (DoS) attack always attempts to stop the victim from serving legitimate users. A Distributed Denial of Service (DDoS) attack is a DoS attack utilizing multiple distributed attack sources. The majority of DDoS attacks target the network and transport layers. During study of all work we came to know that most of the researchers had done similar work on Simulation based techniques. In this paper, we have measured the performance of Web services under DDoS attack using Real time testbed (GENI). GENI is Global Environment for network innovations. In this work, GENI test bed has been explored and topology has been created on which HTTP legitimate traffic and UDP attack traffic have been generated. Another application i.e User Datagram Protocol (UDP) is simplest Transport Layer communication protocol available of the TCP/IP protocol suite. It involves minimum amount of communication mechanism. Avg.Response Time , Avg.Round Trip Time (RTT) and Throughput in terms of good-put and bad-put is computed to measure impact of DDoS attacks on Web HTTP services.

  222. Mekky, H. and Jin, Cheng and Zhang, Zhi-Li, "VIRO-GENI: SDN-Based Approach for a Non-IP Protocol in GENI." Research and Educational Experiment Workshop (GREE), 2014 Third GENI, IEEE, 2014. doi:10.1109/gree.2014.14. http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/gree.2014.14

    Abstract: Non-IP protocols always presented a challenge for network researchers to deploy and test at large scale. GENI infrastructure presents a testbed to deploy large scale network experiments, however, non-IP protocols still raises a challenge to deploy since IP is the narrow waist of the Internet. SDN provides an opportunity implement non-IP protocols, however, the OpenFlow standard is still tied to Ethernet/IP/TCP protocol stack. In the paper, we utilize SDN to provide a framework to deploy and test a non-IP protocol, Virtual Id Routing (VIRO), in GENI using an extended Open vSwitch platform.

  223. Mitroff, Sarah, "Lawrence Landweber Helped Build Today's Internet, Now He's Advising Its Future." Wired, 2012. http://www.wired.com/business/2012/08/lawrence-landweber/

  224. Morsey, Mohamed and Willner, Alexander and Loughnane, Robyn and Giatili, Mary and Papagianni, Chrysa and Baldin, Ilya and Grosso, Paola and Al-Hazmi, Yahya, "DBcloud: Semantic Dataset for the cloud." 2016 IEEE Conference on Computer Communications Workshops (INFOCOM WKSHPS), San Francisco, CA, USA, IEEE, 2016. doi:10.1109/infcomw.2016.7562073. http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/infcomw.2016.7562073

    Abstract: In cloud environments, the process of matching requests from users with the available computing resources is a challenging task. This is even more complex in federated environments, where multiple providers cooperate to offer enhanced services, suitable for distributed applications. In order to resolve these issues, a powerful modeling methodology can be adopted to facilitate expressing both the request and the available computing resources. This, in turn, leads to an effective matching between the request and the provisioned resources. For this purpose, the Open-Multinet ontologies were developed, which leverage the expressive power of Semantic Web technologies to describe infrastructure components and services. These ontologies have been adopted in a number of federated testbeds. In this article, DBcloud is presented, a system that provides access to Open-Multinet open data via endpoints. DBcloud can be used to simplify the process of discovery and provisioning of cloud resources and services.

  225. Muhammad, Monzur and Cappos, Justin, "Towards a Representive Testbed: Harnessing Volunteers for Networks Research." First GENI Research and Educational Experiment Workshop (GREE 2012), Los Angeles, 2012.

    Abstract: A steady rise in home systems has been seen over the past few years. As more systems are designed and deployed, an appropriate testbed is required to test these systems. Sev- eral systems exist, such as PlanetLab, that currently provide a networking testbed allowing researchers and developers to test and measure various applications. However in the long run such testbeds will be unable to keep up and meet all the demands of many of the large scale modern day peer-to-peer systems. We outline the various challenges and essentials of a networking testbed and we provide an alternate network- ing testbed that is driven by resources that are voluntarily contributed. We talk about the various advantages and dis- advantages of the Seattle system, an open source peer-to- peer computing testbed that has the potential to meet these demands. The testbed is composed of sandboxed resources that are donated by volunteers. Seattle has been deployed for about three years and supports many researchers who are interested in a networking testbed. The testbed consists of over 4100 nodes and is constantly growing. Seattle looks to grow and meet the demands of networking testbeds as they are made.

  226. Mukherjee, Shreyasee and Baid, Akash and Raychaudhuri, Dipankar, "Integrating Advanced Mobility Services into the Future Internet Architecture." 7th International Conference on COMmunication Systems & NETworkS (COMSNETS 2015), Bangalore, 2015. http://winlab.rutgers.edu/s̃hreya/comsnets.pdf

    Abstract: This paper discusses the design challenges associated with supporting advanced mobility services in the future Internet. The recent transition of the Internet from the fixed host-server model to one in which mobile platforms are the norm motivates a next-generation protocol architecture which provides integrated and efficient support for advanced mobility services. Key wireless access and mobility usage scenarios are identified including host mobility, multihoming, vehicular access and context addressability, and key protocol support requirements are identified in each case. The MobilityFirst (MF) architecture being developed under the National Science Foundation's future Internet Architecture (FIA) program is proposed as a possible realization that meets the identified requirements. MF protocol specifics are given for each wireless/mobile use case, along with sample evaluation results demonstrating achievable performance benefits.

  227. Nakao, Akihiro and Yamada, Kazuhisa, "Research and Development on Network Virtualization Technologies in Japan: VNode and FLARE Projects." The GENI Book, Springer International Publishing, 2016. doi:10.1007/978-3-319-33769-2_23. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-33769-2_23

  228. Nakauchi, Kiyohide and Nishinaga, Nozomu, "Software-defined exchange for the virtualized WiFi network towards future Mobile Cloud services." 2016 IEEE International Conference on Communications Workshops (ICC), IEEE, 2016. doi:10.1109/iccw.2016.7503875. http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/iccw.2016.7503875

    Abstract: This paper proposes a software-defined exchange (SDX) scheme for the federation of the virtualized WiFi system and the VNode system, a deeply programmable network virtualization platform, to facilitate Mobile Cloud Computing (MCC) over SDN. We envision the future MCC services, where QoE of the services is further enhanced by SDN's capabilities such as auto-scaling of the network resources to accommodate fluctuated traffic, and seamless migration of server-side programs to the network edge. Towards the future MCC, a cross-domain federated virtual network (slice) across wireless and wired domains is needed, while individual slice operations and policies in each domain should be maintained for supporting the diversity of virtualization technologies. Though some SDX schemes have been proposed in the literature, they implicitly assume inter-connection of virtualized wired domains and it is difficult to apply them to virtualized wireless domains. To address this issue, in this paper we focus on the federation between the VNode and the virtualized WiFi platform through the Slice Exchange Point (SEP) framework as a case study, and specifically propose the WiFi portal function that enables the SEP to inter-connect a VNode slice and a WiFi slice by translation between the common slice description defined by SEP and the WiFi-specific one. This paper shows the design of the WiFi portal and its implementation on the virtualized WiFi prototype system. We build an experimental system using the two virtualized WiFi base stations and four VNode nodes, and demonstrate a wide-area federated slice can be dynamically built in 238 seconds without any manual operation.

  229. Narisetty, R. and Dane, L. and Malishevskiy, A. and Gurkan, D. and Bailey, S. and Narayan, S. and Mysore, S., "OpenFlow Configuration Protocol: Implementation for the of Management Plane." Research and Educational Experiment Workshop (GREE), 2013 Second GENI, IEEE, 2013. doi:10.1109/gree.2013.21. http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/gree.2013.21

    Abstract: Separation of data and control plane offers benefits of having programmability of the forwarding tables according to the needs of the applications. The need for efficient and effective management of network resources is crucial in providing effective control plane functionality to the applications. OpenFlow standardization efforts at Open Networking Foundation resulted in an OpenFlow Configuration specification to address the management of resources in OpenFlow-enabled switches. We report the implementation of the OF-Config 1.1 standard [revision - 25th June 2012] as softconf.d to retrieve and update the controller IP of an OpenvSwitch.

  230. Narisetty, RajaRevanth and Gurkan, Deniz, "Identification of network measurement challenges in OpenFlow-based service chaining." Local Computer Networks Workshops (LCN Workshops), 2014 IEEE 39th Conference on, IEEE, 2014. doi:10.1109/lcnw.2014.6927718. http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/lcnw.2014.6927718

    Abstract: Software-defined networking and Network Function Virtualization (NFV) have simplified the coordination efforts for ” service chaining.” Consequently, network services such as firewall, load balancing, etc. may be service chained in the forwarding (data) plane for specific applications and/or traffic. A specific case is for the firewall rules that depend on deep packet inspection for application identification. If a particular application is identified and is ” safe,” would it be worthwhile to program the data plane to bypass the FW for the duration of the application session? For such a traffic-steering case, we report measurement challenges on various setups and the related cost analysis based on the network delay. Measurements of the network and processing delay have been performed with virtualized resources, on GENI testbed, and with isolated hardware units. Experiences are also reported on how a commercial firewall virtual appliance has been deployed on the GENI testbed for experimentation. The results illustrate the measurement uncertainties and challenges for DPI-based traffic steering in virtualized environments. In addition, we show that such a service chaining may increase throughput and relieve DPI-based processing overhead on firewall units.

  231. Navaz, Abdul and Velusam, Gandhimathi and Gurkan, Deniz, "Experiments on Networking of Hadoop." Network Protocols (ICNP), 2014 IEEE 22nd International Conference on, IEEE, 2014. doi:10.1109/icnp.2014.87. http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/icnp.2014.87

    Abstract: Hadoop is a popular application process big data problems in a networked dist computers. Investigations of performance for networking have been of interest with the networking paradigm through on-demand an enforcements. Network usage characterization can further help understand what policy info needed during application use cases. At scale e Hadoop jobs will help facilitate such char report how Hadoop networking usage can be chi experimentation environment using the Environment for Network Innovation). Further distributed switch framework that may help alleviate the fault tolerance schemes in Hadoop application in the forwarding plane. Delay in recovery from failures has been reduced by almost 99\\ through such a distributed switch architecture deployed on the GENT experimentation environment.

  232. Naylor, David and Mukerjee, Matthew K. and Agyapong, Patrick and Grandl, Robert and Kang, Ruogu and Machado, Michel and Brown, Stephanie and Doucette, Cody and Hsiao, Hsu C. and Han, Dongsu and Kim, Tiffany H. and Lim, Hyeontaek and Ovon, Carol and Zhou, Dong and Lee, Soo B. and Lin, Yue H. and Stuart, Colleen and Barrett, Daniel and Akella, Aditya and Andersen, David and Byers, John and Dabbish, Laura and Kaminsky, Michael and Kiesler, Sara and Peha, Jon and Perrig, Adrian and Seshan, Srinivasan and Sirbu, Marvin and Steenkiste, Peter, "XIA: Architecting a More Trustworthy and Evolvable Internet." SIGCOMM Comput. Commun. Rev., ACM, New York, NY, USA, 2014. doi:10.1145/2656877.2656885. http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/2656877.2656885

    Abstract: Motivated by limitations in today's host-centric IP network, recent studies have proposed clean-slate network architectures centered around alternate first-class principals, such as content, services, or users. However, muchlike the host-centric IP design, elevating one principal type above others hinders communication between other principals and inhibits the network's capability to evolve. This paper presents the eXpressive Internet Architecture (XIA), an architecture with native support for multiple principals and the ability to evolve its functionality to accommodate new, as yet unforeseen, principals over time. We present the results of our ongoing research motivated by and building on the XIA architecture, ranging from topics at the physical level (``how fast can XIA go'') up through to the user level.

  233. Neupane, Roshan L. and Neely, Travis and Chettri, Nishant and Vassell, Mark and Zhang, Yuanxun and Calyam, Prasad and Durairajan, Ramakrishnan, "Dolus: Cyber Defense using Pretense against DDoS Attacks in Cloud Platforms." Proceedings of the 19th International Conference on Distributed Computing and Networking (ICDCN '18), Varanasi, India, 2018. https://www.semanticscholar.org/paper/Dolus-Cyber-Defense-using-Pretense-against-DDoS-At-Neupane-Neely/763f3e0d97a0b6acc96bdc8dd55212387164fbac

    Abstract: Cloud-hosted services are being increasingly used in online businesses in e.g., retail, healthcare, manufacturing, entertainment due to benefits such as scalability and reliability. These benefits are fueled by innovations in orchestration of cloud platforms that make them totally programmable as Software Defined everything Infrastructures (SDxI). At the same time, sophisticated targeted attacks such as Distributed Denial-of-Service (DDoS) are growing on an unprecedented scale threatening the availability of online businesses. In this paper, we present a novel defense system called Dolus to mitigate the impact of DDoS attacks launched against high-value services hosted in SDxI-based cloud platforms. Our Dolus system is able to initiate a 'pretense' in a scalable and collaborative manner to deter the attacker based on threat intelligence obtained from attack feature analysis in a two-stage ensemble learning scheme. Using foundations from pretense theory in child play, Dolus takes advantage of elastic capacity provisioning via 'quarantine virtual machines' and SDxI policy co-ordination across multiple network domains to deceive the attacker by creating a false sense of success. From the time gained through pretense initiation, Dolus enables cloud service providers to decide on a variety of policies to mitigate the attack impact, without disrupting the cloud services experience for legitimate users. We evaluate the efficacy of Dolus using a GENI Cloud testbed and demonstrate its real-time capabilities to: (a) detect DDoS attacks and redirect attack traffic to quarantine resources to engage the attacker under pretense, and (b) coordinate SDxI policies to possibly block DDoS attacks closer to the attack source(s).

  234. Nozaki, Yoshihiro and Bakshi, Parth and Tuncer, Hasan and Shenoy, Nirmala, "Evaluation of tiered routing protocol in floating cloud tiered internet architecture." Computer Networks, 2014. doi:10.1016/j.bjp.2013.11.010. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bjp.2013.11.010

    Abstract: Clean slate future Internet initiatives have been ongoing for a few years. An important consideration in the eventual deployment of solutions for such Internet architectures is the testing and validation of the design and its scalability in realistic network environments. Large scale emulation and experimentation testbeds sponsored and funded by major research organizations worldwide provide a suitable platform for the purpose. In this article, we present the implementation details of a new network and routing protocol that entirely replaces IP and its routing protocols from the protocol stack to provide efficient routing and forwarding of packets in a clean slate Floating Cloud Tiered (FCT) Internet architecture. The FCT architecture leverages the tier structure existing among ISPs, and has a new addressing and routing schema based on tiers. In this article, the implementation and evaluation details of the network protocol with these two features, namely the tiered addressing and tier-based routing using the Global Environmental for Network Innovations (GENI) testbed are presented. The performance of the protocol is also compared with Open Shortest Path First (OSPF) implemented over the GENI testbed for identical network topologies.

  235. Nussbaum, Lucas, "Testbeds Support for Reproducible Research." Proceedings of the Reproducibility Workshop, Los Angeles, CA, USA, ACM, New York, NY, USA, 2017. doi:10.1145/3097766.3097773. http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/3097766.3097773

    Abstract: In the context of experimental research, testbeds play an important role in enabling reproducibility of experiments, by providing a set of services that help experiments with setting up the experimental environment, and collecting data about it. This paper explores the status of three different testbeds (Chameleon, CloudLab and Grid'5000) regarding features required for, or related to reproducible research, and discusses some open questions on that topic.

  236. O'Neill, Derek and Aikat, Jay and Jeffay, Kevin, "Experiment Replication Using ProtoGENI nodes." 2013 Second GENI Research and Educational Experiment Workshop, Salt Lake, UT, USA, IEEE, 2013. doi:10.1109/gree.2013.11. http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/gree.2013.11

    Abstract: Repeatability of network experiments has long been a goal for networking researchers but the lack of a scientific process of experimentation has made this exercise difficult to achieve. In this paper, we demonstrate that, if conducted in a scientific manner, experiments can indeed be repeated in different networks to produce the same results. We ran experiments in our lab, and on two different network configurations in ProtoGENI and demonstrated that we get similar results for network and application performance evaluations. We believe that this is an important step as we take the process of measurement-based networking research from its ad hoc phase into the realm of a scientific process. We also present these experiments using GENI infrastructure as a demonstration for other experimenters to run similar realistic experiments on GENI testbeds. Furthermore, we believe this is the first set of experiments to emulate per-connection Round- Trip-Times in GENI-based experiments.

  237. Ozcelik, I. and Fu, Yu and Brooks, R. R., "DoS Detection is Easier Now." Research and Educational Experiment Workshop (GREE), 2013 Second GENI, IEEE, 2013. doi:10.1109/gree.2013.18. http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/gree.2013.18

    Abstract: In this study, we test anomaly based Denial of Service (DoS) detection approaches on networks with different utilization profiles. In the experiments, we use operational background traffic and performed Distributed DoS attacks without disturbing the operational network. Experiment results indicate that the detection approach's detection performance is inversely proportional to network utilization and optimal detection parameters depend on network utilization.

  238. Ozcelik, Ilker and Brooks, Richard R., "Performance Analysis of DDoS Detection Methods on Real Network." First GENI Research and Educational Experiment Workshop (GREE 2012), Los Angeles, 2012.

    Abstract: Distributed Denial of Service (DDoS) attacks are major security threats to the Internet. The distributed structure of these attacks makes it difficult to distinguish between legitimate and attack traffic, making detection difficult. In addition to this challenge, researchers also have to study and find countermeasures against these attacks without using an operational network for testing, since attacks on operational networks inconvenience users. In this paper, we propose a method to perform DDoS analysis on real hardware using real traffic without jeopardizing the original network. We implement our experiments on the Geni testbed using Openflow. We present results from DDoS detection methods using operational traffic.

  239. Ozcelik, Ilker and Brooks, Richard R., "Security experimentation using operational systems." Proceedings of the Seventh Annual Workshop on Cyber Security and Information Intelligence Research, Oak Ridge, Tennessee, ACM, New York, NY, USA, 2011. doi:10.1145/2179298.2179388. http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/2179298.2179388

    Abstract: Computers and Internet have evolved into necessary tools for our professional, personal and social lives. As a result of this growing dependence, there is a concern that these systems remain protected and available. This concern increases exponentially when considering systems such as smart power grids. Therefore, research should be conducted to develop effective ways of detecting system anomalies. To have realistic results, the studies should be tested on real systems. However, it is not possible to test these experiments on the live network. With the recent collaboration of Universities and research labs, a new experiment test bed has been established. As a result, experiments can now be implemented on real networks. In our study, we design an experiment to analyze Distributed Denial of Service Attacks (DDoS Attack) on a real network with real Internet traffic. The approach that we use in our study can easily be generalized to apply to smart power grids.

  240. Ozcelik, Ilker and Brooks, Richard R., "Operational System Testing for Designed in Security." Proceedings of the Eighth Annual Cyber Security and Information Intelligence Research Workshop, Oak Ridge, Tennessee, ACM, New York, NY, USA, 2013. doi:10.1145/2459976.2460038. http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/2459976.2460038

    Abstract: To design secure systems, one needs to understand how attackers use system vulnerabilities in their favor. This requires testing vulnerabilities on operational systems. However, working on operational systems is not always possible because of the risk of disturbance. In this study, we introduce an approach to experimenting using operational system data and performing real attacks without disturbing the original system. We applied this approach to a network security experiment and tested the performance of three detection methods. The approach used in this study can be used when developing systems with Designed-in Security to identify and test system vulnerabilities.

  241. Patali, Rohit, "Utility-Directed Resource Allocation in Virtual Desktop Clouds (Master's thesis)." 2011. https://etd.ohiolink.edu/!etd.send_file?accession=osu1306872632

    Abstract: User communities are rapidly transitioning their ” traditional desktops” that have dedicated hardware and software installations into ” virtual desktop clouds” (VDCs) that are accessible via thin-clients. To allocate and manage VDC resources for Internet-scale desktop delivery, existing work focuses mainly on managing server-side resources based on utility functions of CPU and memory loads, and do not consider network health and thin-client user experience. Resource allocations without combined utility-directed information of system loads, network health and thin-client user experience in VDC platforms inevitably results in costly guesswork and overprovisioning of resources. In this thesis, an analytical model i.e., ” Utility-Directed Resource Allocation Model (U-RAM)” is presented to solve the combined utility-directed resource allocation problem within VDCs. The solution uses an iterative algorithm that leverages utility functions of system, network and human components obtained using a novel virtual desktop performance benchmarking toolkit i.e., ” VDBench”. The combined utility functions are used to direct decision schemes based on Kuhn-Tucker optimality conditions for creating user desktop pools and determining optimal resource allocation size/location. U-RAM is evaluated in a VDC testbed featuring: (a) popular user applications (Spreadsheet Calculator, Internet Browser, Media Player, Interactive Visualization), and (b) TCP/UDP based thin-client protocols (RDP, RGS, PCoIP) under a variety of user load and network health conditions. Evaluation results demonstrate that U-RAM solution maximizes VDC scalability i.e., 'VDs per core density', and 'user connections quantity', while delivering satisfactory thin-client user experience.

  242. Paul, Subharthi and Pan, Jianli and Jain, Raj, "Architectures for the future networks and the next generation Internet: A survey." Computer Communications, Elsevier Science Publishers B. V., Amsterdam, The Netherlands, The Netherlands, 2011. doi:10.1016/j.comcom.2010.08.001. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.comcom.2010.08.001

    Abstract: Networking research funding agencies in USA, Europe, Japan, and other countries are encouraging research on revolutionary networking architectures that may or may not be bound by the restrictions of the current TCP/IP based Internet. We present a comprehensive survey of such research projects and activities. The topics covered include various testbeds for experimentations for new architectures, new security mechanisms, content delivery mechanisms, management and control frameworks, service architectures, and routing mechanisms. Delay/disruption tolerant networks which allow communications even when complete end-to-end path is not available are also discussed.

  243. Peter, Simon and Javed, Umar and Zhang, Qiao and Woos, Doug and Anderson, Thomas and Krishnamurthy, Arvind, "One tunnel is (often) enough." Proceedings of the ACM SIGCOMM 2014 conference, ACM, New York, NY, USA, 2014. doi:10.1145/2740070.2626318. http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/2740070.2626318

    Abstract: A longstanding problem with the Internet is that it is vulnerable to outages, black holes, hijacking and denial of service. Although architectural solutions have been proposed to address many of these issues, they have had difficulty being adopted due to the need for widespread adoption before most users would see any benefit. This is especially relevant as the Internet is increasingly used for applications where correct and continuous operation is essential. In this paper, we study whether a simple, easy to implement model is sufficient for addressing the aforementioned Internet vulnerabilities. Our model, called ARROW (Advertised Reliable Routing Over Waypoints), is designed to allow users to configure reliable and secure end to end paths through participating providers. With ARROW, a highly reliable ISP offers tunneled transit through its network, along with packet transformation at the ingress, as a service to remote paying customers. Those customers can stitch together reliable end to end paths through a combination of participating and non-participating ISPs in order to improve the fault-tolerance, robustness, and security of mission critical transmissions. Unlike efforts to redesign the Internet from scratch, we show that ARROW can address a set of well-known Internet vulnerabilities, for most users, with the adoption of only a single transit ISP. To demonstrate ARROW, we have added it to a small-scale wide-area ISP we control. We evaluate its performance and failure recovery properties in both simulation and live settings.

  244. Qin, Z. and Xiong, X. and Chuah, M., "Lehigh Explorer: Android Application Utilizing Content Centric Features." First GENI Research and Educational Experiment Workshop (GREE 2012), Los Angeles, 2012.

    Abstract: Companies, government organizations or institutions from anywhere in the world publish different types of information e.g. news, health alerts, disaster warnings at any time. Rather than consuming all published data, users only desire access to information of interest to themselves irrespective of where the data is located and who publish them. Existing publish/subscribe systems built based on IP-based network can be inefficient and are not flexible enough to meet emerging requirements e.g. deal with mobile users, dynamic contents, searching over encrypted data. Recently content-centric networks have been proposed to provide flexibility to users to access such information. We have designed secure content centric mobile networks that allow users to publish and retrieve contents securely. As with any new architecture, one important issue is to have useful applications that can utilize features provided in the new architecture. In this paper, we describe an Android application we recently developed that allows visitors to explore Lehigh campus based on their expressed interests. Our application utilizes keyword based interest messages to retrieve matching data items of interests to a user. We are giving a demo of Lehigh Explorer at GEC13.

  245. Qiu, Chenxi and Shen, Haiying, "A Delaunay-Based Coordinate-Free Mechanism for Full Coverage in Wireless Sensor Networks." Parallel and Distributed Systems, IEEE Transactions on, IEEE, 2014. doi:10.1109/tpds.2013.134. http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/tpds.2013.134

    Abstract: Recently, many schemes have been proposed for detecting and healing coverage holes to achieve full coverage in wireless sensor networks (WSNs). However, none of these schemes aim to find the shortest node movement paths to heal the coverage holes, which could significantly reduce energy usage for node movement. Also, current hole healing schemes require accurate knowledge of sensor locations; obtaining this knowledge consumes high energy. In this paper, we propose a Delaunay-based coordinate-free mechanism (DECM) for full coverage. Based on rigorous mathematical analysis, DECM can detect coverage holes and find the locally shortest paths for healing holes in a distributed manner without requiring accurate node location information. Also, DECM incorporates a cooperative movement mechanism that can prevent generating new holes during node movements in healing holes. Simulation results and experimental results from the real-world GENI Orbit testbed show that DECM achieves superior performance in terms of the energy-efficiency, effectiveness of hole healing, energy consumption balance and lifetime compared to previous schemes.

  246. Quan, John and Nance, Kara and Hay, Brian, "A Mutualistic Security Service Model: Supporting Large-Scale Virtualized Environments." IT Professional, 2011. doi:10.1109/MITP.2011.36. http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/MITP.2011.36

    Abstract: Applying a mutualistic security service model to large-scale virtualized environments that rely on contributed hardware lets researchers improve security in exchange for resources. The authors discuss this model in the context of the Global Environment for Network Innovation (GENI) project.

  247. Rahimi, R. and Shao, C. and Veeraraghavan, M. and Fumagalli, A. and Nicho, J. and Meyer, J. and Edwards, S. and Flannigan, C. and Evans, P., "An Industrial Robotics Application with Cloud Computing and High-Speed Networking." 2017 First IEEE International Conference on Robotic Computing (IRC), Taichung, Taiwan, IEEE, 2017. doi:10.1109/irc.2017.39. http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/irc.2017.39

    Abstract: This paper describes an industrial cloud robotics distributed application that was executed across a high-speed wide-area network. The application was implemented using ROS libraries and packages. The purpose of the application is to enable an industrial robot to perform surface blending. A Kinect sensor, a surface blending tool and a laser scanner are mounted on the robot arm. The arm is moved under software control to scan a work bench on which metal parts of variable size can be laid out at any orientation. The collected point cloud data is processed by a segmentation algorithm to find the surface boundaries. A Cartesian path planning algorithm is executed to determine paths for the robot arm to execute the blending action and a laser scan on a selected surface. A new ROS package was implemented to collect CPU, memory and bandwidth usage for each significant ROS node in this distributed application. To emulate a scenario in which computing resources at a remote datacenter can be used for the segmentation and path planning algorithms in conjunction with the robots located on a factory floor, a software-defined network testbed called GENI was used to distribute compute-heavy ROS nodes. Measurements show that with TCP tuning, and high-speed end-to-end paths, the total execution time in the Cloud scenario can be reasonably close to a local scenario in which computing is collocated with the robot.

  248. Rahimi, Reza and Veeraraghavan, M. and Nakajima, Y. and Takahashi, H. and Nakajima, Y. and Okamoto, S. and Yamanaka, N., "A high-performance OpenFlow software switch." 2016 IEEE 17th International Conference on High Performance Switching and Routing (HPSR), Yokohama, Japan, IEEE, 2016. doi:10.1109/hpsr.2016.7525645. http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/hpsr.2016.7525645

    Abstract: Software switches offer flexibility to service providers but potentially suffer from low performance. A software switch called Lagopus was implemented using Intel's Data Plane Development Kit (DPDK), which offers libraries for high-performance packet handling. Prior work on software switches focused on characterizing packet forwarding throughput. In this work, we evaluated the impact of certain parameters and settings in Lagopus on application performance and studied packet drop rates. The importance of receive-thread packet classification for load balancing and to send delay-sensitive flows to a different worker thread from high-throughput flows was first demonstrated. Next, we showed that a loop-count variable used to control packet batching should be kept small in case link utilization is low. Finally, we showed that packet drop rate could be non-zero when the OpenFlow table size is large and packet arrival rate is high, and interestingly, the packet drop rate was higher with four worker threads than with a single worker thread. This implies a need for careful calibration and planning of the parameters of parallelization.

  249. Rajagopalan, Sudharsan, "Leveraging OpenFlow for Resource Placement of Virtual Desktop Cloud Applications (Master's thesis)." 2013. http://rave.ohiolink.edu/etdc/view?acc_num=osu1367456412

    Abstract: Popular applications such as email, photo/video galleries, and file storage are increasingly being supported by cloud platforms in residential, academia and industry communities. The next frontier for these user communities will be to transition `traditional desktops' that have dedicated hardware and software configurations into `virtual desktop clouds' that are accessible via thin-clients. In this paper, we describe an Intelligent resource placement framework for thin-client based virtual desktops. The framework leverages principles of software defined networking and features a `unified resource broker' that uses special `marker packets' for: (a) ” route setup” when handling non-IP traffic between thin-client sites and data centers, (b) ” path selection” and ” load balancing” of virtual desktop flows to improve performance of interactive applications and video playback, and to cope with faults such as link-failures or Denial of Service cyber-attacks. The Framework has the ability to provisioning OpenFlow paths with less Service Response times for VD Requests. Our Framework In addition, we detail our framework implementation within a virtual desktop cloud (VDC) setup in a multi-domain Global Environment for Network Innovations (GENI) Future Internet testbed spanning backbone and access networks with a automation and centralized control using a tool called VDC-Sim. We present empirical results from our experimentation that leverages OpenFlow programmable networking, as well as cross-traffic capabilities for validating our framework in GENI under realistic settings. Our results demonstrate the importance of scheduling regulated measurements that can be used for intelligent resource placement decisions. Our results also show the feasibility and benefits of using OpenFlow controller applications for path selection and load balancing between thin-client sites and data centers in VDCs. The thesis also shows how our OpenFlow Framework can used for other cloud applications using GridFTP application over WAN as a Case Study.

  250. Rakotoarivelo, Thierry and Jourjon, Guillaume and Mehani, Olivier and Ott, Max and Zink, Michael, "A Walk Through the GENI Experiment Cycle." The GENI Book, Springer International Publishing, 2016. doi:10.1007/978-3-319-33769-2_17. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-33769-2_17

    Abstract: The ability to repeat experiments from a research study and obtain similar results is a corner stone in experiment-based scientific discovery. This essential feature has often been overlooked by the distributed computing and networking community. There are many reasons for that, such as the complexity of provisioning, configuring, and orchestrating the resources used by experiments, their multiple external dependencies, or the difficulty to seamlessly record these dependencies. This chapter describes a methodology based on well-established principles to plan, prepare and execute reproducible experiments. We propose and describe a family of tools, the LabWiki workspace, to support an experimenter's workflow based on that methodology. This proposed workspace provides services and mechanisms for each step of an experiment-based study, while automatically capturing the necessary information to allow others to repeat, inspect, validate and modify prior experiments. Our LabWiki workspace builds on existing contributions, de-facto protocols, and model standards, which emerged from recent experimental facility initiatives. We use a real experiment as a thread to guide and illustrate the discussion throughout this chapter.

  251. Rakotoarivelo, Thierry and Jourjon, Guillaume and Mehani, Olivier and Ott, Maximilian and Zink, Mike, "Repeatable Experiments with LabWiki." 2014. http://arxiv.org/abs/1410.1681

    Abstract: The ability to repeat the experiments from a research study and obtain similar results is a corner stone in experiment-based scientific discovery. This essential feature has been often ignored by the distributed computing and networking community. There are many reasons for that, such as the complexity of provisioning, configuring, and orchestrating the resources used by experiments, their multiple external dependencies, and the difficulty to seamlessly record these dependencies. This paper describes a methodology based on well-established principles to plan, prepare and execute experiments. We propose and describe a family of tools, the LabWiki workspace, to support an experimenter's workflow based on that methodology. This proposed workspace provides services and mechanisms for each step of an experiment-based study, while automatically capturing the necessary information to allow others to repeat, inspect, validate and modify prior experiments. Our LabWiki workspace builds on existing contributions, and de-facto protocol and model standards, which emerged from recent experimental facility initiatives. We use a real experiment as a thread to guide and illustrate the discussion throughout this paper.

  252. Rama Akula, Amit K., "App chaining software-as-a-service for an advanced manufacturing marketplace (Master's Thesis)." 2015.

    Abstract: Advances in the field of cloud computing and networking have led to development of Marketplaces (e.g., Awesim) that support Advanced Manufacturing enterprises consisting of Apps. These Marketplaces host Apps that perform simulation and modeling on specialized designs (e.g., pipes, automobile parts). However, the salient limitation in these App Marketplaces is the lack of a development environment that supports effective runtime capabilities for 'Agile Manufacturing' that efficiently and cost-effectively integrates several Apps when building innovative products. To address this problem, we propose a new Software-as-a-Service based App Runtime for the Marketplace environment that can be utilized for agile development of 'Apps' that involve high-performance modeling and simulation. Our solution approach features a web framework for the App runtime that chains together generic set of 'Apps' that run complex simulation jobs on Supercomputer and publish customer facing results. We demonstrate how multiple Apps can be chained using our web framework for a product case study viz., 'WheelSim' deployed in the NSF GENI Cloud platform. Our results show improved App development convenience via rich UI elements interacting with RESTful web services and through dynamic chaining of workflows. Our study also provides App developers with insights pertaining to estimation of resource cost for App pricing issues in the manufacturing Marketplace.

  253. Ramisetty, Shravya and Calyam, Prasad and Cecil, J. and Akula, Amit R. and Antequera, Ronny B. and Leto, Ray, "Ontology integration for advanced manufacturing collaboration in cloud platforms." 2015 IFIP/IEEE International Symposium on Integrated Network Management (IM), IEEE, 2015. doi:10.1109/inm.2015.7140329. http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/inm.2015.7140329

    Abstract: Advances in the field of cloud computing and networking have led to rapid development and market growth in areas such as online retail, gaming and healthcare. In the field of advanced manufacturing however, the impact has been significantly lesser than expected due to limitations in cloud platforms for fostering community engagement. To address this problem, we study a new cloud-based architecture that provides Platform-asa-Service (PaaS) management capabilities to the manufacturing community for delivering Software-as-a-Service (SaaS) ” Apps” to their customers. Our architecture aims at supporting an ” App Marketplace” that thrives on agile development, organic collaboration and scalable sales of next generation manufacturing Apps requiring high-performance simulation and modeling. Towards realizing the vision of the above architecture, our paper involves investigation and implementation of an Ontology Service that interoperates with other common web services related to resource brokering and accounting. Our Ontology Service uses principles of mapping and merging to translate a manufacturing App's collaboration requirements to suitable resource specifications on public cloud platforms. Integrated resultant ontology can be queried to provision the required resource parameters such as amount of memory/storage, number of processing units, and network protocol configurations needed for deployment of an App. We validate the effectiveness of our Ontology Service using the Protégé framework in a pilot testbed of a real-world ” WheelSim” App in the NSF GENI Cloud platform. Our ontology integration results show benefits to an App developer in terms of: optimal user experience, lower design time and lower cost/simulation.

  254. Randall, David P. and Diamant, E. Ilana and Lee, Charlotte P., "Creating Sustainable Cyberinfrastructures." Proceedings of the 33rd Annual ACM Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems, Seoul, Republic of Korea, ACM, New York, NY, USA, 2015. doi:10.1145/2702123.2702216. http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/2702123.2702216

    Abstract: In this paper we report the results of a qualitative research study of the GENI cyberinfrastructure: a program of four federated cyberinfrastructures. Drawing on theories of stakeholder positioning, we examine how different GENI stakeholders attempt to enlist new participants in the cyberinfrastructures of GENI, and leverage existing relationships to create sustainable infrastructure. This study contributes to our understanding of how cyberinfrastructures emerge over time through processes of stakeholder alignment, enrollment, and through synergies among stakeholder groups. We explore these issues to better understand how cyberinfrastructures can be designed to sustain over time.

  255. Ravi, Abhiram and Ramanathan, Parmesh and Sivalingam, KrishnaM, "Integrated network coding and caching in information-centric networks: revisiting pervasive caching in the ICN framework." Photonic Network Communications, Springer US, 2015. doi:10.1007/s11107-015-0557-4. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11107-015-0557-4

    Abstract: Information-centric networks (ICNs) replace IP addresses with content names at the thin waist of the Internet hourglass, thereby enabling pervasive router-level caching at the network layer. In this paper, we revisit pervasive content caching and propose an algorithm for cache replacement at ICN routers by incorporating principles from network cod- ing, a technique used to achieve maximum flow rates in multicast. By introducing a low computational cost in the system, network-coded caching better utilizes the available small storage space at the routers to cache more effectively in the network. Results of our experiments on the global enterprise for network innovations (GENI) testbed demon- strating the performance of our algorithm on a real network are included in the paper. We evaluate the algorithm in two different traffic scenarios (i) video-on-demand (VoD) (ii) Zipf-based web traffic. Working with the named data networking implementation of ICN, we also present the addi- tional headers and logical components that are needed to enable network-coded caching. In a nutshell, we show that an integrated coding-and-caching strategy can provide sig- nificant gains in latency and content delivery rate for a small computational overhead.

  256. Raychaudhuri, Dipankar and Nagaraja, Kiran and Venkataramani, Arun, "MobilityFirst: a robust and trustworthy mobility-centric architecture for the future internet." SIGMOBILE Mob. Comput. Commun. Rev., ACM, New York, NY, USA, 2012. doi:10.1145/2412096.2412098. http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/2412096.2412098

    Abstract: This paper presents an overview of the MobilityFirst network architecture, currently under development as part of the US National Science Foundation's Future Internet Architecture (FIA) program. The proposed architecture is intended to directly address the challenges of wireless access and mobility at scale, while also providing new services needed for emerging mobile Internet application scenarios. After briefly outlining the original design goals of the project, we provide a discussion of the main architectural concepts behind the network design, identifying key features such as separation of names from addresses, public-key based globally unique identifiers (GUIDs) for named objects, global name resolution service (GNRS) for dynamic binding of names to addresses, storage-aware routing and late binding, content- and context-aware services, optional in-network compute layer, and so on. This is followed by a brief description of the MobilityFirst protocol stack as a whole, along with an explanation of how the protocol works at end-user devices and inside network routers. Example of specific advanced services supported by the protocol stack, including multi-homing, mobility with disconnection, and content retrieval/caching are given for illustration. Further design details of two key protocol components, the GNRS name resolution service and the GSTAR routing protocol, are also described along with sample results from evaluation. In conclusion, a brief description of an ongoing multi-site experimental proof-of-concept deployment of the MobilityFirst protocol stack on the GENI testbed is provided.

  257. Raychaudhuri, Dipankar and Seskar, Ivan and Ott, Max, "ORBIT: Wireless Experimentation." The GENI Book, Springer International Publishing, 2016. doi:10.1007/978-3-319-33769-2_4. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-33769-2_4

    Abstract: This chapter presents an overview of the ORBIT testbed for wireless experimentation. ORBIT is an NSF supported community testbed for wireless networking which provides a variety of programmable resources for at-scale reproducible experimentation as well as real-world outdoor trials. The centerpiece of the ORBIT testbed is the 400-node ” radio grid” deployed at the Rutgers Tech Centre facility in North Brunswick, NJ. The radio grid enables researchers to conduct reproducible experiments with large numbers of wireless nodes over a wide range of radio technologies, densities and network topologies. The ORBIT system architecture is outlined and technical details are given for the radio grid's key hardware and software components including the radio node platforms, software defined radios, RF measurement system, switching and computing backend and the ORBIT management framework (OMF). Additional ORBIT resources including special purpose sandboxes and the outdoor WiMax campus deployment are also described. The experimental interface and scripting tools for running an experiment on ORBIT are outlined, and examples of a few representative experiments which have been run on the ORBIT testbed are summarized. The chapter concludes with a view of ORBIT's evolution and future upgrade path along with an explanation of how it links to the overall GENI project.

  258. Rezgui, Abdelmounaam and Davis, Nickolas and Malik, Zaki and Medjahed, Brahim and Soliman, Hamdy, "CloudFinder: A System for Processing Big Data Workloads on Volunteered Federated Clouds." IEEE Transactions on Big Data, 2017. doi:10.1109/tbdata.2017.2703830. http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/tbdata.2017.2703830

    Abstract: The proliferation of private clouds that are often underutilized and the tremendous computational potential of these clouds when combined has recently brought forth the idea of volunteer cloud computing (VCC), a computing model where cloud owners contribute underutilized computing and/or storage resources on their clouds to support the execution of applications of other members in the community. This model is particularly suitable to solve big data scientific problems. Scientists in data-intensive scientific fields increasingly recognize that sharing volunteered resources from several clouds is a cost-effective alternative to solve many complex, data- and/or compute-intensive science problems. Despite the promise of the idea of VCC, it still remains at the vision stage at best. Challenges include the heterogeneity and autonomy of member clouds, access control and security, complex inter-cloud virtual machine scheduling, etc. In this paper, we present CloudFinder, a system that supports the efficient execution of big data workloads on volunteered federated clouds (VFCs). Our evaluation of the system indicates that VFCs are a promising cost-effective approach to enable big data science.

  259. Ricart, Glenn, "US Ignite testbeds: Advanced testbeds enable next-generation applications." Teletraffic Congress (ITC), 2014 26th International, IEEE, 2014. doi:10.1109/itc.2014.6932975. http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/itc.2014.6932975

    Abstract: US Ignite is organizing what will eventually become 200 testbeds for next-generation applications in the United States. Twenty-eight testbeds are currently in various stages of operation. Most testbeds have gigabit to the end user capability including homes and small businesses. Both wired (fiber) and wireless cities are represented. The three salient advantages of these testbeds are their (1) applicability for big data (and big video) applications upstream and downstream, (2) ability to provide low-latency access to edge or local cloud (locavore) infrastructure for ultra-responsive and powerful applications, and (3) capacity for enough physical bandwidth to allow for virtualized channels carrying new services under new business models.

  260. Ricart, Glenn and McGeer, Rick, "US Ignite and Smarter Communities." The GENI Book, Springer International Publishing, 2016. doi:10.1007/978-3-319-33769-2_20. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-33769-2_20

    Abstract: What will the next generation of the Internet do? How will it change healthcare, education, public safety, clean energy, transportation, and advanced manufacturing? These are the questions that launched US Ignite. Computer Science research led by the National Science Foundation, DARPA, and corporate R&D labs have led to powerful new concepts. The NSF programs FIND (Future Internet Design), GENI (Global Environment for Network Innova- tion), and FIA (Future Internet Architectures) have led to a number of advanced networking concepts that could be transformational. US Ignite invites a wide range of application developers an opportunity to play with these new ideas to see what kinds of applications they make possible. US Ignite also aims to make trial deployments of these applications in testbed communities possessing the necessary advanced infrastructure, and to encourage more communities to deploy the necessary advanced infrastructure.

  261. Ricci, Robert, "The Need for Flexible Community Research Infrastructure." The GENI Book, Springer International Publishing, 2016. doi:10.1007/978-3-319-33769-2_6. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-33769-2_6

    Abstract: Many areas of computing research have strong empirical components, and thus require testbeds, test networks, compute facilities, clouds, and other infrastructure for running experiments. The most successful facilities of these types are those built by the communities that need them: domain experts are in the best position to ensure that infrastructure they design meet the needs of their communities. The observation that we make in this chapter is that the hardware, and in many cases, software, infrastructure needs that underlie many of these facilities are remarkably similar. This points out the opportunity to build infrastructure that supports a wide range of computing research domains in an easy to use, cost effective, and low-risk manner. This chapter describes our vision for the future of computing research infrastructure.

  262. Ricci, Robert and Eide, Eric, "Introducing CloudLab:Scientific Infrastructure for Advancing Cloud Architecturesand Applications." ;login:, Usenix, 2014. http://www.usenix.org/publications/login/dec14/ricci

    Abstract: Researchers and practitioners are flush with ideas for tomorrow's cloud architectures. Their proposals range from small extensions of today's popular cloud-software stacks to all-new architectures that address mobility, energy efficiency, security and privacy, spe- cific workloads, the Internet of Things, and on and on. Many of the ideas that drive modern clouds, such as virtualization, network slicing, and robust distributed storage arose from the research community. However, today's clouds have become unsuitable for moving this research agenda forward: they have specific, unmalleable implementations of the core tech- nologies ” baked in.” To support next-generation cloud research, the community needs infrastructure that is built to support research into a wide variety of cloud architectures. CloudLab is a new, large-scale, diverse, and distributed infrastructure designed to address this need. CloudLab is not itself a cloud. Rather, it is a substrate on which researchers can build their own clouds and experi- ment with them in an environment that provides a high degree of realism.

  263. Ricci, Robert and Team, The Emulab, "Precursors: Emulab." The GENI Book, Springer International Publishing, 2016. doi:10.1007/978-3-319-33769-2_2. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-33769-2_2

    Abstract: One of the precursors of the GENI project is Emulab, a testbed effort that has been ongoing at the University of Utah since 1999. Emulab is both the name of a testbed control system, and the name of a particular facility built using that system. The Emulab facility is housed at the University of Utah, but is available to researchers worldwide—thousands of users have run hundreds of thousands of experiments over the lifetime of the testbed. The Emulab software is open-source, and has been used to bring up dozens of experimental facilities at institutions around the world. Some of these, like the Utah facility, are open to the public for the purposes of research and educations; others are run by individual institutions for their own use, which may include product R&D, classified work, etc.

  264. Ricci, Robert and Wong, Gary and Stoller, Leigh and Duerig, Jonathon, "An Architecture For International Federation of Network Testbeds." IEICE Transactions on Communications, 2013. doi:10.1587/transcom.E96.B.2. http://dx.doi.org/10.1587/transcom.E96.B.2

    Abstract: Testbeds play a key role in the advancement of network science and the exploration of new network architectures. Because the scale and scope of any individual testbed is necessarily limited, federation is a useful technique for constructing testbeds that serve a wide range of experimenter needs. In a federated testbed, individual facilities maintain local autonomy while cooperating to provide a unified set of abstractions and interfaces to users. Forming an international federation is particularly challenging, because issues of trust, user access policy, and local laws and regulations are of greater concern that they are for federations within a single country. In this paper, we describe an architecture, based on the US National Science Foundation's GENI project, that is capable of supporting the needs of an international federation.

  265. Ricci, Robert and Wong, Gary and Stoller, Leigh and Webb, Kirk and Duerig, Jonathon and Downie, Keith and Hibler, Mike, "Apt: A Platform for Repeatable Research in Computer Science." SIGOPS Oper. Syst. Rev., ACM, New York, NY, USA, 2015. doi:10.1145/2723872.2723885. http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/2723872.2723885

    Abstract: Repeating research in computer science requires more than just code and data: it requires an appropriate environment in which to run experiments. In some cases, this environment appears fairly straightforward: it consists of a particular operating system and set of required libraries. In many cases, however, it is considerably more complex: the execution environment may be an entire network, may involve complex and fragile configuration of the dependencies, or may require large amounts of resources in terms of computation cycles, network bandwidth, or storage. Even the s̈traightforward ̈case turns out to be surprisingly intricate: there may be explicit or hidden dependencies on compilers, kernel quirks, details of the ISA, etc. The result is that when one tries to repeat published results, creating an environment sufficiently similar to one in which the experiment was originally run can be troublesome; this problem only gets worse as time passes. What the computer science community needs, then, are environments that have the explicit goal of enabling repeatable research. This paper outlines the problem of repeatable research environments, presents a set of requirements for such environments, and describes one facility that attempts to address them.

  266. Riga, Niky and Edwards, Sarah and Thomas, Vicraj, "The Experimenter's View of GENI." The GENI Book, Springer International Publishing, 2016. doi:10.1007/978-3-319-33769-2_15. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-33769-2_15

    Abstract: GENI is a federated infrastructure that provides GENI experimenters with access to multiple different testbeds, enabling networking and distributed systems research. Although GENI resources are owned and operated by different organizations from a users perspective GENI appears as a unified virtual laboratory. An experimenter can instantiate custom Layer 2 topologies that include a variety of compute and network elements. This ability is achieved through the use of tools, as well as common APIs and shared authentication and authorization procedures across the federation.

  267. Riga, Niky and Thomas, Vicraj and Maglaris, Vasilis and Grammatikou, Mary and Anifantis, Evangelos, "Virtual Laboratories - Use of Public Testbeds in Education." Proceedings of the 7th International Conference on Computer Supported Education, Lisbon, Portugal, SCITEPRESS - Science and and Technology Publications, 2015. doi:10.5220/0005496105160521. http://dx.doi.org/10.5220/0005496105160521

    Abstract: Experimentation is an invaluable part of learning in all sciences. However, building and maintaining laboratories is expensive, time and space consuming. Moreover, in computer science advances in technology can quickly make the infrastructure obsolete. In this paper we advocate the use of recently deployed public testbeds as remote labs for computer science education. As an example we describe the successful use of the GENI testbed in graduate and undergraduate courses and present a specific case study of GENI being used in an undergraduate class on Network Management and Intelligent Networks.

  268. Risdianto, Aris C. and Kim, JongWon, "Prototyping Media Distribution Experiments over OF@TEIN SDN-enabled Testbed." Proceedings of the Asia-Pacific Advanced Network, 2014. doi:10.7125/apan.38.2. http://dx.doi.org/10.7125/apan.38.2

    Abstract: The lifecycle of service realization experiment is composed of multiple stages, where tasks and responsibilities are well-defined between users and operators. In this paper, we prototype media distribution experiments over an OF@TEIN SDN (Software-Defined Networking)-enabled testbed while paying attention to the automated resource provisioning and experiment execution.

  269. Rivera and Fei, Zongming and Griffioen, James, "Providing a High Level Abstraction for SDN Networks in GENI." Distributed Computing Systems Workshops (ICDCSW), 2015 IEEE 35th International Conference on, IEEE, 2015. doi:10.1109/icdcsw.2015.22. http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/icdcsw.2015.22

    Abstract: Software Defined Networks make it possible to decouple routing from forwarding, allowing the routing decisions to be made by a (logically)centralized controller which are then communicated to the switches in the network (for example, via the Open Flow protocol). One problem facing end users is the need to map high level abstractions -- like the path a flow should take -- to a set of low level forwarding rules tailored to, and installed at, every switch along the path. Installing such rules manually is tedious and error prone, and writing a controller program to do it is equally, if not more, challenging. In this paper, we propose a new set of tools that allow users (experimenters)to easily map their high level routing policies to low level Open Flow rules, and to help users reverse engineer high level policies from the installed set of low level flow rules. The tools provide users with the abstraction of end-to-end flows that users can install, list, and delete. The tools automatically handle the details of computing and installing all the rules needed to implement end-to-end flows, and are also capable of identifying flows and, if desired, removing flows that already exist. The tools have been implemented as modules in the GENI Desktop providing users with a graphical interface to their flows. In addition, we have implemented a module to monitor the performance of flows that have been installed. We describe our prototype implementation and present performance numbers obtained via the service.

  270. Rivera, Sergio and Fei, Zongming and Griffioen, James, "RAPTOR: A REST API translaTOR for OpenFlow controllers." 2016 IEEE Conference on Computer Communications Workshops (INFOCOM WKSHPS), San Francisco, CA, USA, IEEE, 2016. doi:10.1109/infcomw.2016.7562096. http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/infcomw.2016.7562096

    Abstract: Many Software-Defined Networking (SDN) controllers support a ” northbound interface” by which applications can interact with the SDN controller and (indirectly) control the underlying SDN network. The absence of a standard for the northbound interface of these controllers makes it difficult for application developers to create interoperable/portable code (i.e., code that works with any SDN controller). Developers are forced to re-write almost all of their code every time they want to support a new controller. This tedious and time consuming process is typically a start-over software development cycle that involves learning new APIs, data models, and controller-specific conventions. In this paper, we present RAPTOR, a REST-based API translaTOR service for SDN networks that allows users to develop their network control software independent of any particular SDN controller. RAPTOR exposes its own REST-based API functions and data models to user applications and translates application requests into controller-specific northbound interface calls. To demonstrate the viability of RAPTOR, we implemented and deployed RAPTOR in GENI and used it in conjunction with different types of controllers. We also developed GENI Desktop modules that interacted with RAPTOR to install, list, delete and monitor end-to-end flows regardless of the controller used for controlling the underlying switches.

  271. Rohrer, Justin P. and Çetinkaya, Egemen K. and Sterbenz, James P. G., "Progress and challenges in large-scale future internet experimentation using the GpENI programmable testbed." Proceedings of the 6th International Conference on Future Internet Technologies, Seoul, Republic of Korea, ACM, New York, NY, USA, 2011. doi:10.1145/2002396.2002409. http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/2002396.2002409

    Abstract: GpENI is evolving to provide a promising environment in which to do experimental research in the resilience and survivability of future networks, by allowing programmable control over topology and mechanism, while providing the scale and global reach needed to conduct network experiments far beyond the capabilities of a conventional testbed. Addressing this need at scale introduces a number of challenges both in deployment and in collecting results that can be directly compared to simulation results for cross-verification purposes. In this short paper we present the scope, design goals, challenges, and current status of the GpENI programmable testbed, as well as an overview and examples of the types of experiments we are beginning to run.

  272. Rosen, Aaron, "Network Service Delivery and Throughput Optimization via Software Defined Networking (Master's Thesis)." 2012. http://tigerprints.clemson.edu/all_theses/1332/

    Abstract: In today's world, transmitting data across large bandwidth-delay product (BDP) networks requires special configuration on end users' machines in order to be done efficiently. This added level of complexity creates extra cost and is usually overlooked by users unknowledgeable to the issues. This is one example problem which can be ameliorated with the emerging software defined networking (SDN) paradigm. In an SDN, packet forwarding is controlled via software controllers. In an OpenFlow SDN, a controller can control the forwarding, rewriting, and dropping of packets based on their header attributes. The ability to handle packets in customizable ways in software has significant implications for both users and operators of the network. Via SDN, network providers can easily provide services to enhance users' experience of the network. Steroid OpenFlow Service (SOS) is presented as a solution to seamless enhancement of TCP data transfer throughput over large BDP networks without any modification to the software and configurations on users' machines. SOS utilizes OpenFlow to redirect application specific traffic to application specific service agents. SOS uses service agents on both ends of the connection to seamlessly terminate a user's TCP connection, launch a set of parallel TCP connections, and leverage multiple paths when available to maximize throughput.

  273. Rosen, Aaron and Wang, Kuang-Ching, "Steroid OpenFlow Service: Seamless Network Service Delivery in Software Defined Networks." First GENI Research and Educational Experiment Workshop (GREE 2012), Los Angeles, 2012.

    Abstract: In a software defined network (SDN), packet forwarding is controlled by software controllers. In an OpenFlow SDN, a controller can control the forwarding, rewriting, and dropping of packets based on their header attributes. The ability to handle packets in customizable ways in software has significant implications for both network users and operators. Via software, users can convey application specific expectations while operators can deliver application specific services to enhance user experiences. In this paper, we present the Steroid OpenFlow Services (SOS) paradigm for network services delivery. The paradigm enables operators to deliver network services without any setup requirements on user machines. SOS utilizes OpenFlow to redirect application specific traffic to application specific service agents; SOS also rewrites packet headers for a service to remain seamless to users. This paper presents an example SOS service for optimizing large volume TCP download across a large delay-bandwidth-product wide area network. SOS service agents on both ends of the connection seamlessly terminate a user TCP connection, launch a set of parallel TCP connections, and leverage multiple paths when available to maximize throughput. With the NSF GENI future Internet testbed, a prototype implementation achieved up to 320 times throughput enhancement seamless to the end users.

  274. Ruth, Paul and Mandal, Anirban, "Domain Science Applications on GENI: Presentation and Demo." Network Protocols (ICNP), 2014 IEEE 22nd International Conference on, IEEE, 2014. doi:10.1109/icnp.2014.86. http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/icnp.2014.86

    Abstract: Multi-tenant cloud infrastructures are increasingly used for high-performance and high-throughput domain science applications. In recent years, machine virtualization has come a long way toward supporting domain science applications. Various cloud platforms, such as Open Stack, Cloud Stack, and Amazon EC2 are attracting scientists to these platforms with the promise of customized environments with virtually infinite compute resources. At the same time, research efforts, such as NSF GENI are bringing together cloud computing with advanced network infrastructure provisioning. This paper presents work toward evaluating the use of GENI to support domain science applications. The evaluation involved two different domain science applications deployed on ExoGENI and Insta GENI. The first application is ADCIRC, a storm surge model that uses Message Passing Interface (MPI). The second is Motif network, a genomics application using the Pegasus workflow management system to manage a large data-intensive workflow.

  275. Ruth, Paul and Mandal, Anirban and Castillo, Claris and Fowler, Robert and Tilson, Jeff and Baldin, Ilya and Xin, Yufeng, "Achieving Performance Isolation on Multi-Tenant Networked Clouds Using Advanced Block Storage Mechanisms." Proceedings of the 6th Workshop on Scientific Cloud Computing, Portland, Oregon, USA, ACM, New York, NY, USA, 2015. doi:10.1145/2755644.2755649. http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/2755644.2755649

    Abstract: Multi-tenant cloud infrastructures are increasingly used for high-performance and high-throughput domain science applications. Various cloud platforms, such as OpenStack and Amazon EC2, along with research efforts, such as NSF GENI and FutureGrid have attracted scientists to these platforms with the promise of virtually infinite compute resources. This paper presents work toward providing better resource allocation accounting in multi-tenant cloud environments by understanding the subtle interference between network, compute, and storage resources. The experiments provide insight that help cloud administrators know how to best distribute virtual cores to physical cores considering the effect of advanced virtual network technologies on remote block I/O performance. The results show that SR-IOV network interfaces to an SSD iSCSI device can provide extremely fast block I/O with minimal CPU overhead and minimal performance interference between tenants. In addition, careful mapping of virtual computation to physical computational cores is critical to increasing performance isolation.

  276. Schlinker, Brandon and Zarifis, Kyriakos and Cunha, Italo and Feamster, Nick and Katz-Bassett, Ethan, "PEERING: An AS for Us." Proceedings of the 13th ACM Workshop on Hot Topics in Networks, Los Angeles, CA, USA, ACM, New York, NY, USA, 2014. doi:10.1145/2670518.2673887. http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/2670518.2673887

    Abstract: Internet routing suffers from persistent and transient failures, circuitous routes, oscillations, and prefix hijacks. A major impediment to progress is the lack of ways to conduct impactful interdomain research. Most research is based either on passive observation of existing routes, keeping researchers from assessing how the Internet will respond to route or policy changes; or simulations, which are restricted by limitations in our understanding of topology and policy. We propose a new class of interdomain research: researchers can instantiate an AS of their choice, including its intradomain topology and interdomain interconnectivity, and connect it with the l̈ive ̈Internet to exchange routes and traffic with real interdomain neighbors. Instead of being observers of the Internet ecosystem, researchers become members. Towards this end, we present the Peering testbed. In its nascent stage, the testbed has proven extremely useful, resulting in a series of studies that were nearly impossible for researchers to conduct in the past. In this paper, we present a vision of what the testbed can provide. We sketch how to extend the testbed to enable future innovation, taking advantage of the rise of IXPs to expand our testbed.

  277. Schwerdel, Dennis and Reuther, Bernd and Zinner, Thomas and Müller, Paul and Tran-Gia, Phouc, "Future Internet research and experimentation: The G-Lab approach." Computer Networks, 2014. doi:10.1016/j.bjp.2013.12.023. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bjp.2013.12.023

    Abstract: The German Lab (G-Lab) project aims to investigate architectural concepts and technologies for a new inter-networking architecture as an integrated approach between theoretic and experimental studies. Thus G-Lab consists of two major fields of activities: research studies of future network components and the design and setup of experimental facilities. Both are controlled by the same community to ensure that the experimental facility meets the demands of the researchers. Researchers gain access to virtualized resources or may gain exclusive access to resources if necessary. We present the current setup of the experimental facility, describing the available hardware, management of the platform, the utilization of the PlanetLab software and the user management. Moreover, a new approach to setup and deploy virtual network topologies will be described.

  278. Scoglio, Caterina M. and Sydney, Ali and Youssef, Mina and Schumm, Phillip and Kooij, Robert E., "Elasticity and Viral Conductance: Unveiling Robustness in Complex Networks through Topological Characteristics." CoRR, 2008. http://arxiv-web3.library.cornell.edu/abs/0811.3272v3

    Abstract: With increasingly ambitious initiatives such as GENI and FIND that seek to design the future Internet, it becomes imperative to define the characteristics of robust topologies, and build future networks optimized for robustness. This paper investigates the characteristics of network topologies that maintain a high level of throughput in spite of multiple attacks. To this end, we select network topologies belonging to the main network models and some real world networks. We consider three types of attacks: removal of random nodes, high degree nodes, and high betweenness nodes. We use elasticity as our robustness measure and, through our analysis, illustrate that different topologies can have different degrees of robustness. In particular, elasticity can fall as low as 0.8% of the upper bound based on the attack employed. This result substantiates the need for optimized network topology design. Furthermore, we implement a tradeoff function that combines elasticity under the three attack strategies and considers the cost of the network. Our extensive simulations show that, for a given network density, regular and semi-regular topologies can have higher degrees of robustness than heterogeneous topologies, and that link redundancy is a sufficient but not necessary condition for robustness.

  279. Seetharam, Sripriya, "Application-Driven Overlay Network as a Service for Data-Intensive Science (Master's thesis)." 2014. https://mospace.umsystem.edu/xmlui/handle/10355/45798

    Abstract: Campuses are increasingly adopting hybrid cloud architectures for supporting data-intensive science applications that require ön-demand ̈resources, which are not always available locally on-site. Policies at the campus edge for handling multiple such applications competing for remote resources can cause bottlenecks across applications. These bottlenecks can be proactively avoided with pertinent profiling, monitoring and control of application flows using the emerging paradigm of software-defined networking (SDN). In this thesis, we leverage SDN principles in the design and implementation of an Äpplication-driven Overlay Network-as-a-Service ̈(ADON) framework that can manage the hybrid cloud requirements of multiple applications in a scalable and extensible manner. ADON's main features include: programmable c̈ustom templates ̈and a v̈irtual tenant handler ̈algorithm. Our solution approach in ADON involves scheduling transit selection and traffic engineering at the campus-edge based on real-time policy control that ensures predictable application performance delivery for multi-tenant traffic profiles. We also present a market-driven (distributed) resource optimization scheme that can address the Internet-scale scalability problems of handling resource requests of multiple data-intensive applications within a desktop-as-a-service cloud environment. We show how our optimization scheme can increase the system performance and user experience levels using metrics such as 'Service Response Time' and 'Net-Utility'. Lastly,we discuss ADON effectiveness validation with an implementation on a wide-area overlay network testbed featuring temporal behavior of multi-tenant traffic burst arrivals. We conclude by presenting hybrid cloud implementation best practices that ease the orchestration of network programmability for campus network providers and data-intensive application users.

  280. Seetharam, Sripriya and Calyam, Prasad and Beyene, Tsegereda, "ADON: Application-Driven Overlay Network-as-a-Service for Data-Intensive Science." 2014. doi:10.1109/CloudNet.2014.6969014. http://people.cs.missouri.edu/c̃alyamp/publications/adon-cloudnet14.pdf

    Abstract: Campuses are increasingly adopting hybrid cloud architectures for supporting data-intensive science applications that require ” on-demand” resources, which are not always available locally on-site. Policies at the campus edge for handling multiple such applications competing for remote resources can cause bottlenecks across applications. These bottlenecks can be proactively avoided with pertinent profiling, monitoring and control of application flows using software-defined networking principles. In this paper, we present an ” Application-driven Overlay Network-as-a-Service” (ADON) that can manage the hybrid cloud requirements of multiple applications in a scalable and extensible manner using features such as: programmable ” custom templates” and a ” virtual tenant handler”. Our solution approach involves scheduling transit selection and traffic engi- neering at the campus-edge based on real-time policy control that ensures predictable application performance delivery for multi-tenant traffic profiles. We validate our ADON approach with an implementation on a wide-area overlay network testbed across two campuses, and present a workflow that eases the orchestration of network programmability for campus network providers and data-intensive application users. Lastly, we present an emulation study of the ADON effectiveness in handling temporal behavior of multi-tenant traffic burst arrivals using profiles from a diverse set of actual data-intensive applications.

  281. Selvadhurai, Arunprasaath, "Network Measurement Tool Components for Enabling Performance Intelligence within Cloud-based Applications (Master's Thesis)." 2013. http://rave.ohiolink.edu/etdc/view?acc_num=osu1367446588

    Abstract: Popular applications such as email, photo/video galleries, and file storage are increasingly being supported by cloud platforms in residential, academic and industry communities. The next frontier for these user communities will be to transition `traditional desktops' that have dedicated hardware and software configurations into `virtual desktop clouds' that are accessible via thin-clients. In our thesis, we show how the underlying measurement services, with some additional capabilities, can be used as intelligent agents to provide network intelligence within thin-client based virtual desktops applications. The framework leverages principles of software defined networking and features an `unified resource broker' that uses special `marker packets' for: (a) ” route setup” when handling non-IP traffic between thin-client sites and data centers, (b) ” path selection” and ” load balancing” of virtual desktop flows to improve the performance of interactive applications and video playback, and to cope with faults such as link-failures or Denial-of-Service cyber-attacks. In addition, we detail our framework implementation within a virtual desktop cloud (VDC) in a multi-domain Global Environment for Network Innovations (GENI). We present empirical results from our experimentation that leverages OpenFlow programmable networking, as well as OnTimeMeasure instrumentation-and-measurement capabilities for validating our framework in GENI under realistic settings. Our results demonstrate the importance of scheduling regulated measurements that can be used for intelligent resource placement decisions. Our results also show the feasibility and benefits of using the measurement services for effective path selection and load balancing between thin-client sites and data centers in VDCs and simulation applications.

  282. Seskar, Ivan and Nagaraja, Kiran and Nelson, Sam and Raychaudhuri, Dipankar, "MobilityFirst future internet architecture project." Proceedings of the 7th Asian Internet Engineering Conference, Bangkok, Thailand, ACM, New York, NY, USA, 2011. doi:10.1145/2089016.2089017. http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/2089016.2089017

    Abstract: This short paper presents an overview of the MobilityFirst network architecture, which is a clean-slate project being conducted as part of the NSF Future Internet Architecture (FIA) program. The proposed architecture is intended to directly address the challenges of wireless access and mobility at scale, while also providing new multicast, anycast, multi-path and context-aware services needed for emerging mobile Internet application scenarios. Key protocol components of the proposed architecture are: (a) separation of naming from addressing; (b) public key based self-certifying names (called globally unique identifiers or GUIDs) for network-attached objects; (c) global name resolution service (GNRS) for dynamic name-to-address binding; (d) delay-tolerant and storage-aware routing (GSTAR) capable of dealing with wireless link quality fluctuations and disconnections; (e) hop-by-hop transport of large protocol data units; and (f) location or context-aware services. The basic operations of a MobilityFirst router are outlined. This is followed by a discussion of ongoing proof-of-concept prototyping and experimental evaluation efforts for the MobilityFirst protocol stack. In conclusion, a brief description of an ongoing multi-site experimental deployment of the MobilityFirst protocol stack on the GENI testbed is provided.

  283. Seskar, Ivan and Raychaudhuri, Dipankar and Gosain, Abhimanyu, "4G Cellular Systems in GENI." The GENI Book, Springer International Publishing, 2016. doi:10.1007/978-3-319-33769-2_9. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-33769-2_9

    Abstract: Open, programmable networks are an important enabler for the future Internet because of their ability to support flexible experimentation and to evolve function- ality as new network architectures are deployed on a trial basis. The NSF supported GENI initiative is an ongoing effort to build a national scale open programmable network using a combination of open switching, routing and wireless technologies. The main features of open networking devices used in such testbeds are: (a) an open API which provides access to link-layer technology parameters; (b) downloadable programmability of protocols used at the network layer; (c) virtualization of network resources such as routers and base stations in order to enable multiple simultaneous experiments; and (d) observability of key performance measures such as throughput and packet loss.

  284. Sevinc, Soner, "A Framework for Access Control and Resource Allocation for Federations (Doctoral Dissertation)." Princeton, NJ, 2016. http://arks.princeton.edu/ark:/88435/dsp01n583xx39b

    Abstract: In this thesis we address the access control and resource allocation problems in computational federations, such as testbeds and cloud computing federations. The computational federations of today are growing in their number of participant organizations, where one challenge is to allow organizations participate autonomously by expressing how much of their resources should be used and by whom, through complex policies. In addition, such organizations should be able to exchange resources with any other organizations without necessarily knowing all of them beforehand. We introduce our federation framework which allows to build federations in varying complexities easily, by synthesizing trust management, policy languages and resource discovery into a single system. Although these three have been studied separately in the past, we show that they are in fact related, and can be viewed as separate layers of a more general system. We argue that complex agreements that involve indirect trust relationships is one key way to enable resource exchange in a federation with numerous organizations, and this can be realized by our synthesis architecture that provides usability as well as expressiveness. As part of our framework, federation policy language (FPL) is used to express both the security and allocation policies, by providing simple primitives such as contracts that hide the underlying complexity. FPL primitives allow system administrators to express policies such as indirect trust and resource restrictions within the same construct. Underneath, FPL uses our distributed trust management system (CERTDIST) to implement and impose policy primitives. CERTDIST uses digital certificates to allow or deny resource requests and a DHT for complex distributive proofs in an e!cient way. The Resource discovery part of our framework (CODAL) is layered on top of FPL, and uses contracts to discover peers, FPL security and allocation policies to authorize for resources that are located possibly in many di↵erent organizations. We evaluate the federation framework with a realistic emulation of a large scale federation using real PlanetLab traces, that shows that complex policies can be expressed with a minimal amount of code, and we can e!ciently perform the access control and resource discovery operations in a federation.

  285. Shamim, Sumaira and Fei, Zongming, "Evaluating a QoS aware path selection service using the GENI network." 2016 IEEE International Conference on Ubiquitous Wireless Broadband (ICUWB), Nanjing, China, IEEE, 2016. doi:10.1109/icuwb.2016.7790581. http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/icuwb.2016.7790581

    Abstract: Smart homes, cars, offices and schools can significantly improve the quality of our life. The traditional networks are not sufficient to provide the service needed for these future smart management systems due to their lack of flexibility. This paper proposes an application-aware service that can select and set an alternative forwarding path based on the measurement of the Quality of Service of paths in the software defined networks. The proposed service is evaluated by developing experiments using the GENI network. The results demonstrate that our service can make routing decisions based on the application requirement and measurement about the current state of the network, and greatly improve the routing performance over the default method used in existing networks.

  286. Sharma, Navin and Gummeson, Jeremy and Irwin, David and Shenoy, Prashant, "Cloudy Computing: Leveraging Weather Forecasts in Energy Harvesting Sensor Systems." 2010 7th Annual IEEE Communications Society Conference on Sensor, Mesh and Ad Hoc Communications and Networks (SECON), Boston, MA, USA, IEEE, 2010. doi:10.1109/SECON.2010.5508260. http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/SECON.2010.5508260

    Abstract: To sustain perpetual operation, systems that harvest environmental energy must carefully regulate their usage to satisfy their demand. Regulating energy usage is challenging if a system's demands are not elastic and its hardware components are not energy-proportional, since it cannot precisely scale its usage to match its supply. Instead, the system must choose when to satisfy its energy demands based on its current energy reserves and predictions of its future energy supply. In this paper, we explore the use of weather forecasts to improve a system's ability to satisfy demand by improving its predictions. We analyze weather forecast, observational, and energy harvesting data to formulate a model that translates a weather forecast to a wind or solar energy harvesting prediction, and quantify its accuracy. We evaluate our model for both energy sources in the context of two different energy harvesting sensor systems with inelastic demands: a sensor testbed that leases sensors to external users and a lexicographically fair sensor network that maintains steady node sensing rates. We show that using weather forecasts in both wind- and solar-powered sensor systems increases each system's ability to satisfy its demands compared with existing prediction strategies.

  287. Shen, Haiying and Liu, Guoxin, "Harmony: Integrated Resource and Reputation Management for Large-Scale Distributed Systems." 2011 Proceedings of 20th International Conference on Computer Communications and Networks (ICCCN), Lahaina, HI, USA, IEEE, 2011. doi:10.1109/ICCCN.2011.6005739. http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/ICCCN.2011.6005739

    Abstract: Advancements in technology over the past decade are leading to a promising future for large-scale distributed systems, where globally-scattered distributed resources are collectively pooled and used in a cooperative manner to achieve unprecedented petascale supercomputing capabilities. The issues of resource management (resMgt) and reputation management (repMgt) need to be addressed in order to ensure the successful deployment of large-scale distributed systems. However, these two issues have typically been addressed separately, despite the significant interdependencies between them: resMgt needs repMgt to provide a cooperative environment for resource sharing, and in turn facilitates repMgt to evaluate multi-faceted node reputations for providing different resources. Current repMgt methods provide a single reputation value for each node in providing all types of resources. However, a node willing to provide one resource may not be willing to provide another resource. In addition, current repMgt methods often guide node selection policy to select the highest-reputed nodes, which may overload these nodes. Also, few works exploited node reputation in resource selection in order to fully and fairly utilize resources in the system and to meet users' diverse QoS demands. We propose a system called Harmony that integrates resMgt and repMgt in a harmonious manner. Harmony incorporates two key innovations: integrated multi-faceted resource/reputation management and multi-QoS-oriented resource selection. The trace data we collected from an online trading platform confirms the importance of multi-faceted reputation and potential problems with highest-reputed node selection. Trace-driven experiments performed on PlanetLab show that Harmony outperforms existing resMgt and repMgt in terms of the success rate, service delay, and efficiency.

  288. Sher-DeCusatis, Carolyn J. and DeCusatis, Casimer, "Developing a Software Defined Networking curriculum through industry partnerships." American Society for Engineering Education (ASEE Zone 1), 2014 Zone 1 Conference of the, 2014. doi:10.1109/ASEEZone1.2014.6820653. http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/ASEEZone1.2014.6820653

    Abstract: Software Defined Networking (SDN) is an emerging technology which radically improves cloud computing and other types of data networking. We discuss a new SDN undergraduate education program, developed in collaboration with industry partnerships. Student labs using resources such as GENI, NetFPGA, and the New York State Cloud Computing Center will be presented. We also outline SDN student projects including firewalls, load balancers, and redundant failover systems.

  289. Shin, Sunae and Dhondge, Kaustubh and Choi, Baek-Young, "Understanding the Performance of TCP and UDP-based Data Transfer Protocols using EMULAB." First GENI Research and Educational Experiment Workshop (GREE 2012), Los Angeles, 2012.

    Abstract: In this paper, we present a hands-on course project that explores the performance of data transfer protocols using a GENI resource. TCP is one of the key topics in networking courses, and understanding its behavior as well as limitations, from real experiments, offers an invaluable and deep learning experience. A protocol's performance is directly impacted by network parameters such as network bandwidth, delay and loss. However, it is difficult to control and even vary those parameters, if it is not evaluated with simulations. GENI facilities conveniently provide a virtual laboratory that enables us to control the network settings with real network systems. Through this educational project, students had an opportunity to control important network parameters, and measure and compare TCP's performance with a UDP-based data transfer protocol, UDT, using EMULAB. Students were enthusiastic to witness the protocols' performances, and the limitations of TCP under a high bandwidth delay product network in the presence of packet loss, and to recognize the importance of protocol design and system issues for the future Internet.

  290. Singhal, Manav and Ramanathan, Jay and Calyam, Prasad and Skubic, Marjorie, "In-the-Know: Recommendation Framework for City-Supported Hybrid Cloud Services." Utility and Cloud Computing (UCC), 2014 IEEE/ACM 7th International Conference on, IEEE, 2014. doi:10.1109/ucc.2014.22. http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/ucc.2014.22

    Abstract: Hybrid cloud architectures are particularly attractive to leverage city-level investments for building customized clouds, and for extending them to leverage public clouds. A successful design of the hybrid cloud architecture should facilitate the provisioning of scalable and secure services suited to a variety of communities such as residential homes and high-tech business incubators. In this paper, we present a novel Ïn-the-know ̈recommendation framework for provisioning of cloud resources in the form of 'on-demand contracts' to address the challenges in delivering the hybrid service variations for different community and individual needs. Our recommendation framework uses knowledge of the city's socio-economic goals/values as well as user preferences in terms of cost, performance and mobility. Using such knowledge, it recommends dynamic decisions by choosing from various provisioning alternatives in order to: (a) ensure optimal user Quality of Experience (QoE) in service delivery, and (b) effective utilization of hybrid cloud resources. We validate our recommendation framework using service composition experiments to satisfy an exemplar collaboration use case in an actual city-supported hybrid cloud test bed involving citizen consumers.

  291. Sivakumar, Ashiwan and Shankaranarayanan, P. N. and Rao, Sanjay, "Closer to the Cloud - A Case for Emulating Cloud Dynamics by Controlling the Environment." First GENI Research and Educational Experiment Workshop (GREE 2012), Los Angeles, 2012.

  292. Soroush, Hamed and Banerjee, Nilanjan and Corner, Mark and Levine, Brian and Lynn, Brian, "A retrospective look at the UMass DOME mobile testbed." SIGMOBILE Mob. Comput. Commun. Rev., ACM, New York, NY, USA, 2012. doi:10.1145/2169077.2169079. http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/2169077.2169079

    Abstract: In this paper we describe the evolution of DOME, a diverse outdoor testbed for mobile experimentation. In addition, while highlighting the challenges faced in construction of DOME, we describe a concrete set of scientific results derived from this experience in a retrospective study. First, we argue that a broad range of mobility experiments could be performed in a testbed which provides the properties of temporal, technological, and spatial diversity. We demonstrate these properties in our testbed through analysis of data collected from DOME over a period of four years. Second, we crystallize a set of design principles that others should use when constructing testbeds of their own, including those related to deploying and managing a diverse testbed, distributing experiments remotely, and fostering collaborations among testbed stakeholders. Finally, using traces collected by DOME, we provide insights into several important problems in mobile systems research.

  293. Sridharan, Mukundan and Calyam, Prasad and Venkataraman, Aishwarya and Berryman, Alex, "Defragmentation of Resources in Virtual Desktop Clouds for Cost-Aware Utility-Optimal Allocation." 2011 Fourth IEEE International Conference on Utility and Cloud Computing, Melbourne, Australia, IEEE, 2011. doi:10.1109/UCC.2011.41. http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/UCC.2011.41

    Abstract: Cloud Service Providers (CSPs) make virtual desktop cloud (VDC) resource provisioning decisions within desktop pools based on user groups and their application profiles. Such provisioning is aimed to satisfy acceptable user quality of experience (QoE) levels and is coupled with subsequent placement of VDs across distributed data centers. The placement decisions are influenced by session latency, load balancing and operation cost constraints. In this paper, we identify the resource fragmentation problem that occurs when placement is done opportunistically to minimize provisioning time and deliver satisfactory user QoE. To solve this problem, which inherently is an NP-Hard problem, we propose a defragmentation scheme that has fast convergence time and has three levels of complexity: (i) ütility fair provisioning ̈(UFP) to optimize resource provisioning within a data center - to achieve relative fairness between desktop pools, (ii) s̈tatic migration-free utility optimal placement and provisioning ̈(MUPP) to optimize resource provisioning between multiple data centers - to improve performance, and (iii) d̈ynamic global utility optimal placement and provisioning ̈(GUPP) to optimize resource provisioning using cost-aware and utility-maximal VD re-allocations and migrations - to increase scalability. We evaluate our defragmentation scheme against 'least latency', 'least load', and 'least cost' schemes using a novel V̈DC-Sim ̈simulator that we have developed in this study. Our simulations leverage profiles of user groups and their applications within desktop pools, obtained from a real VDC test bed. Our simulation results demonstrate that defragmentation is an important optimization step that can enable CSPs to achieve fairness, substantially improve user QoE and increase VDC scalability.

  294. Sridharan, Mukundan and Zeng, Wenjie and Leal, William and Ju, Xi and Ramanath, Rajiv and Zhang, Hongwei and Arora, Anish, "From Kansei to KanseiGenie: Architecture of Federated, Programmable Wireless Sensor Fabrics." Proceedings of the ICST Conference on Testbeds and Research Infrastructures for the Development of Networks and Communities (TridentCom), 2010.

    Abstract: This paper deals with challenges in federating wireless sensing fabrics. Federations of this sort are currently being developed in next generation global end-to-end experimentation infrastructures, such as GENI, to support rapid prototyping and hi-fidelity validation of protocols and applications. On one hand, federation should support access to diverse (and potentially provider-specific) wireless sensor resources and, on the other, it should enable users to uniformly task these resources. Instead of more simple basing federation upon a standard description of resources, we propose an architecture where the ontology of resource description can vary across providers, and a mapping of user needs to resources is performed to achieve uniform tasking. We illustrate one realization of this architecture, in terms of our refactoring the Kansei testbed to become the KanseiGenie federated fabric manager, which has full support for programmability, sliceability, and federated experimentation over heterogeneous sensing fabrics.

  295. Stabler, Greg and Goasguen, Sebastien and Rosen, Aaron and Wang, Kuang-Ching, "OneCloud: Controlling the Network in an OpenFlow Cloud." First GENI Research and Educational Experiment Workshop (GREE 2012), Los Angeles, 2012.

    Abstract: Cloud computing is an emerging paradigm for on-demand access to computing resources over the network. Beyond early Software as a Service (SaaS) offerings, there is an increasing interest in the Infrastructure as a Service (IaaS) model where users request specific storage, networking, and computing resources to meet their application needs. To provision the network in a cloud, IaaS providers, such as the Amazon Web Services, allow users to choose their IP addresses, which can be associated with a dynamic set of virtual hosts (Elastic IP) with VPN, dynamic DNS, and dynamic firewall services. In this paper, we analyze a range of cloud network provisioning needs and the means to realize them in an OpenFlow network. We present an OpenFlow enabled framework for cloud network provisioning, based on the Open- Nebula cloud provisioning engine. Specifically, we demonstrate an Elastic IP service compatible with the Amazon Elastic Compute Cloud (EC2) API. This demonstration is available on the Clemson OneCloud IaaS offering. Ongoing efforts focus on the enablement of additional cloud network services for campus networks and wide area experimental networks like the National Science Foundation's GENI network.

  296. Stabler, Greg and Rosen, Aaron and Goasguen, Sebastien and Wang, Kuang-Ching, "Elastic IP and security groups implementation using OpenFlow." Proceedings of the 6th international workshop on Virtualization Technologies in Distributed Computing Date, Delft, The Netherlands, ACM, New York, NY, USA, 2012. doi:10.1145/2287056.2287069. http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/2287056.2287069

    Abstract: This paper presents a reference implementation of an Elastic IP and Security Group service using the OpenFlow protocol. The implementation is the first to present integration of OpenFlow within a virtual machine provisioning engine and an API for enabling such services. In this paper the OpenNebula system is used. The Elastic IP and Security Groups services are similar to the Amazon EC2 services and present a compatible Query API implemented by OpenNebula. The core of the implementation relies on the integration of an OpenFlow controller (NOX) with the EC2 server. Flow rules can be inserted in the OpenFlow controller using the EC2 API. These rules are then used by Open vSwitch bridges on the underlying hypervisor to manage network traffic. The reference implementation presented opens the door for more advanced cloud networking services that leverage principles from software defined networking including virtual private cloud, virtual data center spanning multiple availability zones, as well as seamless migration over wide are networks.

  297. Stavropoulos, Donatos and Dadoukis, Aris and Rakotoarivelo, Thierry and Ott, Max and Korakis, Thanasis and Tassiulas, Leandros, "Design, architecture and implementation of a resource discovery, reservation and provisioning framework for testbeds." Modeling and Optimization in Mobile, Ad Hoc, and Wireless Networks (WiOpt), 2015 13th International Symposium on, IEEE, 2015. doi:10.1109/wiopt.2015.7151032. http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/wiopt.2015.7151032

    Abstract: Experimental platforms (testbeds) play a significant role in the evaluation of new and existing technologies. Their popularity has been raised lately as more and more researchers prefer experimentation over simulation as a way for acquiring more accurate results. This imposes significant challenges in testbed operators since an efficient mechanism is needed to manage the testbed's resources and provision them according to the users' needs. In this paper we describe such a framework which was implemented for the management of networking testbeds. We present the design requirements and the implementation details, along with the challenges we encountered during its operation in the NITOS testbed. Significant results were extracted through the experiences of the every day operation of the testbed's management.

  298. Sterbenz, J. P. G. and Egemen and Hameed, M. A. and Jabbar, A. and Rohrer, J. P., "Modelling and analysis of network resilience." 2011 Third International Conference on Communication Systems and Networks (COMSNETS 2011), Bangalore, IEEE, 2011. doi:10.1109/COMSNETS.2011.5716502. http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/COMSNETS.2011.5716502

    Abstract: As the Internet becomes increasingly important to all aspects of society, the consequences of disruption become increasingly severe. Thus it is critical to increase the resilience and survivability of the future network. We define resilience as the ability of the network to provide desired service even when challenged by attacks, large-scale disasters, and other failures. This paper describes a comprehensive methodology to evaluate network resilience using a combination of analytical and simulation techniques with the goal of improving the resilience and survivability of the Future Internet.

  299. Sterbenz, James P. G. and Çetinkaya, Egemen K. and Hameed, Mahmood A. and Jabbar, Abdul and Qian, Shi and Rohrer, Justin P., "Evaluation of network resilience, survivability, and disruption tolerance: analysis, topology generation, simulation, and experimentation." Telecommunication Systems, Telecommunication Systems, Springer US, 2013. doi:10.1007/s11235-011-9573-6. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11235-011-9573-6

    Abstract: As the Internet becomes increasingly important to all aspects of society, the consequences of disruption become increasingly severe. Thus it is critical to increase the resilience and survivability of future networks. We define resilience as the ability of the network to provide desired service even when challenged by attacks, large-scale disasters, and other failures. This paper describes a comprehensive methodology to evaluate network resilience using a combination of topology generation, analytical, simulation, and experimental emulation techniques with the goal of improving the resilience and survivability of the Future Internet.

  300. Suñé, M. and Bergesio, L. and Woesner, H. and Rothe, T. and Köpsel, A. and Colle, D. and Puype, B. and Simeonidou, D. and Nejabati, R. and Channegowda, M. and Kind, M. and Dietz, T. and Autenrieth, A. and Kotronis, V. and Salvadori, E. and Salsano, S. and Körner, M. and Sharma, S., "Design and implementation of the OFELIA FP7 facility: The European OpenFlow testbed." Computer Networks, 2014. doi:10.1016/j.bjp.2013.10.015. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bjp.2013.10.015

    Abstract: The growth of the Internet in terms of number of devices, the number of networks associated to each device and the mobility of devices and users makes the operation and management of the Internet network infrastructure a very complex challenge. In order to address this challenge, innovative solutions and ideas must be tested and evaluated in real network environments and not only based on simulations or laboratory setups. OFELIA is an European FP7 project and its main objective is to address the aforementioned challenge by building and operating a multi-layer, multi-technology and geographically distributed Future Internet testbed facility, where the network itself is precisely controlled and programmed by the experimenter using the emerging OpenFlow technology. This paper reports on the work done during the first half of the project, the lessons learned as well as the key advantages of the OFELIA facility for developing and testing new networking ideas. An overview on the challenges that have been faced on the design and implementation of the testbed facility is described, including the OFELIA Control Framework testbed management software. In addition, early operational experience of the facility since it was opened to the general public, providing five different testbeds or islands, is described.

  301. Sun, Peng and Vanbever, Laurent and Rexford, Jennifer, "Scalable Programmable Inbound Traffic Engineering." Proceedings of the 1st ACM SIGCOMM Symposium on Software Defined Networking Research, Santa Clara, California, ACM, New York, NY, USA, 2015. doi:10.1145/2774993.2775063. http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/2774993.2775063

    Abstract: With the rise of video streaming and cloud services, enterprise and access networks receive much more traffic than they send, and must rely on the Internet to offer good end-to-end performance. These edge networks often connect to multiple ISPs for better performance and reliability, but have only limited ways to influence which of their ISPs carries the traffic for each service. In this paper, we present Sprite, a software-defined solution for flexible inbound traffic engineering (TE). Sprite offers direct, fine-grained control over inbound traffic, by announcing different public IP prefixes to each ISP, and performing source network address translation (SNAT) on outbound request traffic. Our design achieves scalability in both the data plane (by performing SNAT on edge switches close to the clients) and the control plane (by having local agents install the SNAT rules). The controller translates high-level TE objectives, based on client and server names, as well as performance metrics, to a dynamic network policy based on real-time traffic and performance measurements. We evaluate Sprite with live data from ïn the wild ̈experiments on an EC2-based testbed, and demonstrate how Sprite dynamically adapts the network policy to achieve high-level TE objectives, such as balancing YouTube traffic among ISPs to improve video quality.

  302. Sydney, A. and Nutaro, J. and Scoglio, C. and Gruenbacher, D. and Schulz, N., "Simulative Comparison of Multiprotocol Label Switching and OpenFlow Network Technologies for Transmission Operations." Smart Grid, IEEE Transactions on, 2013. doi:10.1109/TSG.2012.2227516. http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/TSG.2012.2227516

    Abstract: Utility companies are integrating multiprotocol label switching (MPLS) technologies into existing backbone networks, including networks between substations and control centers. MPLS has mechanisms for efficient overlay technologies as well as mechanisms to enhance security: features essential to the functioning of the smart grid. However, with MPLS routing and other switching technologies innovation is restricted to the features enclosed ” in the box.” More specifically, there is no practical way for utility operators or researchers to test new ideas such as alternatives to IP or MPLS on a realistic scale to obtain the experience and confidence necessary for real world deployments. As a result, novel ideas go untested. Conversely, the OpenFlow framework has enabled significant advancements in network research. OpenFlow provides utility operators and researchers the programmability and flexibility necessary to enable innovation in next-generation communication architectures for the smart grid. This level of flexibility allows OpenFlow to provide all features of MPLS and also allows OpenFlow devices to co-exist with existing MPLS devices. The simulation results in this paper demonstrate that OpenFlow performs as well as MPLS, and may therefore be considered an alternative to MPLS for smart grid applications.

  303. Sydney, Ali, "The evaluation of software defined networking for communication and control of cyber physical systems (Doctoral dissertation)." 2013. http://hdl.handle.net/2097/15577

    Abstract: Cyber physical systems emerge when physical systems are integrated with communication networks. In particular, communication networks facilitate dissemination of data among components of physical systems to meet key requirements, such as efficiency and reliability, in achieving an objective. In this dissertation, we consider one of the most important cyber physical systems: the smart grid. The North American Electric Reliability Corporation (NERC) envisions a smart grid that aggressively explores advance communication network solutions to facilitate real-time monitoring and dynamic control of the bulk electric power system. At the distribution level, the smart grid integrates renewable generation and energy storage mechanisms to improve reliability of the grid. Furthermore, dynamic pricing and demand management provide customers an avenue to interact with the power system to determine electricity usage that satisfies their lifestyle. At the transmission level, efficient communication and a highly automated architecture provide visibility in the power system; hence, faults are mitigated faster than they can propagate. However, higher levels of reliability and efficiency rely on the supporting physical communication infrastructure and the network technologies employed. Conventionally, the topology of the communication network tends to be identical to that of the power network. In this dissertation, however, we employ a Demand Response (DR) application to illustrate that a topology that may be ideal for the power network may not necessarily be ideal for the communication network. To develop this illustration, we realize that communication network issues, such as congestion, are addressed by protocols, middle-ware, and software mechanisms. Additionally, a network whose physical topology is designed to avoid congestion realizes an even higher level of performance. For this reason, characterizing the communication infrastructure of smart grids provides mechanisms to improve performance while minimizing cost. Most recently, algebraic connectivity has been used in the ongoing research effort characterizing the robustness of networks to failures and attacks. Therefore, we first derive analytical methods for increasing algebraic connectivity and validate these methods numerically. Secondly, we investigate impact on the topology and traffic characteristics as algebraic connectivity is increased. Finally, we construct a DR application to demonstrate how concepts from graph theory can dramatically improve the performance of a communication network. With a hybrid simulation of both power and communication network, we illustrate that a topology which may be ideal for the power network may not necessarily be ideal for the communication network. To date, utility companies are embracing network technologies such as Multiprotocol Label Switching (MPLS) because of the available support for legacy devices, traffic engineering, and virtual private networks (VPNs) which are essential to the functioning of the smart grid. Furthermore, this particular network technology meets the requirement of non-routability as stipulated by NERC, but these benefits are costly for the infrastructure that supports the full MPLS specification. More importantly, with MPLS routing and other switching technologies, innovation is restricted to the features provided by the equipment. In particular, no practical method exists for utility consultants or researchers to test new ideas, such as alternatives to IP or MPLS, on a realistic scale in order to obtain the experience and confidence necessary for real-world deployments. As a result, novel ideas remain untested. On the contrary, OpenFlow, which has gained support from network providers such as Microsoft and Google and equipment vendors such as NEC and Cisco, provides the programmability and flexibility necessary to enable innovation in next-generation communication architectures for the smart grid. This level of flexibility allows OpenFlow to provide all features of MPLS and allows OpenFlow devices to co-exist with existing MPLS devices. Therefore, in this dissertation we explore a low-cost OpenFlow Software Defined Networking solution and compare its performance to that of MPLS. In summary, we develop methods for designing robust networks and evaluate software defined networking for communication and control in cyber physical systems where the smart grid is the system under consideration.

  304. Sydney, Ali and Ochs, David S. and Scoglio, Caterina and Gruenbacher, Don and Miller, Ruth, "Using GENI for experimental evaluation of Software Defined Networking in smart grids." Computer Networks, 2014. doi:10.1016/j.bjp.2013.12.021. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bjp.2013.12.021

    Abstract: The North American Electric Reliability Corporation (NERC) envisions a smart grid that aggressively explores advance communication network solutions to facilitate real-time monitoring and dynamic control of the bulk electric power system. At the distribution level, the smart grid integrates renewable generation and energy storage mechanisms to improve the reliability of the grid. Furthermore, dynamic pricing and demand management provide customers an avenue to interact with the power system to determine the electricity usage that best satisfies their lifestyle. At the transmission level, efficient communication and a highly automated architecture provide visibility in the power system and as a result, faults are mitigated faster than they can propagate. However, such higher levels of reliability and efficiency rest on the supporting communication infrastructure. To date, utility companies are moving towards Multiprotocol Label Switching (MPLS) because it supports traffic engineering and virtual private networks (VPNs). Furthermore, it provides Quality of Service (QoS) guarantees and fail-over mechanisms in addition to meeting the requirement of non-routability as stipulated by NERC. However, these benefits come at a cost for the infrastructure that supports the full MPLS specification. With this realization and given a two week implementation and deployment window in GENI, we explore the modularity and flexibility provided by the low cost OpenFlow Software Defined Networking (SDN) solution. In particular, we use OpenFlow to provide (1) automatic fail-over mechanisms, (2) a load balancing, and (3) Quality of Service guarantees: all essential mechanisms for smart grid networks.

  305. Tarui, Toshiaki and Kanada, Yasusi and Hayashi, Michiaki and Nakao, Akihiro, "Federating heterogeneous network virtualization platforms by slice exchange point." Integrated Network Management (IM), 2015 IFIP/IEEE International Symposium on, IEEE, 2015. doi:10.1109/inm.2015.7140366. http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/inm.2015.7140366

    Abstract: An architecture called the slice-exchange-point (SEP) has been designed for federating heterogeneous net-work-virtualization platforms by creating and managing slices (virtual networks). SEP enables whole inter-domain resources to be managed by the network manager of any single domain. Slice-operation commands are propagated to other domains through SEP by using a common API. SEP introduces the following four features: infrastructure neutrality, single interface federation, abstract and clean federation, and extensibility of capabilities. SEP's functions to achieve these features are discussed. SEP was partially implemented on two VNode domains and one ProtoGENI domain and was verified to function effectively.

  306. Teerapittayanon, Surat and Fouli, Kerim and Médard, Muriel and Montpetit, Marie-José and Shi, Xiaomeng and Seskar, Ivan and Gosain, Abhimanyu, "Network Coding as a WiMAX Link Reliability Mechanism." Multiple Access Communications, Springer Berlin Heidelberg, 2012. doi:10.1007/978-3-642-34976-8_1. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-3-642-34976-8_1

    Abstract: We design and implement a network-coding-enabled relia- bility architecture for next generation wireless networks. Our network coding (NC) architecture uses a flexible thread-based design, with each encoder-decoder instance applying systematic intra-session random lin- ear network coding as a packet erasure code at the IP layer. Using GENI WiMAX platforms, a series of point-to-point transmission experiments were conducted to compare the performance of the NC architecture to that of the Automatic Repeated reQuest (ARQ) and Hybrid ARQ (HARQ) mechanisms. In our scenarios, the proposed architecture is able to decrease packet loss from around 11-32% to nearly 0%; compared to HARQ and joint HARQ/ARQ mechanisms, the NC architecture offers up to 5.9 times gain in throughput and 5.5 times reduction in end-to- end file transfer delay. By establishing NC as a potential substitute for HARQ/ARQ, our experiments offer important insights into cross-layer designs of next generation wireless networks.

  307. Teixeira, Thiago and Marentes, Andres and Wolf, Tilman, "Economic incentives in virtualized access networks." 2017 IEEE International Conference on Communications (ICC), Paris, France, IEEE, 2017. doi:10.1109/icc.2017.7996957. http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/icc.2017.7996957

    Abstract: Monopolies in access networks present challenging problems for network users: providers have no economic incentives to improve service quality or reduce cost. Virtualization of the access infrastructure can enable competition between providers without the need for deploying different physical access networks. For example, municipal broadband networks are owned by local governments and can be sliced to host multiple service providers. In this work, we evaluate the economic incentives in virtualized access networks and compare them to current access networks with limited (or no) provider competition. We also consider fine-grained competition among transit providers to reflect emerging ideas on offering network connectivity and services dynamically through marketplaces. We use an agent-based simulator in a research testbed to obtain results on quality and cost trends as well as on the ability of providers to thrive in the marketplace. Our findings show that having a shared infrastructure and multiple Internet providers is beneficial for subscribers while maintaining a sustainable ecosystem. Moreover, because the risk associated with deploying infrastructure is shared, Internet providers have more incentive to innovate. Thus, our results highlight the importance of virtualizing access networks to leverage economic drivers in this environment.

  308. Thomas, Charles and Sommers, Joel and Barford, Paul and Kim, Dongchan and Das, Ananya and Segebre, Roberto and Crovella, Mark, "A Passive Measurement System for Network Testbeds." Testbeds and Research Infrastructure. Development of Networks and Communities, Springer Berlin Heidelberg, 2012. doi:10.1007/978-3-642-35576-9_14. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-3-642-35576-9_14

    Abstract: The ability to capture and process packet-level data is of intrinsic importance in network testbeds that offer broad experimental capabilities to researchers. In this paper we describe the design and implementation of a passive measurement system for network testbeds called GIMS. The system enables users to specify and centrally manage packet capture on a set of dedicated measurement nodes deployed on links in a distributed testbed. The first component of GIMS is a scalable experiment management system that coordinates multi-tenant access to measurement nodes through a web-based user interface. The second component of GIMS is a node management system that enables (i) local processing on packets (e.g., flow aggregation and sampling), (ii) meta-data to be added to captured packets (e.g., timestamps), (iii) packet anonymization per local security policy, and (iv) flexible data storage including transfer to remote archives. We demonstrate the capabilities of GIMS through a set of micro-benchmarks that specifically highlight the performance of the node management system deployed on a commodity workstation. Our implementations are openly available to the community and our development efforts are on-going.

  309. Thomas, Vicraj and Riga, Niky and Edwards, Sarah and Fund, Fraida and Korakis, Thanasis, "GENI in the Classroom." The GENI Book, Springer International Publishing, 2016. doi:10.1007/978-3-319-33769-2_18. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-33769-2_18

    Abstract: One of the great successes of GENI has been its use as a remote laboratory by instructors of networking, distributed systems and cloud computing classes. It allows instructors to provide hands-on learning experiences on a real, large-scale network. Reasons for this success include GENI's ease of use, access to resources such as programmable switches and wireless base stations that are not ordinarily available at most schools, support for collaborative experimentation and ease of recovering from mistakes. The GENI community has created and made available to instructors ready-to-use exercises based on popular networking textbooks. These exercises cover a range of topics from basic networking to advanced concepts such as software defined networking and network function virtualization. They include wired and wireless networking based exercises. GENI is also used as a platform for applications that enhance STEM education at the high- school level and as a platform for MOOC courses that use an interactive approach to teach Internet concepts to non-computer scientists.

  310. Tiako, Pierre F., "Perspectives of delegation in team-based distributed software development over the GENI infrastructure (NIER track)." Proceedings of the 33rd International Conference on Software Engineering, Waikiki, Honolulu, HI, USA, ACM, New York, NY, USA, 2011. doi:10.1145/1985793.1985905. http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/1985793.1985905

    Abstract: Team-based distributed software development (TBDSD) is one of the single biggest challenges facing software companies. The need to manage development efforts and resources in different locations increase the complexity and cost of modern day software development. Current software development environments do not provide suitable support to delegate task among teams with appropriate directives. TBDSD is also limited to the current internet capabilities. One of the resulting problems is the difficulty to delegate and control tasks assigned among remote teams. This paper proposes (1) a new framework for delegation in TBDSD, and (2) perspectives for deploying Process-centered Software Engineering Environments (PSEE) over the Global Environment for Network Innovations (GENI) infrastructure. GENI, the 'future Internet' that is taking shape in prototypes across the US, will allow, in the context of our study, to securely access and share software artifacts, resources, and tools as never before seen over the current Internet.

  311. Toseef, Umar and Pentikousis, Kostas, "Authentication and Authorization in FELIX." 2015 IEEE/ACM 8th International Conference on Utility and Cloud Computing (UCC), IEEE, 2015. doi:10.1109/ucc.2015.98. http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/ucc.2015.98

    Abstract: FELIX, the EU-Japan jointly-funded project, establishes a software defined networking (SDN) experimental facility which spans two continents and several administrative domains via dynamic transit network connections. The FELIX architectural blueprint provides an excellent example where key topics such as policy-based software-defined infrastructure instantiation is supported by resource orchestrators which manage multi-domain distributed compute and network resources including on-demand provisioning of transit network resources. In this context, FELIX implements a modern approach for authentication and authorization in SDN experimental facilities which enables fine-grained control and avoids single points of failure. This paper details the underlying mechanisms for user and transit network resource authentication and authorization in FELIX.

  312. Tredger, S. and Zhuang, Yanyan and Matthews, C. and Short-Gershman, J. and Coady, Y. and McGeer, R., "Building Green Systems with Green Students: An Educational Experiment with GENI Infrastructure." Research and Educational Experiment Workshop (GREE), 2013 Second GENI, IEEE, 2013. doi:10.1109/gree.2013.15. http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/gree.2013.15

    Abstract: Experimentation in system-oriented courses is often challenging, due to the raw and complex nature of the underlying infrastructure. In this work, we present our findings in teaching cloud computing to upper-level and graduate level students with GENI testbeds that are in use by the distributed systems community. The possibility of giving students practical and relevant experience was explored in the context of new course assignment objectives. Furthermore, students were able to explore systems concepts using GENI testbeds, and contribute to a collaborative class wide project with medium scale computation using satellite data. Our proposed set of experiments and course project provide a basis for an evaluation of the tradeoffs of teaching cloud and distributed systems. However, the software engineering challenges in these environments proved to be daunting. The amount of installation, configuration, and maintenance of their experiments was more than what students anticipated. The challenges the students faced drove them towards more traditional local development than attempting to work on the testbeds we presented. We hope that our findings provide insight into some of the possibilities to consider when preparing the next generation of computer scientists to engage with software practices and paradigms that are already fundamental in today's highly distributed systems.

  313. Tredger, Stephen, "SageFS: The Location Aware Wide Area Distributed Filesystem (Master's thesis)." 2014. http://dspace.library.uvic.ca/bitstream/handle/1828/5824/Tredger_Stephen_MSc_2014.pdf?sequence=3&isAllowed=y

    Abstract: Modern distributed applications often have to make a choice about how to maintain data within the system. Distributed storage systems are often self- contained in a single cluster or are a black box as data placement is unknown by an application. Using wide area distributed storage either means using multiple APIs or loss of control of data placement. This work introduces Sage, a distributed filesystem that aggregates multiple backends under a common API. It also gives applications the ability to decide where file data is stored in the aggregation. By leveraging Sage, users can create applications using multiple distributed backends with the same API, and still decide where to physically store any given file. Sage uses a layered design where API calls are translated into the appropriate set of backend calls then sent to the correct physical backend. This way Sage can hold many backends at once making them appear as the same filesystem. The performance overhead of using Sage is shown to be minimal over directly using the backend stores, and Sage is also shown to scale with respect to backends used. A case study shows file placement in action and how applications can take advantage of the feature.

  314. Tsai, Pang-Wei and wen Cheng, Pei and Yang, Chu-Sing and Luo, Mon-Yen, "Supporting Extensions of VLAN-tagged traffic across OpenFlow Networks." 2013 Proceedings Second GENI Research and Educational Experiment Workshop, Salt Lake City, UT, IEEE, 2013. doi:10.1109/GREE.2013.20. http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/GREE.2013.20

  315. Tuncer, Hasan and Nozaki, Yoshihiro and Shenoy, Nirmala, "Virtual Mobility Domains - A Mobility Architecture for the Future Internet." IEEE International Conference on Commnunications (IEE ICC 2012) Symposium on Next-Generation Networking, 2012. doi:10.1109/ICC.2012.6363872. ftp://lesc.det.unifi.it/pub/LenLar/proceedings/2012/ICC2012/symposia/papers/virtual_mobility_domains_-_a_mobility_architecture_for_the_\\_.pdf

    Abstract: This paper presents a novel mobility architecture called Virtual Mobility Domains that is designed to work with the Floating Cloud Tiered Internetworking model. Virtual Mobility Domains supports both inter Autonomous System (macro) and intra Autonomous System (micro) mobility by leveraging a tiered addressing, a network cloud concept, and a unique packet forwarding scheme introduced by the Floating Cloud Tiered Internetworking model. The proposed mobility architecture is distinct from others by not using IP addressing and classic routing protocols, and deploying user-centric overlapping mobility domains. The comparative simulation study of Virtual Mobility Domains against Mobile IPv6, Hierarchical Mobile IPv6, and Proxy Mobile IPv6 using OPNET shows that Virtual Mobility Domains brings lower latency, lesser signaling overhead, and fewer packets loss during handoffs, specially during inter Autonomous System roaming. The results highlight the potential for a seamless mobility management.

  316. Turi, Leo, "Contribution to the Federation of the asynchronous SmartSantander service layer within the European Fed4FIRE context (Master's Thesis)." 2015. http://tesi.cab.unipd.it/49627/1/turi_leo_tesi.pdf

    Abstract: This thesis is a contribution to the federation of asynchronous SmartSantander service layer within the European Fed4FIRE context. The thesis was developed in a Smart City background, and its main aims were both to gain knowledge of how Smart Cities, Testbeds and Federations of Testbeds are structured by working on a real deployed system, i.e. SmartSantander framework and Fed4FIRE federation, and to contribute with some of the components required for the integration. The technical development carried out as part of this thesis mainly deals with three aspects of the testbed: resource discovery, asynchronous subscription management and measurement data delivery. As a result, a series of software components have been deployed on SmartSantander hardware and it will be running as part of the complete framework on the next testbed iteration. Together, they provide a new way of accessing to the sensor information SmartSantander can provide. During the development phase, we experimented with real hardware and software and worked with o -the-shelf technologies for testbed and federations. The complete work was developed at the University of Cantabria in collaboration with the TLMAT laboratory, which currently presides over SmartSantander.

  317. Turner, Jonathan S., "A proposed architecture for the GENI backbone platform." Proceedings of the 2006 ACM/IEEE symposium on Architecture for networking and communications systems, San Jose, California, USA, ACM, New York, NY, USA, 2006. doi:10.1145/1185347.1185349. http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/1185347.1185349

    Abstract: The GENI Project (Global Environment for Network Innovation) is a major NSF-sponsored initiative that seeks to create a national research facility to enable experimental deployment of innovative new network architectures on a sufficient scale to enable realistic evaluation. One key component of the GENI system will be the GENI Backbone Platform (GBP) that provides the resources needed to allow multiple experimental networks to co-exist within the shared GENI infrastructure. This paper reviews the objectives for the GBP, the key issues that affect its design and develops a reference architecture that provides a concrete example for how the objectives can be met, using commercially available subsystems.

  318. Turner, Jonathan S. and Crowley, Patrick and DeHart, John and Freestone, Amy and Heller, Brandon and Kuhns, Fred and Kumar, Sailesh and Lockwood, John and Lu, Jing and Wilson, Michael and Wiseman, Charles and Zar, David, "Supercharging planetlab: a high performance, multi-application, overlay network platform." SIGCOMM Comput. Commun. Rev., ACM, New York, NY, USA, 2007. doi:10.1145/1282427.1282391. http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/1282427.1282391

    Abstract: In recent years, overlay networks have become an important vehicle for delivering Internet applications. Overlay network nodes are typically implemented using general purpose servers or clusters. We investigate the performance benefits of more integrated architectures, combining general-purpose servers with high performance Network Processor (NP) subsystems. We focus on PlanetLab as our experimental context and report on the design and evaluation of an experimental PlanetLab platform capable of much higher levels of performance than typical system configurations. To make it easier for users to port applications, the system supports a fast path/slow path application structure that facilitates the mapping of the most performance-critical parts of an application onto an NP subsystem, while allowing the more complex control and exception-handling to be implemented within the programmer-friendly environment provided by conventional servers. We report on implementations of two sample applications, an IPv4 router, and a forwarding application for the Internet Indirection Infrastructure. We demonstrate an 80x improvement in packet processing rates and comparable reductions in latency.

  319. Ujcich, Benjamin E., "An Attack Model, Language, and Injector for the Control Plane of Software-Defined Networks (Master's Thesis)." 2016. https://www.perform.illinois.edu/Papers/USAN_papers/16UJC01.pdf

    Abstract: Software-defined networking (SDN) is an emerging paradigm that differs from traditional approaches to computer networking by decoupling how traffic forwarding should be performed from the traffic itself, logically centralizing the related decisions through one or more controllers, and providing a standardized control protocol among network forwarding devices (e.g., switches) and controller(s). Much of the recent research in the networking community has focused on what is now possible because of the exibility of SDN architectures, but what is less understood is 1) the resilience of SDN to intentional, malicious attacks against system components and 2) how the control protocol affects and is affected by these attacks. Significant challenges include systematically establishing what attacks are possible in the control protocol and understanding the ramifications of attacks on controllers, switches, network applications, and overall network behavior. This thesis introduces a model, a language, and an injector for describing and injecting attacks into the control plane of the OpenFlow-based SDN architecture. First, we define an attack model that models the components in the SDN network and the assumptions about an attacker's capabilities against control plane messages. Second, we define an attack language that allows for attacks to be described based on the semantics of the OpenFlow protocol. Third, we describe an attack injection architecture that uses the aforementioned attack model and language to actuate attacks that demonstrate vulnerabilities in the design, implementation, and configuration of an SDN-based architecture. Finally, we motivate our design with an enterprise network use case and demonstrate the efficacy of our injector by injecting attacks and understanding the attacks' results.

  320. Valancius, Vytautas and Feamster, Nick, "Multiplexing BGP sessions with BGP-Mux." Proceedings of the 2007 ACM CoNEXT conference, New York, New York, ACM, New York, NY, USA, 2007. doi:10.1145/1364654.1364707. http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/1364654.1364707

    Abstract: This paper describes a BGP-session multiplexer called BGP-Mux, which provides stable, on-demand access to global BGP route feeds. This gateway allows arbitrary and even transient client BGP connections to be provisioned and torn down on demand without affecting globally visible BGP sessions. BGP-Mux provides two capabilities: (1) the ability for a client network to receive multiple unfiltered routes per destination from a set of upstream ASes; and (2) the ability to provision BGP sessions without introducing global instability. Several applications could benefit from these features:

  321. Valancius, Vytautas and Feamster, Nick and Rexford, Jennifer and Nakao, Akihiro, "Wide-area route control for distributed services." Proceedings of the 2010 USENIX conference on USENIX annual technical conference, Boston, MA, USENIX Association, Berkeley, CA, USA, 2010. http://portal.acm.org/citation.cfm?id=1855842

    Abstract: Many distributed services would benefit from control over the flow of traffic to and from their users, to offer better performance and higher reliability at a reasonable cost. Unfortunately, although today's cloud-computing platforms offer elastic computing and bandwidth resources, they do not give services control over wide-area routing. We propose replacing the data center's border router with a Transit Portal (TP) that gives each service the illusion of direct connectivity to upstream ISPs, without requiring each service to deploy hardware, acquire IP address space, or negotiate contracts with ISPs. Our TP prototype supports many layer-two connectivity mechanisms, amortizes memory and message overhead over multiple services, and protects the rest of the Internet from misconfigured and malicious applications. Our implementation extends and synthesizes open-source software components such as the Linux kernel and the Quagga routing daemon. We also implement a management plane based on the GENI control framework and couple this with our four-site TP deployment and Amazon EC2 facilities. Experiments with an anycast DNS application demonstrate the benefits the TP offers to distributed services.

  322. Valancius, Vytautas and Kim, Hyojoon and Feamster, Nick, "Transit portal: BGP connectivity as a service." SIGCOMM Comput. Commun. Rev., ACM, New York, NY, USA, 2010. doi:10.1145/1851182.1851265. http://dl.acm.org/citation.cfm?id=1851265

    Abstract: We demonstrate Transit Portal, a system that provides on-demand BGP Internet connectivity to multiple ISPs. Transit Portal provides connectivity to any virtual network or distributed service that needs to control its inbound and outbound route control. Examples of such services include virtual networks and distributed services in cloud computing environments (e.g., Amazon's EC2) that need to control inbound and outbound traffic.

  323. Valancius, Vytautas and Ravi, Bharath and Feamster, Nick and Snoeren, Alex C., "Quantifying the benefits of joint content and network routing." Proceedings of the ACM SIGMETRICS/international conference on Measurement and modeling of computer systems - SIGMETRICS '13, Pittsburgh, PA, USA, ACM Press, 2013. doi:10.1145/2465529.2465762. http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/2465529.2465762

    Abstract: Online service providers aim to provide good performance for an increasingly diverse set of applications and services. One of the most effective ways to improve service performance is to replicate the service closer to the end users. Replication alone, however, has its limits: while operators can replicate static content, wide-scale replication of dynamic content is not always feasible or cost effective. To improve the latency of such services many operators turn to Internet traffic engineering. In this paper, we study the benefits of performing replica-to-end-user mappings in conjunction with active Internet traffic engineering. We present the design of PECAN, a system that controls both the selection of replicas (c̈ontent routing)̈ and the routes between the clients and their associated replicas (n̈etwork routing)̈. We emulate a replicated service that can perform both content and network routing by deploying PECAN on a distributed testbed. In our testbed, we see that jointly performing content and network routing can reduce round-trip latency by 4.3% on average over performing content routing alone (potentially reducing service response times by tens of milliseconds or more) and that most of these gains can be realized with no more than five alternate routes at each replica.

  324. Van Vorst, N. and Erazo, M. and Liu, J., "PrimoGENI: Integrating Real-Time Network Simulation and Emulation in GENI." Principles of Advanced and Distributed Simulation (PADS), 2011 IEEE Workshop on, Nice, France, IEEE, 2011. doi:10.1109/pads.2011.5936747. http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/pads.2011.5936747

    Abstract: The Global Environment for Network Innovations (GENI) is a community-driven research and development effort to build a collaborative and exploratory network experimentation platform -- a v̈irtual laboratory'' for the design, implementation and evaluation of future networks. The PrimoGENI project enables real-time network simulation by extending an existing network simulator to become part of the GENI federation to support large-scale experiments involving physical, simulated and emulated network entities. In this paper, we describe a novel design of PrimoGENI, which aims at supporting realistic, scalable, and flexible network experiments with real-time simulation and emulation capabilities. We present a flexible emulation infrastructure that allows both remote client machines and local cluster nodes running virtual machines to seamlessly interoperate with the simulated network running within a designated s̈lice'' of resources. We show the results of our preliminary validation and performance studies to demonstrate the capabilities and limitations of our approach.

  325. Van Vorst, N. and Erazo, M. and Liu, J., "PrimoGENI for hybrid network simulation and emulation experiments in GENI." Journal of Simulation, 2012. doi:10.1057/jos.2012.5. http://dx.doi.org/10.1057/jos.2012.5

    Abstract: The Global Environment for Network Innovations (GENI) is a community-driven research and development effort to build a collaborative and exploratory network experimentation platform—a 'virtual laboratory' for the design, implementation, and evaluation of future networks. The PrimoGENI project enables real-time network simulation by extending an existing network simulator to become part of the GENI federation to support large-scale experiments involving physical, simulated, and emulated network entities. In this paper, we describe a novel design of PrimoGENI, which aims at supporting realistic, scalable, and flexible network experiments with real-time simulation and emulation capabilities. We present a flexible emulation infrastructure that allows both remote client machines, local cluster nodes running virtual machines, and external networks to seamlessly interoperate with the simulated network running within a designated 'slice' of resources. We present the results of our preliminary validation and performance studies to demonstrate the capabilities as well as limitations of our approach.

  326. Van Vorst, N. and Li, Ting and Liu, J., "How Low Can You Go? Spherical Routing for Scalable Network Simulations." Modeling, Analysis & Simulation of Computer and Telecommunication Systems (MASCOTS), 2011 IEEE 19th International Symposium on, IEEE, 2011. doi:10.1109/MASCOTS.2011.35. http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/MASCOTS.2011.35

    Abstract: Memory consumption is a critical problem for large-scale network simulations. Particularly, the large memory footprint needed for maintaining routing tables can severely obturate scalability. We present an approach of composing large-scale network models using sharable model fragments to achieve significant reduction in the amount of memory required for storing forwarding tables in simulation. Our approach, called spherical routing, conducts static routing within spheres according to user-defined policies. Our routing scheme pre-calculates the forwarding table for each routing sphere, and allows spheres with identical sub-structures to share forwarding tables. Through extensive experiments we demonstrate that our approach can achieve several orders of magnitude in memory reduction for large-scale network models.

  327. Van Vorst, N. and Liu, J., "Realizing Large-Scale Interactive Network Simulation via Model Splitting." Principles of Advanced and Distributed Simulation (PADS), 2012 ACM/IEEE/SCS 26th Workshop on, IEEE, 2012. doi:10.1109/pads.2012.35. http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/pads.2012.35

    Abstract: This paper presents the model splitting method for large-scale interactive network simulation, which addresses the separation of concerns between network researchers, who focus on developing complex network models and conducting large-scale network experiments, and simulator developers, who are concerned with developing efficient simulation engines to achieve the best performance on parallel platforms. Modeling splitting divides the system into an interactive model to support user interaction, and an execution model to facilitate parallel processing. We describe techniques to maintain consistency and real-time synchronization between the two models. We also provide solutions to reduce the memory complexity of large network models and to ensure data persistency and access efficiency for out-of-core processing.

  328. Vanhove, Thomas and Seghbroeck, Gregory V. and Wauters, Tim and Turck, Filip D. and Vermeulen, Brecht and Demeester, Piet, "Tengu: An Experimentation Platform for Big Data Applications." 2015 IEEE 35th International Conference on Distributed Computing Systems Workshops, Columbus, OH, USA, IEEE, 2015. doi:10.1109/icdcsw.2015.19. http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/icdcsw.2015.19

    Abstract: Big data applications have stringent service requirements for scalability and fault-tolerance and involve high volumes of data, high processing speeds and large varieties of database technologies. In order to test big data management solutions, large experimentation facilities are needed, which are expensive in terms of both resource cost and configuration time. This paper presents Tengu, an experimentation platform for big data applications that can automatically be instantiated on GENI (US federation of test beds) and Fed FIRE (EU federation of test beds)compatible test beds. Tengu allows for automatic deployments of several data processing, storage and cloud technologies, including Hadoop, Storm and Open Stack. The paper discusses the Tengu architecture, the Tengu-as-a-service approach and a demonstration of an automated instantiation of the Tengu experimentation suite on the Virtual Wall, a large-scale Emulab testbed at the Minds research institute in Europe.

  329. Velusamy, G. and Gurkan, D. and Narayan, S. and Baily, S., "Fault-Tolerant OpenFlow-Based Software Switch Architecture with LINC Switches for a Reliable Network Data Exchange." Research and Educational Experiment Workshop (GREE), 2014 Third GENI, IEEE, 2014. doi:10.1109/gree.2014.17. http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/gree.2014.17

    Abstract: The switches are essential for forwarding the packets in a local area network. If a switch fails, then the packets are not able to reach their destination, in spite of their long journey from the source. The new trend in Software Defined Networking (SDN) has made the use of software switches such as the OpenvSwitch quite popular. These software switches are used in data centers to connect virtual machines on which application servers are deployed. Such switches have the advantages of software: ease of development and flexibility, with less optimal testing and reliability measures than hardware systems. The Software switches are required to be resilient to failure because the applications servers which are running from the VMs which are connected through them should always be connected with its clients. So fault-tolerance becomes an important aspect in the use of software switches. In this paper, we explore one mechanism for fault tolerance of LINC (Link Is Not Closed), an open source OpenFlow switch, which is written in Erlang programming language. Distributed system, concurrency, and fault-tolerance are built-in features of Erlang. We leverage these features of Erlang to realize a fault-tolerant distributed LINC switch system.

  330. Velusamy, Gandhimathi, "OpenFlow-based Distributed and Fault-Tolerant Software Switch Architecture (Master's thesis)." 2014. http://repositories.tdl.org/uh-ir/bitstream/handle/10657/693/VELUSAMY-THESIS-2014.pdf

    Abstract: We are living in the era where each of us is connected with each other virtually across the globe. We are sharing the information electronically over the internet every second of our day. There are many networking devices involved in sending the information over the internet. They are routers, gateways, switches, PCs, laptops, handheld devices, etc. The switches are very crucial elements in delivering packets to the intended recipients. Now the networking field is moving towards Software Defined Networking and the network elements are being slowly replaced by the software applications run by OpenFlow protocols. For example the switching functionality in local area networks could be achieved with software switches like OpenvSwitch (OVS), LINC-Switch, etc. Now a days the organizations depend on the datacenters to run their services. The application servers are being run from virtual machines on the hosts to better utilize the computing resources and make the system more scalable. The application servers need to be continuously available to run the business for which they are deployed for. Software switches are used to connect virtual machines as an alternative to Top of Rack switches. If such software switch fails then the application servers will not be able to connect to its clients. This may severely impact the business serviced by the application servers, deployed on the virtual machines. For reliable data connectivity, the switching elements need to be continuously functional. There is a need for reliable and robust switches to cater the today's networking infrastructure. In this study, the software switch LINC-Switch is implemented as distributed application on multiple nodes to make it resilient to failure. The fault-tolerance is achieved by using the distribution properties of the programming language Erlang. By implementing the switch on three redundant nodes and starting the application as a distributed application, the switch will be serving its purpose very promptly by restarting it on other node in case it fails on the current node by using failover/takeover mechanisms of Erlang. The tolerance to failure of the LINC-Switch is verified with Ping based experiment on the GENI test bed and on the Xen-cluster in our Lab.

  331. Venkataraman, Aishwarya, "Defragmentation of Resources in Virtual Desktop clouds for Cost-aware Utility-maximal Allocation (Master's thesis)." 2012. https://etd.ohiolink.edu/!etd.send_file?accession=osu1339747492

    Abstract: Cloud Service Providers (CSPs) make virtual desktop cloud (VDC) resource provisioning decisions within desktop pools based on user groups and their application pro- files. Such provisioning is aimed to not only satisfy acceptable user quality of experience (QoE) levels and provide high scalability, but also provide ” knobs” to CSPs to operate according their economic policies. The next challenge is to place user VD requests in an optimal and fast manner across distributed data centers. The placement decisions are influenced by session latency, load balancing and operation cost constraints. In this work, we identify the resource fragmentation problem that occurs when placement is done opportunistically to minimize provisioning time and deliver satisfactory user QoE. To solve this problem, which inherently is an NP-Hard problem, we propose a defragmentation scheme that has fast convergence time and has three levels of complexity: (i) ” Economics-directed resource allocation model” (E-RAM) that considers economic policies while optimizing resource provisioning within a data center (ii) ” Cost-aware Utility-maximal Local Placement” to optimize resource provisioning between multiple data centers, and (iii) ” Costaware Utility-maximal Global Placement with Migration” to optimize resource provisioning using cost-aware and utility-maximal VD re-allocations and migrations - to increase scalability and performance. We evaluate our E-RAM, Cost-aware Utility-maximal Local and Global Placement schemes using a novel ” VDC-Sim” simulator that we have developed in this study. Our simulations leverage profiles of user groups and their applications within desktop pools, obtained from a real VDC testbed. We also implemented our schemes in a real cloud infrastructure. Our results demonstrate that defragmentation is an important optimization step and defragmentation together with E-RAM and our Cost-aware Utilitymaximal placement schemes can enable CSPs to achieve optimal user QoE, higher VDC scalability, improved system performance and resilience.

  332. Vulimiri, Ashish and Michel, Oliver and Godfrey, P. Brighten and Shenker, Scott, "More is Less: Reducing Latency via Redundancy." Proceedings of the 11th ACM Workshop on Hot Topics in Networks, Redmond, Washington, ACM, New York, NY, USA, 2012. doi:10.1145/2390231.2390234. http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/2390231.2390234

    Abstract: Low latency is critical for interactive networked applications. But while we know how to scale systems to increase capacity, reducing latency --- especially the tail of the latency distribution --- can be much more difficult. We argue that the use of redundancy in the context of the wide-area Internet is an effective way to convert a small amount of extra capacity into reduced latency. By initiating redundant operations across diverse resources and using the first result which completes, redundancy improves a system's latency even under exceptional conditions. We demonstrate that redundancy can significantly reduce latency for small but critical tasks, and argue that it is an effective general-purpose strategy even on devices like cell phones where bandwidth is relatively constrained.

  333. Wallace, Scott A. and Muhammad, Monzur and Mache, Jens and Cappos, Justin, "Hands-on Internet with Seattle and Computers from Across the Globe." J. Comput. Sci. Coll., Consortium for Computing Sciences in Colleges, USA, 2011. http://portal.acm.org/citation.cfm?id=2037151.2037181

    Abstract: The Internet Connectivity module is a short assignment covering distributed computing and networking. The Internet Connectivity module is part of the curriculum created for the Northwest Distributed Computer Science Department and is built upon the Seattle distributed computing platform. In this paper, we describe the module and illustrate how Seattle facilitates networking projects and experiments that use computers/resources from across the globe. In addition, we describe how the Internet Connectivity module was used in two courses, provide some comments on students' reactions to the project, and conclude with suggestions for faculty considering how to use this module in their future courses.

  334. Wang, Cong and Bhat, Divyashri and Rizk, Amr and Zink, Michael, "Design and Analysis of QoE-Aware Quality Adaptation for DASH: A Spectrum-Based Approach." ACM Trans. Multimedia Comput. Commun. Appl., ACM, New York, NY, USA, 2017. doi:10.1145/3092839. http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/3092839

    Abstract: The dynamics of the application-layer-based control loop of dynamic adaptive streaming over HTTP (DASH) make video bitrate selection for DASH a difficult problem. In this work, we provide a DASH quality adaptation algorithm, named SQUAD, that is specifically tailored to provide a high quality of experience (QoE). We review and provide new insights into the challenges for DASH rate estimation. We found that in addition to the ON-OFF behavior of DASH clients, there exists a discrepancy in the timescales that form the basis of the rate estimates across (i) different video segments and (ii) the rate control loops of DASH and Transmission Control Protocol (TCP). With these observations in mind, we design SQUAD aiming to maximize the average quality bitrate while minimizing the quality variations. We test our implementation of SQUAD together with a number of different quality adaptation algorithms under various conditions in the Global Environment for Networking Innovation testbed, as well as, in a series of measurements over the public Internet. Through a measurement study, we show that by sacrificing little to nothing in average quality bitrate, SQUAD can provide significantly better QoE in terms of quality switching and magnitude. In addition, we show that retransmission of higher-quality segments that were originally received in low-quality is feasible and improves the QoE.

  335. Wang, Cong and Rizk, Amr and Zink, Michael, "SQUAD: A Spectrum-based Quality Adaptation for Dynamic Adaptive Streaming over HTTP." Proceedings of the 7th International Conference on Multimedia Systems, Klagenfurt, Austria, ACM, New York, NY, USA, 2016. doi:10.1145/2910017.2910593. http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/2910017.2910593

    Abstract: The application-layer based control loops of dynamic adaptive streaming over HTTP (DASH) make video bitrate selection a complex problem. In this work, we review and present new insights into the challenges of DASH rate adaptation. We identify several critical issues that contribute to the degradation of DASH performance with respect to the rate control loops of DASH and TCP. We then introduce a novel DASH quality adaptation algorithm SQUAD, which is specifically designed to ensure high quality of experience (QoE). We implement and test our algorithm together with a number of state-of-the-art quality adaptation algorithms. Through extensive experiments on both testbed and cross-Atlantic Internet scenarios, we show that by sacrificing little to none in average quality bitrate, SQUAD provides significantly better QoE in terms of number and magnitude of quality switches.

  336. Wang, Cong and Zink, Michael, "On the Feasibility of DASH Streaming in the Cloud." Proceedings of Network and Operating System Support on Digital Audio and Video Workshop (NOSSDAV '14), 2014.

    Abstract: As shown in recent studies, video streaming is by far the biggest category of backbone Internet traffic in the US. As a measure to reduce the cost of highly over-provisioned physical infrastructures while remaining the quality of video services, many streaming service providers started to use cloud services where physical resources can be dynamically allocated based on current demand. This paper characterizes the performance of Dynamic Adaptive Streaming over HTTP (DASH), a new MPEG standard on adaptive streaming, in the cloud. We seek to answer the following questions that are critical to content providers that are hosting video in clouds: Which data center is the best to host videos? Does geographical distance matter? What type of instance is best suitable depending on different needs? How to efficiently solve the trade-off between performance and cost? The measurement methods and results presented in this paper can be easily expanded into other VoD services, and they allow us to i) characterize DASH behavior when streaming from the cloud; ii) identify the key factors that influence the DASH performance; and iii) suggest improvements for related services.

  337. Wang, Han and Lee, Ki S. and Li, Erluo and Lim, Chiun L. and Tang, Ao and Weatherspoon, Hakim, "Timing is Everything: Accurate, Minimum Overhead, Available Bandwidth Estimation in High-speed Wired Networks." Proceedings of the 2014 Conference on Internet Measurement Conference, Vancouver, BC, Canada, ACM, New York, NY, USA, 2014. doi:10.1145/2663716.2663746. http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/2663716.2663746

    Abstract: Active end-to-end available bandwidth estimation is intrusive, expensive, inaccurate, and does not work well with bursty cross traffic or on high capacity links. Yet, it is important for designing high performant networked systems, improving network protocols, building distributed systems, and improving application performance. In this paper, we present minProbe which addresses unsolved issues that have plagued available bandwidth estimation. As a middlebox, minProbe measures and estimates available bandwidth with high-fidelity, minimal-cost, and in userspace; thus, enabling cheaper (virtually no overhead) and more accurate available bandwidth estimation. MinProbe performs accurately on high capacity networks up to 10 Gbps and with bursty cross traffic. We evaluated the performance and accuracy of minProbe over a wide-area network, the National Lambda Rail (NLR), and within our own network testbed. Results indicate that minProbe can estimate available bandwidth with error typically no more than 0.4 Gbps in a 10 Gbps network.

  338. Wang, K. C. and Brinn, M. and Mambretti, J., "From federated software defined infrastructure to future internet architecture." Science and Technology Conference (Modern Networking Technologies) (MoNeTeC), 2014 First International, IEEE, 2014. doi:10.1109/monetec.2014.6995605. http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/monetec.2014.6995605

    Abstract: Significant efforts have been devoted to creating large scale compute and network testbeds for studying future Internet challenges. Besides large geographic span, the common emphasis is programmability, allowing researchers to reserve or create, via software, flexible sets of compute and network resources over specified topologies to execute research prototypes of new protocols, processes, and applications. Also emphasized are virtualization, instrumentation, and software defined networking (SDN) capabilities of the infrastructure. SDN in particular stimulated significant interests in academia, industry, and public sectors to re-imagine the future computing and networking infrastructure landscape and roadmap while it becomes increasingly utilized in production environments. Amidst these interests, one can start to capture desirable characteristics to glimpse the potential architecture of the future Internet. In this paper, we discuss the significance of compute-network interaction across complex, highly customized federated architecture in the future Internet. Infrastructure federation has been happening across multiple dimensions. Federation expands the scope of infrastructure, geographically and administratively, for use by members of different organizations. For example, federation initiatives are underway among: 1) US Global Environment for Network Innovations (GENI), Europe Future Internet Research and Experimentation (FIRE), and future Internet testbeds in Asia, South America, and Canada, 2) university production infrastructure, 3) US cities, 4) US public research institutes, and 5) commercial infrastructure. While requirements and objectives differ, they must all address a common set of issues. Such federation suggests the fundamental needs of applications to interact with compute and network resources across a generic, federated, future Internet environment.

  339. Wang, Qing and Xu, Ke and Izard, Ryan and Kribbs, Benton and Porter, Joseph and Wang, Kuang-Ching and Prakash, Aditya and Ramanathan, Parmesh, "GENI Cinema: An SDN-Assisted Scalable Live Video Streaming Service." Network Protocols (ICNP), 2014 IEEE 22nd International Conference on, IEEE, 2014. doi:10.1109/icnp.2014.84. http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/icnp.2014.84

    Abstract: This paper introduces GENI Cinema (GC), a system that provides a scalable live video streaming service based on dynamic traffic steering with software defined networking (SDN) and demand driven instantiation of video relay servers in NSF GENI's distributed cloud environments. While the service can be used to relay a multitude of video content, its initial objective is to support live video streaming of educational content such as lectures and seminars among university campuses. Users on any campus would bootstrap video upload or download via a public web portal and, for scalability, have the video delivered seamlessly across the network over one or multiple paths selected and dynamically controlled by GC. The architecture aims to provide a framework for addressing several well-known limitations of video streaming in today's Internet, where little control is available for controlling forwarding paths of on demand live video streams. GC utilizes GENI's distributed cloud servers to host on-demand video servers/relays and its Open Flow SDN to achieve seamless video upload/download and optimization of forwarding paths in the network core. This paper presents the architecture and an early prototype of the basic GC framework, together with some initial performance measurement results.

  340. Wang, Xiaoyu and Veeraraghavan, Malathi and Lin, Zongli and Oki, Eiji, "Optical Switch in the Middle (OSM) architecture for DCNs with Hadoop adaptations." 2017 IEEE International Conference on Communications (ICC), Paris, France, IEEE, 2017. doi:10.1109/icc.2017.7996504. http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/icc.2017.7996504

    Abstract: Optical switching technologies offer a cost-and power-efficient approach for handling the DataCenter Network (DCN) oversubscription problem. We propose a hybrid DCN architecture named Optical Switch in the Middle (OSM), which offers increased flexibility (when compared to prior hybrid architectures) for supporting multiple simultaneous high-speed TOR-to-TOR paths through an Optical Circuit Switch (OCS) and a core-level Electrical Packet Switch (EPS). A multilayer SDN controller supports advanced-reservation scheduling of optical circuits, and the integration of storage in the core EPS increases the usage rate of optical circuits. To effectively use the OSM architecture, we propose four modifications to Hadoop, and illustrate the potential of this architecture for achieving higher compute-resource utilization while simultaneously offering users shorter job completion times.

  341. Wang, Yuefeng and Akhtar, Nabeel and Matta, Ibrahim, "Programming Routing Policies for Video Traffic." Network Protocols (ICNP), 2014 IEEE 22nd International Conference on, IEEE, 2014. doi:10.1109/icnp.2014.80. http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/icnp.2014.80

    Abstract: Making the network programmable simplifies network management and enables network innovations. The Recursive Inter Network Architecture (RINA) is our solution to enable network programmability. ProtoRINA is a user-space prototype of RINA and provides users with a framework with common mechanisms so a user can program recursive-networking policies without implementing mechanisms from scratch. In this paper, we focus on how routing policies, which is an important aspect of network management, can be programmed using ProtoRINA, and demonstrate how ProtoRINA can be used to achieve better performance for a video streaming application by instantiating different routing policies over the GENI (Global Environment for Network Innovations) test bed, which provides a large-scale experimental facility for networking research.

  342. Wang, Yuefeng and Esposito, F. and Matta, I., "Demonstrating RINA Using the GENI Testbed." Research and Educational Experiment Workshop (GREE), 2013 Second GENI, IEEE, 2013. doi:10.1109/gree.2013.26. http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/gree.2013.26

    Abstract: The inability of the current Internet architecture to accommodate modern requirements has spurred novel designs for future Internet architectures. The Global Environment for Network Innovations (GENI) is a wide-area virtual network testbed which allows experimentation of such architectures for possible deployment. We have contributed to the efforts of redesigning the Internet with a Recursive InterNetwork Architecture (RINA), and in this paper we demonstrate its practicability by running a prototype on the GENI testbed. We focus on testing two fundamental features of our architecture: security and manageability, discussing in detail how the experimentation was carried, and pointing out some lessons learned using the testbed.

  343. Wang, Yuefeng and Matta, I. and Akhtar, N., "Experimenting with Routing Policies Using ProtoRINA over GENI." Research and Educational Experiment Workshop (GREE), 2014 Third GENI, IEEE, 2014. doi:10.1109/gree.2014.11. http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/gree.2014.11

    Abstract: ProtoRINA is a user-space prototype of the Recursive InterNetwork Architecture (RINA), a new architecture that overcomes inherent weaknesses of the current Internet, e:g:, security, mobility, and manageability. By separating mechanisms and policies, RINA supports the programmability of different control and management policies over different communication scopes while using the same mechanisms. GENI (Global Environment for Network Innovations) provides a large-scale virtual network testbed that supports experimentation and possible deployment of future network architectures. In this paper, using ProtoRINA over GENI resources, we demonstrate how RINA's support for the scoping of routing control and management, and instantiation of different routing policies, can be leveraged to yield faster convergence and lower routing overhead in the face of node or link failures.

  344. Willner, Alexander and Giatili, Mary and Grosso, Paola and Papagianni, Chrysa and Morsey, Mohamed and Baldin, Ilya, "Using Semantic Web Technologies to Query and Manage Information within Federated Cyber-Infrastructures." Data, 2017. doi:10.3390/data2030021. http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/data2030021

    Abstract: A standardized descriptive ontology supports efficient querying and manipulation of data from heterogeneous sources across boundaries of distributed infrastructures, particularly in federated environments. In this article, we present the Open-Multinet (OMN) set of ontologies, which were designed specifically for this purpose as well as to support management of life-cycles of infrastructure resources. We present their initial application in Future Internet testbeds, their use for representing and requesting available resources, and our experimental performance evaluation of the ontologies in terms of querying and translation times. Our results highlight the value and applicability of Semantic Web technologies in managing resources of federated cyber-infrastructures.

  345. Willner, Alexander and Magedanz, Thomas, "FIRMA: A Future Internet resource management architecture." Teletraffic Congress (ITC), 2014 26th International, IEEE, 2014. doi:10.1109/itc.2014.6932981. http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/itc.2014.6932981

    Abstract: The Internet is broken and there are several approaches to fix it. In order to validate the different attempts, they need to be evaluated within large-scale environments involving numerous heterogeneous resources. As a result, several testbeds have been established along with a number of competitive mechanisms to federate them. Since most of these protocols try to address similar issues, combining and unifying them is subject of current research. This leads to a complex environment for testbed owners and developers. Furthermore, it is foreseeable that even more federation approaches in different application domains will emerge in the future. Therefore, we propose an extensible architecture that allows to be federation protocol agnostic. The fundamental idea is to allow interoperability on the level of a semantic information model and to separate delivery mechanism specific implementations from a common core. The requirements for such an architecture have been extracted from latest European Future Internet research projects and its practicability is being evaluated by an initial implementation.

  346. Willner, Alexander and Papagianni, Chrysa and Giatili, Mary and Grosso, Paola and Morsey, Mohamed and Al-Hazmi, Yahya and Baldin, Ilya, "The Open-Multinet Upper Ontology Towards the Semantic-based Management of Federated Infrastructures." Proceedings of the 10th EAI International Conference on Testbeds and Research Infrastructures for the Development of Networks & Communities, Vancouver, Canada, ACM, 2015. doi:10.4108/icst.tridentcom.2015.259750. http://dx.doi.org/10.4108/icst.tridentcom.2015.259750

    Abstract: The Internet remains an unfinished work. There are several approaches to enhancing it that have been experimentally validated within federated testbed environments. To best gain scientific knowledge from these studies, reproducibility and automation are needed in all areas of the experiment life cycle. Within the GENI and FIRE context, several architectures and protocols have been developed for this purpose. However, a major open research issue remains, namely the description and discovery of the heterogeneous resources involved. To remedy this, we propose a semantic information model that can be used to allow declarative interoperability, build dependency graphs, validate requests, infer knowledge and conduct complex queries. The requirements for such an information model have been extracted from current international Future Internet research projects and the practicality of the model is being evaluated through initial implementations. The main outcome of this work is the definition of the Open-Multinet Upper Ontology and related sub-ontologies, which can be used to describe and manage federated infrastructures and their resources.

  347. Wong, G. and Ricci, R. and Duerig, J. and Stoller, L. and Chikkulapelly, S. and Seok, Woojin, "Partitioning Trust in Network Testbeds." System Science (HICSS), 2012 45th Hawaii International Conference on, IEEE, 2012. doi:10.1109/HICSS.2012.466. http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/HICSS.2012.466

    Abstract: Traditionally, test beds for networking and systems research have been designed as monolithic facilities: they contain a single root of trust. The resources in the facility are assumed to be administered by a single entity or a set of mutually-trusting entities. All user management, including vouching for users' identities and taking responsibility for their actions, is done using a flat trust structure or a simple hierarchy with the facility itself as the root. This design is not a good match for test beds that are composed of multiple autonomous facilities, or in which different parts of the test bed operate under different trust models. In this paper, we argue that partitioned trust is increasingly important in large scale and security-sensitive test beds. We present a design that accomplishes this partitioning by using multiple trust roots. The trust domains created by these roots may decide, independently, how much trust to place in each other, and can apply policies based on the domain or principal that originates a request. The domains could represent separately administered facilities (as in a federated test bed), or they could represent sections within a single facility that run with different trust models (for example, with differing levels of security.) We have implemented this design in ProtoGENI, a control framework for federated test beds, we include details of this implementation and share experiences from using it in an active deployment with hundreds of users.

  348. Wroclawski, John and Benzel, Terry and Blythe, Jim and Faber, Ted and Hussain, Alefiya and Mirkovic, Jelena and Schwab, Stephen, "DETERLab and the DETER Project." The GENI Book, Springer International Publishing, 2016. doi:10.1007/978-3-319-33769-2_3. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-33769-2_3

  349. Xiao, Zhifeng and Fu, Bo and Xiao, Yang and Chen, C. L. Philip and Liang, Wei, "A review of GENI authentication and access control mechanisms." International Journal of Security and Networks, 2013. doi:10.1504/ijsn.2013.055046. http://dx.doi.org/10.1504/ijsn.2013.055046

    Abstract: The purpose of this paper is to investigate the authentication and access control mechanisms for Global Environment Network Innovation (GENI). First, we will deliver an extensive survey of the existing authentication and access control techniques in general. We will then study how authentication and access control policies of GENI projects are implemented and how these mechanisms are integrated into the project control frameworks. Finally, we will summarise the advantages and disadvantages of the authentication and access control methods employed in GENI. We believe that the given review is valuable to those who are interested in the internal design of the current GENI security mechanisms.

  350. Xin, Yufeng and Baldin, Ilya and Chase, Jeff and Ogan, Kemafor, "Leveraging Semantic Web Technologies for Managing Resources in a Multi-Domain Infrastructure-as-a-Service Environment." CoRR, 2014. http://arxiv.org/abs/1403.0949

  351. Xin, Yufeng and Baldin, Ilya and Heermann, Chris and Mandal, Anirban and Ruth, Paul, "Scaling up applications over distributed clouds with dynamic layer-2 exchange and broadcast service." Teletraffic Congress (ITC), 2014 26th International, IEEE, 2014. doi:10.1109/itc.2014.6932973. http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/itc.2014.6932973

    Abstract: In this paper, we study the problem of provisioning large-scale virtual clusters over federated clouds connected by multi-domain, layer-2 wide area networks. We first present the virtual cluster request abstraction and the abstraction models for substrate resource pools. Based on these two abstraction models, we developed a novel layer-2 exchange mechanism and an implementation of it in a multi-domain networked cloud environment. The design of the mechanism takes into consideration the realistic constraints in current network and cloud systems. We show that efficient cluster splitting, cloud data center selection and resource allocation algorithms can be developed to provision large-scale virtual clusters across cloud sites. A prototype system has been deployed and integrated into the ExoGENI testbed for about a year, and is being heavily used by scientific and data analytic applications.

  352. Xin, Yufeng and Baldin, Ilya and Heermann, Chris and Mandal, Anirban and Ruth, Paul, "Capacity of Inter-cloud Layer-2 Virtual Networking." Proceedings of the 2014 ACM SIGCOMM Workshop on Distributed Cloud Computing, Chicago, Illinois, USA, ACM, New York, NY, USA, 2014. doi:10.1145/2627566.2627573. http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/2627566.2627573

    Abstract: Due to the economy of scale of Ethernet networks and available dynamic circuit capability from the major national research and educational networks, VLAN (Virtual LAN) based virtual networking solution has been successfully adopted in some advanced distributed cloud systems. However, there are two major constraints in this adaptation: (1) dynamic circuit service is far from pervasive; (2) there is only limited VLAN tags offered by regional network service providers. In this paper, after examining layer-2 networking in large-scale distributed cloud environments, we present a graph theoretical model to study the network capacity in terms of the number of inter-cloud connections that can co-exist. We further design the algorithms to achieve this capacity for both point-to-point and multi-point inter-cloud connections in both static and dynamic scenarios. We also study a general topology embedding problem based on this model. As tagging is a common mechanism for isolating communication channels in other network layers, the proposed models and algorithms can be extended to optical and IP networks.

  353. Xin, Yufeng and Baldin, Ilya and Mandal, Anirban and Ruth, Paul and Chase, Jeff, "Towards an Experimental LegoLand: Slice Modification and Recovery in ExoGENI Testbed." Testbeds and Research Infrastructures for the Development of Networks and Communities, Springer International Publishing, 2017. doi:10.1007/978-3-319-49580-4_4. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-49580-4_4

    Abstract: This paper describes advanced capabilities that were deployed recently in the ExoGENI testbed to offer increased flexibility in provisioning, modifying, and recovering the topologies and the configuration settings of the virtual systems, or slices, in which experiments are run. Using the analogy of building complex structures with LEGO blocks, we envision an environment in which users arbitrarily scale out, scale in, scale up, and scale down their topologies using various modular constructs of compute, storage, and network resources. Portions of topologies can be shut down and brought back up to support resiliency, repeatability, migration, and other needs of the control software or application. Distributed applications running inside of slices can require programmatic control over the evolution of the topology as the execution progresses. The introduced capabilities, slice modification and slice recovery, are used either with the user GUI or through the programmable APIs. These new features expand the range and ease of options available to cloud-control software and to application developers as they test their designs at scale.

  354. Xin, Yufeng and Baldine, Ilia and Mandal, Anirban and Heermann, Chris and Chase, Jeff and Yumerefendi, Aydan, "Embedding Virtual Topologies in Networked Clouds." Proceedings of the 6th International Conference on Future Internet Technologies, Seoul, Republic of Korea, ACM, New York, NY, USA, 2011. doi:10.1145/2002396.2002403. http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/2002396.2002403

  355. Xing, Tianyi and Huang, Dijiang and Xu, Le and Chung, Chun-Jen and Khatkar, P., "SnortFlow: A OpenFlow-Based Intrusion Prevention System in Cloud Environment." Research and Educational Experiment Workshop (GREE), 2013 Second GENI, IEEE, 2013. doi:10.1109/gree.2013.25. http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/gree.2013.25

    Abstract: Security has been one of the top concerns in clouds. It is challenging to construct a secure networking environment in clouds because the cloud is usually a hybrid networking system containing both physical and virtually overlaid networks. Intrusion Detection Systems (IDS) and Intrusion Prevention Systems (IPS) have been widely deployed to manipulate cloud security, with the latter providing additional prevention capabilities. This paper investigates into an OpenFlow and Snort based IPS called S̈nortFlow,̈ in which it enables the cloud system to detect intrusions and deploy countermeasures by reconfiguring the cloud networking system on-the-fly. The evaluation results demonstrate the feasibility of SnortFlow and provide the guidance for the future work.

  356. Xiong, Kaiqi and Makati, Mufaddal, "Assessing End-to-end Performance and Security in Cloud Computing." Proceedings of the Symposium on Applied Computing, Marrakech, Morocco, ACM, New York, NY, USA, 2017. doi:10.1145/3019612.3019633. http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/3019612.3019633

    Abstract: While most studies are concerned with the network performance and security of data centers in the cloud - a shared computing infrastructure, there is little research on the understanding of the end-to-end performance and security of cloud services offered by cloud providers. That is, while cloud providers promise to deliver cloud services that meet predefined Quality of Services (QoS), there is nowadays a lack of efficient tools for the verification of the performance and security of cloud services a user has received. Such research, however, plays an important role in the successful delivery of cloud services. In this paper, we present a systematic way to evaluate the end-to-end performance and security of cloud services in a shared computing infrastructure. We design and develop an end-to-end SECUrity and Performance assessment framework (SECUPerf), where we experimentally and analytically investigate the performance and security of the routers along the path of cloud services between cloud users and providers. Our experimental results have demonstrated the applicability and usefulness of SECUPerf in the cloud. SECUPerf is useful to all the users in the shared computing infrastructure.

  357. Xiong, Kaiqi and Pan, Yin, "Understanding ProtoGENI in Networking Courses for Research and Education." Research and Educational Experiment Workshop (GREE), 2013 Second GENI, IEEE, 2013. doi:10.1109/gree.2013.31. http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/gree.2013.31

  358. Xu, Gang and Amariucai, G. and Guan, Yong, "Delegation of Computation with Verification Outsourcing Using GENI Infrastructure." Research and Educational Experiment Workshop (GREE), 2014 Third GENI, IEEE, 2014. doi:10.1109/gree.2014.16. http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/gree.2014.16

    Abstract: In the new cloud computing paradigm, outsourcing computation is a fundamental principle. Among its various aspects, the correctness of the computation result remains paramount. This motivates the birth of verifiable computation, which aims at efficiently checking the result for general-purpose computation. Although significant progress has been made in verifiable computation towards practice, the verifier's workload still remains too high. Only through batching or amortizing the very expensive investment over a large number of computation instances, can the verifiers cost be less than re-computing the computation task from the scratch. In the work of delegation of verification (PODC'13), Xu et al. proposes that the client can also outsource (again) the verification to a third party. However, whether this idea is feasible in large scale network is not clear. In this paper, we propose to adopt the Global Environment for Network Innovation (GENI) infrastructure, which is known as a mature virtual laboratory for exploring future Internet to investigate the feasibility of outsourcing computation/verification in large scale networks.

  359. Xu, Ke and Izard, R. and Yang, Fan and Wang, Kuang-Ching and Martin, J., "Cloud-Based Handoff as a Service for Heterogeneous Vehicular Networks with OpenFlow." Research and Educational Experiment Workshop (GREE), 2013 Second GENI, IEEE, 2013. doi:10.1109/gree.2013.17. http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/gree.2013.17

    Abstract: This paper proposes a cloud-based architecture for enhancing the performance and capacity of vehicular networks of potentially multiple different wireless technologies. The approach addresses the well-known limitations of today's vehicle-initiated as well as base station-assisted handoff solutions; the former is reactive, therefore slow and inefficient, while the latter is mostly limited to within networks of a single technology. The handoff-as-a-service (HaaS) architecture leverages a cloud system's abundant computing and data storage resources to establish a database of key network properties and configuration options. By abstracting different networks' characteristics into a common set of descriptors, the database can aggregate and share properties of networks of different technologies. Leveraging network awareness of a wider scope, the HaaS service can further analyze optimal network configurations considering global efficiency and individual client requirements. The HaaS service in the computing cloud computes optimal handoff strategies on behalf of the vehicles, and OpenFlow is used to control both the vehicle and infrastructure side network interfaces seamlessly across multiple interfaces of different wireless technologies. This paper presents the proposed system architecture, its key components, and how they can be experimentally studied over National Science Foundation's Global Environment for Network Innovations (GENI) testbed. Experiment results on PC Engine device show the feasibility and advantage of the proposed handoff solution.

  360. Xu, Ke and Sampathkumar, S. and Wang, Kuang-Ching and Ramanathan, P., "Network Coding for Efficient Broadband Data Delivery in Infrastructure-Based Vehicular Networks with OpenFlow." Research and Educational Experiment Workshop (GREE), 2013 Second GENI, IEEE, 2013. doi:10.1109/gree.2013.19. http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/gree.2013.19

    Abstract: This paper proposes a system architecture for supporting efficient broadband data delivery in infrastructure based vehicular networks. The proposed approach addresses two major challenges for high throughput data transport from Internet to moving vehicles over infrastructure wireless networks such as today's 4G technologies: difficulty in maintaining stable throughput over high latency wide area paths in core networks; difficulty in maintaining continuous data download across road-side units (RSUs) in the edge. Specifically, the system multicasts network-encoded packets in the core network (wired Internet infrastructure) to multiple selected RSUs, while the RSUs collaborate in disseminating and scheduling delivery of the encoded packets to vehicles. Realizing the overall system requires network coding and multipath forwarding capabilities in the core network, and network decoding support in the vehicles. For network coding to be efficient, however, dynamic control of the forwarding paths of the network coded packets are essential. This paper presents the proposed system architecture, its key components, and how they can be experimentally studied over National Science Foundation's Global Environment for Network Innovations (GENI) testbed. Experiments on ProtoGENI testbed show the feasibility and advantages of network coding in core networks.

  361. Xu, Ke and Wang, Kuang-Ching and Amin, Rahul and Martin, Jim and Izard, Ryan, "A Fast Cloud-based Network Selection Scheme Using Coalition Formation Games in Vehicular Networks." IEEE Transactions on Vehicular Technology, IEEE, 2014. doi:10.1109/tvt.2014.2379953. http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/tvt.2014.2379953

    Abstract: Leveraging multiple wireless technologies and radio access networks, vehicles on the move have the potential to get robust connectivity and continuous service. To support the demands of as many vehicles as possible, an efficient and fast network selection scheme is critically important to achieve high performance and efficiency. So far, prior works have primarily focused on design of optimization algorithms and utility functions for either user or network performance. Most such studies do not address the complexities involved in the acquisition of needed information and the execution of algorithms, making them unsuitable for practical implementations in vehicles. This paper proposes a fast, cloud-based network selection scheme for vehicular networks. By leveraging a compute cloud's abundant computing and data storage resources, vehicles can leverage wider scope network information for decision making. Vehicles select best access networks through a coalition formation game approach. A one-iteration fast convergence algorithm is proposed to achieve the final state of coalition structure in the game. Through extensive simulation, the proposed network selection scheme was shown to balance system throughput and fairness with built-in utility division rule of the framework. The algorithm efficiency showed eight-fold enhancement over a conventional coalition formation algorithm. Such features validate the potential of implementation in practice.

  362. Xu, Zhiguang, "Adaptive Flow Admission Control in a Software-Defined Network." 2017 IEEE International Conference on Smart Cloud (SmartCloud), New York, NY, IEEE, 2017. doi:10.1109/smartcloud.2017.27. http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/smartcloud.2017.27

    Abstract: In this paper, we have followed the idea of exploiting the highly flexible architecture of Software-Defined Network (SDN) to provide an adaptive packet Flow Admission Control (FAC) system. Both Quality of Service (QoS) requirements of the packet flow and the current state and situation in the network are put under consideration when admission decisions are made. Furthermore, our proposed FAC monitors and dynamically adapts to the changes of network parameters such as bandwidth, delay, jitter, latency, and classification of traffics for better overall user experience. This paper finds ways to implement the proposed adaptive FAC for improved QoS using a custom built OpenFlow controller based on Floodlight in the production environment of GENI, a national testbed for innovative networking and distributed systems experiments. The experimental results indicate that the adaptive FAC delivers an improvement of up to 67% in comparison with the traditional FAC when unsatisfied user percentage is measured. Also, the adaptive FAC enhanced the average end-to-end delay and network resource (i.e. bandwidth) utilization by up to 30% and 50\\ respectively.

  363. Yan, Bo and Shi, Shu and Liu, Yong and Yuan, Weizhe and He, Haoqin and Jana, Rittwik and Xu, Yang and Chao, H. Jonathan, "LiveJack." Proceedings of the 2017 ACM on Multimedia Conference - MM '17, Mountain View, California, USA, ACM Press, 2017. doi:10.1145/3123266.3123283. http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/3123266.3123283

    Abstract: Emerging commercial live content broadcasting platforms are facing great challenges to accommodate large scale dynamic viewer populations. Existing solutions constantly suffer from balancing the cost of deploying at the edge close to the viewers and the quality of content delivery. We propose LiveJack, a novel network service to allow CDN servers to seamlessly leverage ISP edge cloud resources. LiveJack can elastically scale the serving capacity of CDN servers by integrating Virtual Media Functions (VMF) in the edge cloud to accommodate flash crowds for very popular contents. LiveJack introduces minor application layer changes for streaming service providers and is completely transparent to end users. We have prototyped LiveJack in both LAN and WAN environments. Evaluations demonstrate that LiveJack can increase CDN server capacity by more than six times, and can effectively accommodate highly dynamic workloads with an improved service quality.

  364. Yi, Ping, "Peer-to-Peer based Trading and File Distribution for Cloud Computing (Doctoral dissertation)." Lexington, Kentucky, 2014. http://uknowledge.uky.edu/cs_etds/22/

    Abstract: In this dissertation we take a peer-to-peer approach to deal with two specific issues, fair trading and file distribution, arisen from data management for cloud computing. In mobile cloud computing environment cloud providers may collaborate with each other and essentially organize some dedicated resources as a peer to peer sharing system. One well-known problem in such peer to peer systems with exchange of resources is free riding. Providing incentives for peers to contribute to the system is an important issue in peer to peer systems. We design a reputation-based fair trading mechanism that favors peers with higher reputation. Based on the definition of the reputation used in the system, we derive a fair trading policy. We evaluate the performance of reputation-based trading mechanisms and highlight the scenarios in which they can make a difference. Distribution of data to the resources within a cloud or to different collaborating clouds efficiently is another issue in cloud computing. The delivery efficiency is de- pendent on the characteristics of the network links available among these network nodes and the mechanism that takes advantage of them. Our study is based on the Global Environment for Network Innovations (GENI), a testbed for researchers to build a virtual laboratory at scale to explore future Internets. Our study consists of two parts. First, we characterize the links in the GENI network. Even though GENI has been used in many research and education projects, there is no systematic study about what we can expect from the GENI testbeds from a performance perspective. The goal is to characterize the links of the GENI networks and provide guidance for GENI experiments. Second, we propose a peer to peer approach to file distribution for cloud comput- ing. We develop a mechanism that uses multiple delivery trees as the distribution structure, which takes into consideration the measured performance information in the GENI network. Files are divided into chunks to improve parallelism among differ- ent delivery trees. With a strict scheduling mechanism for each chunk, we can reduce the overall time for getting the file to all relevant nodes. We evaluate the proposed mechanism and show that our mechanism can significantly reduce the overall delivery time.

  365. Yi, Ping and Fei, Zongming, "Characterizing the GENI Networks." Research and Educational Experiment Workshop (GREE), 2014 Third GENI, IEEE, 2014. doi:10.1109/gree.2014.8. http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/gree.2014.8

    Abstract: After several spirals of development, GENI has evolved into a rich-featured environment with comprehensive support. Researchers have started to use it as a testing environment for their research projects, as evidenced by new GENI projects on shakedown experiments. However, it is not clear what we can expect from the GENI testbeds from a performance perspective. Some fundamental questions we can ask are: What are the bandwidth and latency of a link that connects two VMs from two different GENI aggregates? Do they change a lot over time? What kind of distribution do they follow? Are they aggregate dependent? The goal of this study is to characterize the links of the GENI networks and provide guidance to GENI experimenters. The information collected can be helpful for designing GENI experiments in selecting where resources should be reserved.

  366. Yu, Ze and Liu, Xinxin and Li, Min and Liu, Kaikai and Li, Xiaolin, "ExoApp: Performance Evaluation of Data-Intensive Applications on ExoGENI." Research and Educational Experiment Workshop (GREE), 2013 Second GENI, IEEE, 2013. doi:10.1109/gree.2013.14. http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/gree.2013.14

    Abstract: ExoGENI is a new GENI-federated Infrastructureas- a-Service (IaaS) framework. In this paper, we evaluate the performance of data-intensive applications on ExoGENI's resources. To simplify experiments, we design an automatic provisioning system called ExoApp. This paper focuses on MapReduce-based applications. Users can easily deploy applications in ExoGENI using ExoApp, without having to manually configure cluster runtime environments. We then conduct a series of experiments using real-world data sets and standard benchmarks through ExoApp. Our result shows that ExoGENI demonstrates similar resource quality when hosting data-intensive applications and its Network-as-a-Service (NaaS) model maintains stable network performance. We finally identify the pros and cons of the ExoGENI's NaaS model in supporting data-intensive applications.

  367. Yuen, Marco, "GENI in the Cloud (Master's Thesis)." 2010. http://s3.amazonaws.com/marcoy_thesis/Thesis.pdf

    Abstract: Computer networking researchers often have access to a few dierent network testbeds (Section 1.2) for their experiments. However, those testbeds are limited in resources; contentions for resources are prominent in those testbeds especially when conference deadline is looming. Moreover, services running on those testbeds are subject to seasonal and daily trac spikes from users all round the world. Hence, demand for resources at the testbeds are high. Some researchers can use other testbeds in conjunction with the ones they are using. Even though each of the testbeds may have dierent infrastructures, and characteristics, in the end, what the researchers receive in return is a set of computing resources, either virtual machines or physical machines. Essentially, those testbeds are providing a similar service, but researchers have to manage the credentials for accessing the testbeds manually, and they have to manually request resources from dierent testbeds in order to setup experiments that span across dierent testbeds. This thesis presents GENICloud, a project that enables the federation of testbeds with clouds. Computing and storage resources can be provisioned to researchers and services running on existing testbeds dynamically from an Eucalyptus cloud. As a part of the GENICloud project, the user proxy (Section 3.4) provides a less arduous method for testbeds administrators to federate with other testbeds; the same serviceiv also manages researchers credentials, so they do not have to acquire resources from each testbed individually. The user proxy provides a single interface for researchers to interact with dierent testbeds and clouds and manage their experiments. Furthermore, GENICloud demonstrates that there are, in fact, quite a few architectural similarities between dierent testbeds and even clouds

  368. Zhang, Miao and Kissel, Ezra and Swany, Martin, "Using phoebus data transfer accelerator in cloud environments." Communications (ICC), 2015 IEEE International Conference on, IEEE, 2015. doi:10.1109/icc.2015.7248346. http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/icc.2015.7248346

    Abstract: The quality of data exchange in cloud computing applications relies on the connection performance between user clients and their cloud storage providers, and is often dependent on the wide area network (WAN) properties among data centers. For certain classes of applications, it can be crucial to provide an end-to-end solution that accelerates large data transfers and improves overall user experience. The development and deployment of WAN optimization technology has been investigated for improving application perfor- mance in heterogeneous, multi-domain environments. WAN opti- mization devices and services implement a number of approaches for performance improvement, and one key insight is that in contrast to traditional end-to-end TCP connections, middleboxes that segment and optimize transport-layer connections can im- prove the performance of wide area data transfers. In the context of dynamic cloud computing environments, there is an obvious target for implementations of WAN optimization as Network Function Virtualization (NFV), where the flexibility of virtualized cloud environments can be exploited. This paper describes recent developments and experimentation of our Phoebus WAN accelerator framework. We introduce a software suite that includes new Phoebus clients that operate with the Phoebus Gateway network. We test and discuss virtualizing Phoebus Gateways to provide acceleration services in cloud data transfers. Use cases and performance evaluations are conducted on FutureGrid and Internet2 testbeds, and we demonstrate the effectiveness of a virtualized Phoebus deployment.

  369. Zhang, Miao and Swany, Martin and Yavanamanda, Adithya and Kissel, Ezra, "HELM: Conflict-free active measurement scheduling for shared network resource management." Integrated Network Management (IM), 2015 IFIP/IEEE International Symposium on, IEEE, 2015. doi:10.1109/inm.2015.7140283. http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/inm.2015.7140283

    Abstract: Network resource measurement is a key functionality for large scale network management. Intelligent, network-aware applications may benefit from access to detailed representations of network resources, including multi-layer topologies and real-time traffic measurement, and shared resources may obtain better overall utilization by identifying performance bottlenecks. In this study, we describe a network measurement framework, which includes a network topology analysis mechanism as well as agent tools for running active probes and collecting data from end hosts. The system includes a centralized coordinator, which abstracts network elements into annotated network graphs and applies scheduling algorithms to calculate conflict free measurement probes over shared links. Our evaluation integrated perfSONAR services into our framework and included deployment scenarios on research and education networks such as Internet2 and ESnet. The data presented in this study offers compelling evidence that supports a method by which to measure the performance of real world networks.

  370. Zhang, Yihua and Steele, Aaron and Blanton, Marina, "PICCO: A General-purpose Compiler for Private Distributed Computation." Proceedings of the 2013 ACM SIGSAC Conference on Computer & Communications Security, Berlin, Germany, ACM, New York, NY, USA, 2013. doi:10.1145/2508859.2516752. http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/2508859.2516752

    Abstract: Secure computation on private data has been an active area of research for many years and has received a renewed interest with the emergence of cloud computing. In recent years, substantial progress has been made with respect to the efficiency of the available techniques and several implementations have appeared. The available tools, however, lacked a convenient mechanism for implementing a general-purposeprogram in a secure computation framework suitable for execution in not fully trusted environments. This work fulfills this gap and describes a system, called PICCO, for converting a program written in an extension of C into its distributed secure implementation and running it in a distributed environment. The C extension preserves all current features of the programming language and allows variables to be marked as private and be used in general-purpose computation. Secure distributed implementation of compiled programs is based on linear secret sharing, achieving efficiency and information-theoretical security. Our experiments also indicate that many programs can be evaluated very efficiently on private data using PICCO.

  371. Zhang, Yuanxun and Calyam, Prasad and Debroy, Saptarshi and Nuguri, Sai S., "Social Plane for Recommenders in Network Performance Expectation Management." IEEE Transactions on Network and Service Management, 2017. doi:10.1109/tnsm.2017.2772905. http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/tnsm.2017.2772905

    Abstract: Multi-domain end-to-end network performance monitoring (NPM) federations such as perfSONAR are increasingly being used in Big Data application management. They rely on trustworthy collaborative measurement intelligence to identify and diagnose network anomaly events that impact application performance. Large volumes of end-to-end measurement traces are generated on a daily basis, and new Big Data analysis techniques are needed to isolate network-wide anomaly event(s) and to diagnose the root-cause(s). In addition, not all network operators and application users have enough knowledge and experience to understand the anomaly events. The lack of a platform for sharing knowledge and working collaboratively makes it difficult to isolate and diagnose network-wide anomaly events quickly and accurately. In this paper, we define a ” social plane” that relies on recommended measurements based on ” content-based filtering” and ” collaborative filtering” approaches to enable network performance expectation management. Based on similarity analysis, the ” content-based filtering” facilitates users to subscribe to useful measurements, and the ” collaborative filtering” promotes users to share knowledge on anomaly symptoms. Using real perfSONAR measurements and synthetic events, we show the effectiveness of our social plane approach within a SoyKB Big Data application case study using social network creation and mingling of experts. Our experimental results show that our measurements recommendation scheme has high precision, recall and accuracy, as well as efficiency in terms of the time taken for large volume measurement trace analysis.

  372. Zhao, Shuai and Sydney, Ali and Medhi, Deep, "Building Application-Aware Network Environments Using SDN for Optimizing Hadoop Applications." Proceedings of the 2016 Conference on ACM SIGCOMM 2016 Conference, Florianopolis, Brazil, ACM, New York, NY, USA, 2016. doi:10.1145/2934872.2959059. http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/2934872.2959059

    Abstract: Hadoop has become the de facto standard for Big Data analytics, especially for workloads that use the MapReduce (M/R) framework. However, the lack of network awareness of the default MapReduce resource manager in Hadoop can cause unbalanced job scheduling, network bottleneck, and eventually increase the Hadoop run time if Hadoop nodes are clustered in several geographically distributed locations. In this paper, we present an application-aware network approach using software-defined networking (SDN) for distributed Hadoop clusters. We develop the SDN applications for this environment that consider network topology discovery, traffic monitoring, and flow rerouting in addition to loop avoidance mechanisms.

  373. Zhuang, Yanyan and Rafetseder, A. and Cappos, J., "Experience with Seattle: A Community Platform for Research and Education." Research and Educational Experiment Workshop (GREE), 2013 Second GENI, IEEE, 2013. doi:10.1109/gree.2013.16. http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/gree.2013.16

    Abstract: Hands-on experience is a critical part of research and education. Today's distributed testbeds fulfill that need for many students studying networking, distributed systems, cloud computing, security, operating systems, and similar topics. In this work, we discuss one such testbed, Seattle. Seattle is an open research and educational testbed that utilizes computational resources provided by end users on their existing devices. Unlike most other platforms, resources are not dedicated to the platform which allows a greater degree of network diversity and realism at the cost of programmability. Seattle is designed to preserve user security and to minimally impact application performance. We describe the architectural design of Seattle, and summarize our experiences with Seattle over the past few years as both researchers and educators. We have found that Seattle is very easy to adopt due to cross-platform support, and is also surprisingly easy for students to use. While there are programmability limitations, it is possible to construct complex applications integrated with real devices, networks, and users with Seattle as a core component. From an educational standpoint, Seattle has been shown not only to be useful as a teaching tool, it has been successful in variety of different systems classes at a variety of different types of schools. In our experience, when low-level programmability is not the main requirement, Seattle can supersede many existing testbeds for diverse educational and research tasks.

  374. Zink, M., "A measurement architecture for Software Defined Exchanges." Science and Technology Conference (Modern Networking Technologies) (MoNeTeC), 2014 First International, IEEE, 2014. doi:10.1109/monetec.2014.6995606. http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/monetec.2014.6995606

    Abstract: Prototype deployments of Software Defined Exchanges (SDX) have recently come into existence as a platform for Future Internet architecture to eliminate the need for core routing technology used in today's Internet. In this paper, we motivate the need for an adequate measurement architecture for such SDXes to be able to evaluate their performance and inform further development. We present the major requirements for this architecture, introduce the idea of SDX and its first prototypes, and give an overview on a SDX measurement experiment we recently conducted.


Concise GENI Bibliography

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  1. Özçelik, İlker and Brooks, Richard R., "Deceiving entropy based DoS detection." Computers & Security, 2015. doi:10.1016/j.cose.2014.10.013.

  2. Abdelhadi, Ahmed and Rechia, Felipe and Narayanan, Arvind and Teixeira, Thiago and Lent, Ricardo and Benhaddou, Driss and Lee, Hyunwoo and Clancy, T. Charles, "Position estimation of robotic mobile nodes in wireless testbed using GENI." 2016 Annual IEEE Systems Conference (SysCon), IEEE, 2016. doi:10.1109/syscon.2016.7490652.

  3. Aikat, Jay and Hasan, Shaddi and Jeffay, Kevin and Smith, F. Donelson, "Discrete-Approximation of Measured Round Trip Time Distributions: A Model for Network Emulation." First GENI Research and Educational Experiment Workshop (GREE 2012), Los Angeles, 2012.

  4. Akella, Anand V. and Xiong, Kaiqi, "Quality of Service (QoS)-Guaranteed Network Resource Allocation via Software Defined Networking (SDN)." 2014 IEEE 12th International Conference on Dependable, Autonomic and Secure Computing, Dalian, China, IEEE, 2014. doi:10.1109/dasc.2014.11.

  5. AlEroud, Ahmed and Alsmadi, Izzat, "Identifying cyber-attacks on software defined networks: An inference-based intrusion detection approach." Journal of Network and Computer Applications, 2017. doi:10.1016/j.jnca.2016.12.024.

  6. Alali, Fatma and Veeraraghavan, Malathi, "A cross-layer design for large transfers in SDNs." 2016 Eighth International Conference on Ubiquitous and Future Networks (ICUFN), IEEE, 2016. doi:10.1109/icufn.2016.7537142.

  7. Alaoui, Sara E. and Ramamurthy, Byrav, "EAODR: A novel routing algorithm based on the Modified Temporal Graph network model for DTN-based Interplanetary Networks." Computer Networks, 2017. doi:10.1016/j.comnet.2017.09.012.

  8. Albrecht, J. and Huang, D. Y., "Managing distributed applications using Gush." Proceedings of the ICST Conference on Testbeds and Research Infrastructures for the Development of Networks and Communities, Testbed Practices Session (TridentCom), 2010. doi:10.1007/978-3-642-17851-1_31.

  9. Albrecht, Jeannie R., "Bringing big systems to small schools: distributed systems for undergraduates." SIGCSE Bull., ACM, New York, NY, USA, 2009. doi:10.1145/1539024.1508903.

  10. Albrecht, Jeannie and Tuttle, Christopher and Braud, Ryan and Dao, Darren and Topilski, Nikolay and Snoeren, Alex C. and Vahdat, Amin, "Distributed application configuration, management, and visualization with plush." ACM Trans. Internet Technol., ACM, New York, NY, USA, 2011. doi:10.1145/2049656.2049658.

  11. Aleroud, Ahmad and Alsmadi, Izzat, "Identifying DoS attacks on software defined networks: A relation context approach." NOMS 2016 - 2016 IEEE/IFIP Network Operations and Management Symposium, IEEE, 2016. doi:10.1109/noms.2016.7502914.

  12. Anan, M. and Ilyes, L. and Ayyash, M. and Alfuqaha, A., "Cloud-based autonomic service monitoring for Future Internet." 2014 International Wireless Communications and Mobile Computing Conference (IWCMC), IEEE, 2014. doi:10.1109/iwcmc.2014.6906333.

  13. Angu, Pragatheeswaran and Ramamurthy, Byrav, "Experiences with dynamic circuit creation in a regional network testbed." 2011 IEEE Conference on Computer Communications Workshops (INFOCOM WKSHPS), Shanghai, China, IEEE, 2011. doi:10.1109/infcomw.2011.5928801.

  14. Antequera, R. Bazan and Calyam, P. and Chemodanov, D. and de Donato, W. and Mishra, A. and Pescape, A. and Skubic, M., "Socio-technical approach to engineer gigabit app performance for physicaltherapy-as-a-service." 2017 IEEE 19th International Conference on e-Health Networking, Applications and Services (Healthcom), Dalian, China, IEEE, 2017. doi:10.1109/healthcom.2017.8210768.

  15. Antequera, Ronny B. and Calyam, Prasad and Chandrashekara, Arjun A. and Malhotra, Shivoam, "Recommending Resources to Cloud Applications Based on Custom Templates Composition." Proceedings of the Computing Frontiers Conference, Siena, Italy, ACM, New York, NY, USA, 2017. doi:10.1145/3075564.3075582.

  16. Antonenko, V. and Smeliansky, R. and Baldin, I. and Izhvanov, Y. and Gugel, Y., "Towards SDI-bases Infrastructure for supporting science in Russia." Science and Technology Conference (Modern Networking Technologies) (MoNeTeC), 2014 First International, IEEE, 2014. doi:10.1109/monetec.2014.6995576.

  17. Araji, B. and Gurkan, D., "Embedding Switch Number, Port Number, and MAC Address (ESPM) within the IPv6 Address." Research and Educational Experiment Workshop (GREE), 2014 Third GENI, IEEE, 2014. doi:10.1109/gree.2014.20.

  18. Arezoumand, Saeed, "End to End Orchestration of Distributed Cloud Applications (Master's Thesis)." 2017.

  19. Arezoumand, Saeed and Bannazadeh, Hadi and Leon-Garcia, Alberto, "HyperExchange: A protocol-agnostic exchange fabric enabling peering of Virtual Networks." 2017 IFIP/IEEE Symposium on Integrated Network and Service Management (IM), Lisbon, Portugal, IEEE, 2017. doi:10.23919/inm.2017.7987281.

  20. Arezoumand, Saeed and Bannazadeh, Hadi and Leon-Garcia, Alberto, "Layer-two peering across SAVI and GENI testbeds using HyperExchange." 2017 IFIP/IEEE Symposium on Integrated Network and Service Management (IM), Lisbon, Portugal, IEEE, 2017. doi:10.23919/inm.2017.7987407.

  21. Augé, Jordan and Parmentelat, Thierry and Turro, Nicolas and Avakian, Sandrine and Baron, Loïc and Larabi, Mohamed A. and Rahman, Mohammed Y. and Friedman, Timur and Fdida, Serge, "Tools to foster a global federation of testbeds." Computer Networks, 2014. doi:10.1016/j.bjp.2013.12.038.

  22. Avgeris, Marios and Kalatzis, Nikos and Dechouniotis, Dimitrios and Roussaki, Ioanna and Papavassiliou, Symeon, "Semantic Resource Management of Federated IoT Testbeds." Ad-hoc, Mobile, and Wireless Networks, Springer International Publishing, 2017. doi:10.1007/978-3-319-67910-5_3.

  23. Babaoglu, A. C. and Dutta, R., "A GENI Meso-Scale Experiment of a Verification Service." Research and Educational Experiment Workshop (GREE), 2014 Third GENI, IEEE, 2014. doi:10.1109/gree.2014.13.

  24. Babaoglu, Ahmet C., "Verification Services for the Choice-Based Internet of the Future (Doctoral dissertation)." 2014.

  25. Baldin, Ilya and Chase, Jeff and Xin, Yufeng and Mandal, Anirban and Ruth, Paul and Castillo, Claris and Orlikowski, Victor and Heermann, Chris and Mills, Jonathan, "ExoGENI: A Multi-Domain Infrastructure-as-a-Service Testbed." The GENI Book, Springer International Publishing, 2016. doi:10.1007/978-3-319-33769-2_13.

  26. Baldine, I., "Unique optical networking facilities and cross-layer networking." Summer Topical Meeting, 2009. LEOSST '09. IEEE/LEOS, 2009. doi:10.1109/LEOSST.2009.5226210.

  27. Baldine, Ilia and Xin, Yufeng and Evans, Daniel and Heerman, Chris and Chase, Jeff and Marupadi, Varun and Yumerefendi, Aydan, "The missing link: Putting the network in networked cloud computing." in ICVCI09: International Conference on the Virtual Computing Initiative, 2009.

  28. Baldine, Ilia and Xin, Yufeng and Mandal, Anirban and Renci, Chris H. and Chase, Unc-Ch J. and Marupadi, Varun and Yumerefendi, Aydan and Irwin, David, "Networked cloud orchestration: A GENI perspective." 2010 IEEE Globecom Workshops, Miami, FL, USA, IEEE, 2010. doi:10.1109/GLOCOMW.2010.5700385.

  29. Baldine, Ilia and Xin, Yufeng and Mandal, Anirban and Ruth, Paul and Yumerefendi, Aydan and Chase, Jeff, "ExoGENI: A Multi-Domain Infrastructure-as-a-Service Testbed." 8th International ICST Conference on Testbeds and Research Infrastructures for the Development of Networks and Communities (TRIDENTCOM 2012), 2012.

  30. Bashir, Sadia and Ahmed, Nadeem, "VirtMonE: Efficient detection of elephant flows in virtualized data centers." Telecommunication Networks and Applications Conference (ITNAC), 2015 International, IEEE, 2015. doi:10.1109/atnac.2015.7366826.

  31. Bastin, Nicholas and Bavier, Andy and Blaine, Jessica and Chen, Jim and Krishnan, Narayan and Mambretti, Joe and McGeer, Rick and Ricci, Rob and Watts, Nicki, "The InstaGENI initiative: An architecture for distributed systems and advanced programmable networks." Computer Networks, 2014. doi:10.1016/j.bjp.2013.12.034.

  32. Bastin, Nicholas and McGeer, Rick, "Programmable, Controllable Networks." The GENI Book, Springer International Publishing, 2016. doi:10.1007/978-3-319-33769-2_8.

  33. Bavier, Andy and Chen, Jim and Mambretti, Joe and McGeer, Rick and McGeer, Sean and Nelson, Jude and O'Connell, Patrick and Ricart, Glenn and Tredger, Stephen and Coady, Yvonne, "The GENI experiment engine." Teletraffic Congress (ITC), 2014 26th International, IEEE, 2014. doi:10.1109/itc.2014.6932974.

  34. Bavier, Andy and Coady, Yvonne and Mack, Tony and Matthews, Chris and Mambretti, Joe and McGeer, Rick and Mueller, Paul and Snoeren, Alex and Yuen, Marco, "GENICloud and transcloud." Proceedings of the 2012 workshop on Cloud services, federation, and the 8th open cirrus summit, San Jose, California, USA, ACM, New York, NY, USA, 2012. doi:10.1145/2378975.2378980.

  35. Bavier, Andy and McGeer, Rick, "The GENI Experiment Engine." The GENI Book, Springer International Publishing, 2016. doi:10.1007/978-3-319-33769-2_11.

  36. Bavier, Andy and McGeer, Rick and Ricart, Glenn, "PlanetIgnite: A Self-Assembling, Lightweight, Infrastructure-as-a-Service Edge Cloud." 2016 28th International Teletraffic Congress (ITC 28), Würzburg, Germany, IEEE, 2016. doi:10.1109/itc-28.2016.125.

  37. Bejerano, Y. and Ferragut, J. and Guo, K. and Gupta, V. and Gutterman, C. and Nandagopal, T. and Zussman, G., "Experimental Evaluation of a Scalable WiFi Multicast Scheme in the ORBIT Testbed." Research and Educational Experiment Workshop (GREE), 2014 Third GENI, IEEE, 2014. doi:10.1109/gree.2014.22.

  38. Berman, M. and Brinn, M., "Progress and challenges in worldwide federation of future internet and distributed cloud testbeds." Science and Technology Conference (Modern Networking Technologies) (MoNeTeC), 2014 First International, IEEE, 2014. doi:10.1109/monetec.2014.6995579.

  39. Berman, Mark and Chase, Jeffrey S. and Landweber, Lawrence and Nakao, Akihiro and Ott, Max and Raychaudhuri, Dipankar and Ricci, Robert and Seskar, Ivan, "GENI: A federated testbed for innovative network experiments." Computer Networks, 2014. doi:10.1016/j.bjp.2013.12.037.

  40. Berman, Mark and Demeester, Piet and Lee, Jae W. and Nagaraja, Kiran and Zink, Michael and Colle, Didier and Krishnappa, Dilip K. and Raychaudhuri, Dipankar and Schulzrinne, Henning and Seskar, Ivan and Sharma, Sachin, "Future Internets Escape the Simulator." Commun. ACM, ACM, New York, NY, USA, 2015. doi:10.1145/2699392.

  41. Berman, Mark and Elliott, Chip and Landweber, Lawrence, "GENI: Large-Scale Distributed Infrastructure for Networking and Distributed Systems Research." 2014 IEEE Fifth International Conference on Communications and Electronics (ICCE), Da Nang, Vietnam, 2014. doi:10.1109/CCE.2014.6916696.

  42. Berryman, Alex and Calyam, Prasad and Cecil, Joe and Adams, George B. and Comer, Douglas, "Advanced Manufacturing Use Cases and Early Results in GENI Infrastructure." 2013 Proceedings Second GENI Research and Educational Experiment Workshop, Salt Lake City, UT, IEEE, 2013. doi:10.1109/GREE.2013.13.

  43. Bhanage, G. and Daya, R. and Seskar, I. and Raychaudhuri, D., "VNTS: A Virtual Network Traffic Shaper for Air Time Fairness in 802.16e Systems." Communications (ICC), 2010 IEEE International Conference on, IEEE, 2010. doi:10.1109/ICC.2010.5502484.

  44. Bhanage, G. and Vete, D. and Seskar, I. and Raychaudhuri, D., "SplitAP: Leveraging Wireless Network Virtualization for Flexible Sharing of WLANs." Global Telecommunications Conference (GLOBECOM 2010), 2010 IEEE, IEEE, 2010. doi:10.1109/GLOCOM.2010.5684328.

  45. Bhanage, Gautam and Seskar, Ivan and Mahindra, Rajesh and Raychaudhuri, Dipankar, "Virtual basestation: architecture for an open shared WiMAX framework." Proceedings of the second ACM SIGCOMM workshop on Virtualized infrastructure systems and architectures, New Delhi, India, ACM, New York, NY, USA, 2010. doi:10.1145/1851399.1851401.

  46. Bhanage, Gautam and Seskar, Ivan and Raychaudhuri, Dipankar, "A virtualization architecture for mobile WiMAX networks." SIGMOBILE Mob. Comput. Commun. Rev., ACM, New York, NY, USA, 2012. doi:10.1145/2169077.2169082.

  47. Bhanage, Gautam and Seskar, Ivan and Zhang, Yanyong and Raychaudhuri, Dipankar and Jain, Shweta, "Experimental Evaluation of OpenVZ from a Testbed Deployment Perspective." Testbeds and Research Infrastructures. Development of Networks and Communities, Springer Berlin Heidelberg, 2011. doi:10.1007/978-3-642-17851-1_7.

  48. Bhat, Divyashri and Riga, Niky and Zink, Michael, "Towards seamless application delivery using software defined exchanges." Teletraffic Congress (ITC), 2014 26th International, IEEE, 2014. doi:10.1109/itc.2014.6932971.

  49. Bhat, Divyashri and Wang, Cong and Rizk, Amr and Zink, Michael, "A load balancing approach for adaptive bitrate streaming in Information Centric networks." Multimedia & Expo Workshops (ICMEW), 2015 IEEE International Conference on, IEEE, 2015. doi:10.1109/icmew.2015.7169802.

  50. Bhat, Shireesh, "Network Service Orchestration within the ChoiceNet Architecture (Doctoral dissertation)." 2017.

  51. Bhat, Shireesh and Udechukwu, Robinson and Dutta, Rudra and Rouskas, George N., "Inception to application: A GENI based prototype of an open Marketplace for network services." 2016 IEEE Conference on Computer Communications Workshops (INFOCOM WKSHPS), San Francisco, CA, USA, IEEE, 2016. doi:10.1109/infcomw.2016.7562244.

  52. Bhojwani, Sushil, "Interoperability in Federated Clouds (Master's thesis)." 2015.

  53. Bhojwani, Sushil and Hemmings, Matt and Ingalls, Dan and Lincke, Jens and Krahn, Robert and Lary, David and McGeer, Rick and Ricart, Glenn and Roder, Marko and Coady, Yvonne and Stege, Ulrike, "The Ignite Distributed Collaborative Visualization System." SIGMETRICS Perform. Eval. Rev., ACM, New York, NY, USA, 2015. doi:10.1145/2847220.2847234.

  54. Blanton, Ethan and Chatterjee, Sarbajit and Gangam, Sriharsha and Kala, Sumit and Sharma, Deepti and Fahmy, Sonia and Sharma, Puneet, "Design and evaluation of the S3 monitor network measurement service on GENI." 2012 Fourth International Conference on Communication Systems and Networks (COMSNETS 2012), Bangalore, India, IEEE, 2012. doi:10.1109/COMSNETS.2012.6151327.

  55. Bozakov, Zdravko and Rizk, Amr and Bhat, Divyashri and Zink, Michael, "Measurement-based flow characterization in centrally controlled networks." IEEE INFOCOM 2016 - The 35th Annual IEEE International Conference on Computer Communications, San Francisco, CA, USA, IEEE, 2016. doi:10.1109/infocom.2016.7524331.

  56. Brinn, Marshall, "GENI Architecture Foundation." The GENI Book, Springer International Publishing, 2016. doi:10.1007/978-3-319-33769-2_5.

  57. Brinn, Marshall and Bastin, NIcholas and Bavier, Andrew and Berman, Mark and Chase, Jeffrey and Ricci, Robert, "Trust as the Foundation of Resource Exchange in GENI." Proceedings of the 10th EAI International Conference on Testbeds and Research Infrastructures for the Development of Networks & Communities, Vancouver, Canada, ACM, 2015. doi:10.4108/icst.tridentcom.2015.259683.

  58. Bronzino, Francesco and Han, Chao and Chen, Yang and Nagaraja, Kiran and Yang, Xiaowei and Seskar, Ivan and Raychaudhuri, Dipankar, "In-Network Compute Extensions for Rate-Adaptive Content Delivery in Mobile Networks." Network Protocols (ICNP), 2014 IEEE 22nd International Conference on, IEEE, 2014. doi:10.1109/icnp.2014.81.

  59. Brown, D. and Ascigil, O. and Nasir, H. and Carpenter, C. and Griffioen, J. and Calvert, K., "Designing a GENI Experimenter Tool to Support the Choice Net Internet Architecture." Network Protocols (ICNP), 2014 IEEE 22nd International Conference on, IEEE, 2014. doi:10.1109/icnp.2014.88.

  60. Brown, D. and Nasir, H. and Carpenter, C. and Ascigil, O. and Griffioen, J. and Calvert, K., "ChoiceNet gaming: Changing the gaming experience with economics." Computer Games: AI, Animation, Mobile, Multimedia, Educational and Serious Games (CGAMES), 2014, IEEE, 2014. doi:10.1109/cgames.2014.6934146.

  61. Bumgardner, V. K. Cody, "Contributions to Edge Computing (Doctoral dissertation)." 2017. doi:https://doi.org/10.13023/ETD.2017.086.

  62. Calyam, P. and Rajagopalan, S. and Selvadhurai, A. and Mohan, S. and Venkataraman, A. and Berryman, A. and Ramnath, R., "Leveraging OpenFlow for resource placement of virtual desktop cloud applications." Integrated Network Management (IM 2013), 2013 IFIP/IEEE International Symposium on, 2013.

  63. Calyam, P. and Seetharam, S. and Antequera, R. B., "GENI Laboratory Exercises Development for a Cloud Computing Course." Research and Educational Experiment Workshop (GREE), 2014 Third GENI, IEEE, 2014. doi:10.1109/gree.2014.15.

  64. Calyam, P. and Sridharan, M. and Xu, Yingxiao and Zhu, Kunpeng and Berryman, A. and Patali, R. and Venkataraman, A., "Enabling performance intelligence for application adaptation in the Future Internet." Communications and Networks, Journal of, 2011. doi:10.1109/JCN.2011.6157475.

  65. Calyam, Prasad and Mishra, Anup and Antequera, Ronny B. and Chemodanov, Dmitrii and Berryman, Alex and Zhu, Kunpeng and Abbott, Carmen and Skubic, Marjorie, "Synchronous Big Data analytics for personalized and remote physical therapy." Pervasive and Mobile Computing, 2015. doi:10.1016/j.pmcj.2015.09.004.

  66. Calyam, Prasad and Rajagopalan, Sudharsan and Seetharam, Sripriya and Selvadhurai, Arunprasath and Salah, Khaled and Ramnath, Rajiv, "VDC-Analyst: Design and verification of virtual desktop cloud resource allocations." Computer Networks, 2014. doi:10.1016/j.comnet.2014.02.022.

  67. Calyam, Prasad and Venkataraman, Aishwarya and Berryman, Alex and Faerman, Marcio, "Experiences from Virtual Desktop CloudExperiments in GENI." First GENI Research and Educational Experiment Workshop (GREE 2012), Los Angeles, 2012.

  68. Cameron, Katherine and Brooks, R. R. and Deng, Juan and Yu, Lu and Wang, K. C. and Martin, James, "WiMAX: Bandwidth Contention Resolution Vulnerability to Denial of Service Attacks." First GENI Research and Educational Experiment Workshop (GREE 2012), Los Angeles, 2012.

  69. Castillo, Eduardo J. and Mountrouidou, Xenia and Li, Xiangyang, "Time Lord: Covert Timing Channel Implementation and Realistic Experimentation." Proceedings of the 2017 ACM SIGCSE Technical Symposium on Computer Science Education, Seattle, Washington, USA, ACM, New York, NY, USA, 2017. doi:10.1145/3017680.3022463.

  70. Cecil, J. and Gupta, Avinash and Pirela-Cruz, Miguel and Ramanathan, Parmesh, "A cyber training framework for orthopedic surgery." Cogent Medicine, 2017. doi:10.1080/2331205x.2017.1419792.

  71. Cecil, J. and Gupta, Avinash and Ramanathan, P. and Pirela-Cruz, Miguel, "A distributed collaborative simulation environment for orthopedic surgical training." 2017 Annual IEEE International Systems Conference (SysCon), Montreal, QC, Canada, IEEE, 2017. doi:10.1109/syscon.2017.7934721.

  72. Chakrabortty, Aranya and Xin, Yufeng, "Hardware-in-the-Loop Simulations and Verifications of Smart Power Systems Over an Exo-GENI Testbed." 2013 Proceedings Second GENI Research and Educational Experiment Workshop, Salt Lake City, UT, IEEE, 2013. doi:10.1109/GREE.2013.12.

  73. Chase, Jeff and Baldin, Ilya, "A Retrospective on ORCA: Open Resource Control Architecture." The GENI Book, Springer International Publishing, 2016. doi:10.1007/978-3-319-33769-2_7.

  74. Chen, Kang and Shen, Haiying, "Global optimization of file availability through replication for efficient file sharing in MANETs." Network Protocols (ICNP), 2011 19th IEEE International Conference on, Vancouver, AB, Canada, IEEE, 2011. doi:10.1109/icnp.2011.6089056.

  75. Chen, Kang and Shen, Haiying, "Cont2: Social-Aware Content and Contact Based File Search in Delay Tolerant Networks." Proceedings of the 2013 42Nd International Conference on Parallel Processing, IEEE Computer Society, Washington, DC, USA, 2013. doi:10.1109/icpp.2013.28.

  76. Chen, Kang and Shen, Haiying and Zhang, Haibo, "Leveraging Social Networks for P2P Content-Based File Sharing in Mobile Ad Hoc Networks." 2011 IEEE Eighth International Conference on Mobile Ad-Hoc and Sensor Systems, Valencia, Spain, IEEE, 2011. doi:10.1109/MASS.2011.24.

  77. Chen, Kang and Xu, Ke and Winburn, Steven and Shen, Haiying and Wang, Kuang-Ching and Li, Ze, "Experimentation of a MANET Routing Algorithm on the GENI ORBIT Testbed." First GENI Research and Educational Experiment Workshop (GREE 2012), Los Angeles, 2012.

  78. Chen, Shuoshuo and Ji, Xiang and Veeraraghavan, Malathi and Emmerson, Steve and Slezak, Joseph and Decker, Steven G., "A Cross-Layer Multicast-Push Unicast-Pull (MPUP) Architecture for Reliable File-Stream Distribution." 2016 IEEE 40th Annual Computer Software and Applications Conference (COMPSAC), Atlanta, GA, USA, IEEE, 2016. doi:10.1109/compsac.2016.28.

  79. Chen, X. and Cai, H. and Wolf, T., "Multi-criteria Routing in Networks with Path Choices." 2015 IEEE 23rd International Conference on Network Protocols (ICNP), IEEE, 2015. doi:10.1109/icnp.2015.36.

  80. Chen, Xinming and Wolf, Tilman and Griffioen, Jim and Ascigil, Onur and Dutta, Rudra and Rouskas, George and Bhat, Shireesh and Baldin, Ilya and Calvert, Ken, "Design of a protocol to enable economic transactions for network services." Communications (ICC), 2015 IEEE International Conference on, IEEE, 2015. doi:10.1109/icc.2015.7249175.

  81. Cherukuri, Ramkumar and Liu, Xuan and Bavier, Andy and Sterbenz, James P. G. and Medhi, Deep, "Network virtualization in GpENI: Framework, implementation & integration experience." 12th IFIP/IEEE International Symposium on Integrated Network Management (IM 2011) and Workshops, Dublin, Ireland, IEEE, 2011. doi:10.1109/INM.2011.5990568.

  82. Chin, Tommy and Mountrouidou, Xenia and Li, Xiangyang and Xiong, Kaiqi, "An SDN-supported collaborative approach for DDoS flooding detection and containment." MILCOM 2015 - 2015 IEEE Military Communications Conference, Tampa, FL, USA, IEEE, 2015. doi:10.1109/milcom.2015.7357519.

  83. Chin, Tommy and Mountrouidou, Xenia and Li, Xiangyang and Xiong, Kaiqi, "Selective Packet Inspection to Detect DoS Flooding Using Software Defined Networking (SDN)." Distributed Computing Systems Workshops (ICDCSW), 2015 IEEE 35th International Conference on, IEEE, 2015. doi:10.1109/icdcsw.2015.27.

  84. Chin, Tommy and Xiong, Kaiqi, "MPBSD: A Moving Target Defense Approach for Base Station Security in Wireless Sensor Networks." Wireless Algorithms, Systems, and Applications, Springer International Publishing, 2016. doi:10.1007/978-3-319-42836-9_43.

  85. Chin, Tommy and Xiong, Kaiqi, "A Forensic Methodology for Software-Defined Network Switches." Advances in Digital Forensics XIII, Springer International Publishing, Cham, 2017. doi:10.1007/978-3-319-67208-3_6.

  86. Chin, Tommy and Xiong, Kaiqi, "Dynamic generation containment systems (DGCS): A Moving Target Defense approach." 2016 3rd International Workshop on Emerging Ideas and Trends in Engineering of Cyber-Physical Systems (EITEC), IEEE, 2016. doi:10.1109/eitec.2016.7503690.

  87. Chowdhury and Boutaba, Raouf, "A survey of network virtualization." Computer Networks, 2010. doi:http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.comnet.2009.10.017.

  88. Chung, Joaquin and Cox, Jacob and Clark, Russ and Owen, Henry, "FAS: Federated Auditing for Software-defined exchanges." SoutheastCon 2017, Concord, NC, USA, IEEE, 2017. doi:10.1109/secon.2017.7925261.

  89. Chung, Joaquin and Owen, Henry and Clark, Russell, "SDX architectures: A qualitative analysis." SoutheastCon 2016, Norfolk, VA, USA, IEEE, 2016. doi:10.1109/secon.2016.7506749.

  90. Chung, Joaquín and Cox, Jacob and Ibarra, Julio and Bezerra, Jerônimo and Morgan, Heidi and Clark, Russell and Owen, Henry, "AtlanticWave-SDX: An International SDX to Support Science Data Applications." International Conference for High Performance Computing, Networking, Storage and Analysis (SC15), Austin, 2015.

  91. Collings, Jake and Liu, Jun, "An OpenFlow-Based Prototype of SDN-Oriented Stateful Hardware Firewalls." Network Protocols (ICNP), 2014 IEEE 22nd International Conference on, IEEE, 2014. doi:10.1109/icnp.2014.83.

  92. Dane, L. and Gurkan, D., "GENI with a Network Processing Unit: Enriching SDN Application Experiments." Research and Educational Experiment Workshop (GREE), 2014 Third GENI, IEEE, 2014. doi:10.1109/gree.2014.27.

  93. Das, S. and Yiakoumis, Y. and Parulkar, G. and McKeown, N. and Singh, P. and Getachew, D. and Desai, P. D., "Application-aware aggregation and traffic engineering in a converged packet-circuit network." Optical Fiber Communication Conference and Exposition (OFC/NFOEC), 2011 and the National Fiber Optic Engineers Conference, IEEE, 2011.

  94. Dempsey, HeidiPicher, "The GENI Mesoscale Network." The GENI Book, Springer International Publishing, 2016. doi:10.1007/978-3-319-33769-2_12.

  95. Deng, Juan and Brooks, Richard R. and Martin, James, "Assessing the Effect of WiMAX System Parameter Settings on MAC-level Local DoS Vulnerability." International Journal of Performability Engineering, 2012.

  96. Dong, Mo and Li, Qingxi and Zarchy, Doron and Godfrey, P. Brighten and Schapira, Michael, "PCC: Re-architecting Congestion Control for Consistent High Performance." 12th USENIX Symposium on Networked Systems Design and Implementation (NSDI 15), USENIX Association, Oakland, CA, 2015.

  97. Donovan, Sean and Chung, Joaquin and Sanders, Matt and Clark, Russ, "MetroSDX: A resilient edge network for the smart community." 2017 IEEE International Conference on Pervasive Computing and Communications Workshops (PerCom Workshops), Kona, Big Island, HI, USA, IEEE, 2017. doi:10.1109/percomw.2017.7917626.

  98. Duerig, Jonathon and Ricci, Robert and Stoller, Leigh and Strum, Matt and Wong, Gary and Carpenter, Charles and Fei, Zongming and Griffioen, James and Nasir, Hussamuddin and Reed, Jeremy and Wu, Xiongqi, "Getting started with GENI: a user tutorial." SIGCOMM Comput. Commun. Rev., ACM, New York, NY, USA, 2012. doi:10.1145/2096149.2096161.

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  100. Dumba, Braulio and Sun, Guobao and Mekky, Hesham and Zhang, Zhi-Li, "Experience in Implementing & Deploying a Non-IP Routing Protocol VIRO in GENI." Network Protocols (ICNP), 2014 IEEE 22nd International Conference on, IEEE, 2014. doi:10.1109/icnp.2014.85.

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  304. Sydney, Ali and Ochs, David S. and Scoglio, Caterina and Gruenbacher, Don and Miller, Ruth, "Using GENI for experimental evaluation of Software Defined Networking in smart grids." Computer Networks, 2014. doi:10.1016/j.bjp.2013.12.021.

  305. Tarui, Toshiaki and Kanada, Yasusi and Hayashi, Michiaki and Nakao, Akihiro, "Federating heterogeneous network virtualization platforms by slice exchange point." Integrated Network Management (IM), 2015 IFIP/IEEE International Symposium on, IEEE, 2015. doi:10.1109/inm.2015.7140366.

  306. Teerapittayanon, Surat and Fouli, Kerim and Médard, Muriel and Montpetit, Marie-José and Shi, Xiaomeng and Seskar, Ivan and Gosain, Abhimanyu, "Network Coding as a WiMAX Link Reliability Mechanism." Multiple Access Communications, Springer Berlin Heidelberg, 2012. doi:10.1007/978-3-642-34976-8_1.

  307. Teixeira, Thiago and Marentes, Andres and Wolf, Tilman, "Economic incentives in virtualized access networks." 2017 IEEE International Conference on Communications (ICC), Paris, France, IEEE, 2017. doi:10.1109/icc.2017.7996957.

  308. Thomas, Charles and Sommers, Joel and Barford, Paul and Kim, Dongchan and Das, Ananya and Segebre, Roberto and Crovella, Mark, "A Passive Measurement System for Network Testbeds." Testbeds and Research Infrastructure. Development of Networks and Communities, Springer Berlin Heidelberg, 2012. doi:10.1007/978-3-642-35576-9_14.

  309. Thomas, Vicraj and Riga, Niky and Edwards, Sarah and Fund, Fraida and Korakis, Thanasis, "GENI in the Classroom." The GENI Book, Springer International Publishing, 2016. doi:10.1007/978-3-319-33769-2_18.

  310. Tiako, Pierre F., "Perspectives of delegation in team-based distributed software development over the GENI infrastructure (NIER track)." Proceedings of the 33rd International Conference on Software Engineering, Waikiki, Honolulu, HI, USA, ACM, New York, NY, USA, 2011. doi:10.1145/1985793.1985905.

  311. Toseef, Umar and Pentikousis, Kostas, "Authentication and Authorization in FELIX." 2015 IEEE/ACM 8th International Conference on Utility and Cloud Computing (UCC), IEEE, 2015. doi:10.1109/ucc.2015.98.

  312. Tredger, S. and Zhuang, Yanyan and Matthews, C. and Short-Gershman, J. and Coady, Y. and McGeer, R., "Building Green Systems with Green Students: An Educational Experiment with GENI Infrastructure." Research and Educational Experiment Workshop (GREE), 2013 Second GENI, IEEE, 2013. doi:10.1109/gree.2013.15.

  313. Tredger, Stephen, "SageFS: The Location Aware Wide Area Distributed Filesystem (Master's thesis)." 2014.

  314. Tsai, Pang-Wei and wen Cheng, Pei and Yang, Chu-Sing and Luo, Mon-Yen, "Supporting Extensions of VLAN-tagged traffic across OpenFlow Networks." 2013 Proceedings Second GENI Research and Educational Experiment Workshop, Salt Lake City, UT, IEEE, 2013. doi:10.1109/GREE.2013.20.

  315. Tuncer, Hasan and Nozaki, Yoshihiro and Shenoy, Nirmala, "Virtual Mobility Domains - A Mobility Architecture for the Future Internet." IEEE International Conference on Commnunications (IEE ICC 2012) Symposium on Next-Generation Networking, 2012. doi:10.1109/ICC.2012.6363872.

  316. Turi, Leo, "Contribution to the Federation of the asynchronous SmartSantander service layer within the European Fed4FIRE context (Master's Thesis)." 2015.

  317. Turner, Jonathan S., "A proposed architecture for the GENI backbone platform." Proceedings of the 2006 ACM/IEEE symposium on Architecture for networking and communications systems, San Jose, California, USA, ACM, New York, NY, USA, 2006. doi:10.1145/1185347.1185349.

  318. Turner, Jonathan S. and Crowley, Patrick and DeHart, John and Freestone, Amy and Heller, Brandon and Kuhns, Fred and Kumar, Sailesh and Lockwood, John and Lu, Jing and Wilson, Michael and Wiseman, Charles and Zar, David, "Supercharging planetlab: a high performance, multi-application, overlay network platform." SIGCOMM Comput. Commun. Rev., ACM, New York, NY, USA, 2007. doi:10.1145/1282427.1282391.

  319. Ujcich, Benjamin E., "An Attack Model, Language, and Injector for the Control Plane of Software-Defined Networks (Master's Thesis)." 2016.

  320. Valancius, Vytautas and Feamster, Nick, "Multiplexing BGP sessions with BGP-Mux." Proceedings of the 2007 ACM CoNEXT conference, New York, New York, ACM, New York, NY, USA, 2007. doi:10.1145/1364654.1364707.

  321. Valancius, Vytautas and Feamster, Nick and Rexford, Jennifer and Nakao, Akihiro, "Wide-area route control for distributed services." Proceedings of the 2010 USENIX conference on USENIX annual technical conference, Boston, MA, USENIX Association, Berkeley, CA, USA, 2010.

  322. Valancius, Vytautas and Kim, Hyojoon and Feamster, Nick, "Transit portal: BGP connectivity as a service." SIGCOMM Comput. Commun. Rev., ACM, New York, NY, USA, 2010. doi:10.1145/1851182.1851265.

  323. Valancius, Vytautas and Ravi, Bharath and Feamster, Nick and Snoeren, Alex C., "Quantifying the benefits of joint content and network routing." Proceedings of the ACM SIGMETRICS/international conference on Measurement and modeling of computer systems - SIGMETRICS '13, Pittsburgh, PA, USA, ACM Press, 2013. doi:10.1145/2465529.2465762.

  324. Van Vorst, N. and Erazo, M. and Liu, J., "PrimoGENI for hybrid network simulation and emulation experiments in GENI." Journal of Simulation, 2012. doi:10.1057/jos.2012.5.

  325. Van Vorst, N. and Erazo, M. and Liu, J., "PrimoGENI: Integrating Real-Time Network Simulation and Emulation in GENI." Principles of Advanced and Distributed Simulation (PADS), 2011 IEEE Workshop on, Nice, France, IEEE, 2011. doi:10.1109/pads.2011.5936747.

  326. Van Vorst, N. and Li, Ting and Liu, J., "How Low Can You Go? Spherical Routing for Scalable Network Simulations." Modeling, Analysis & Simulation of Computer and Telecommunication Systems (MASCOTS), 2011 IEEE 19th International Symposium on, IEEE, 2011. doi:10.1109/MASCOTS.2011.35.

  327. Van Vorst, N. and Liu, J., "Realizing Large-Scale Interactive Network Simulation via Model Splitting." Principles of Advanced and Distributed Simulation (PADS), 2012 ACM/IEEE/SCS 26th Workshop on, IEEE, 2012. doi:10.1109/pads.2012.35.

  328. Vanhove, Thomas and Seghbroeck, Gregory V. and Wauters, Tim and Turck, Filip D. and Vermeulen, Brecht and Demeester, Piet, "Tengu: An Experimentation Platform for Big Data Applications." 2015 IEEE 35th International Conference on Distributed Computing Systems Workshops, Columbus, OH, USA, IEEE, 2015. doi:10.1109/icdcsw.2015.19.

  329. Velusamy, G. and Gurkan, D. and Narayan, S. and Baily, S., "Fault-Tolerant OpenFlow-Based Software Switch Architecture with LINC Switches for a Reliable Network Data Exchange." Research and Educational Experiment Workshop (GREE), 2014 Third GENI, IEEE, 2014. doi:10.1109/gree.2014.17.

  330. Velusamy, Gandhimathi, "OpenFlow-based Distributed and Fault-Tolerant Software Switch Architecture (Master's thesis)." 2014.

  331. Venkataraman, Aishwarya, "Defragmentation of Resources in Virtual Desktop clouds for Cost-aware Utility-maximal Allocation (Master's thesis)." 2012.

  332. Vulimiri, Ashish and Michel, Oliver and Godfrey, P. Brighten and Shenker, Scott, "More is Less: Reducing Latency via Redundancy." Proceedings of the 11th ACM Workshop on Hot Topics in Networks, Redmond, Washington, ACM, New York, NY, USA, 2012. doi:10.1145/2390231.2390234.

  333. Wallace, Scott A. and Muhammad, Monzur and Mache, Jens and Cappos, Justin, "Hands-on Internet with Seattle and Computers from Across the Globe." J. Comput. Sci. Coll., Consortium for Computing Sciences in Colleges, USA, 2011.

  334. Wang, Cong and Bhat, Divyashri and Rizk, Amr and Zink, Michael, "Design and Analysis of QoE-Aware Quality Adaptation for DASH: A Spectrum-Based Approach." ACM Trans. Multimedia Comput. Commun. Appl., ACM, New York, NY, USA, 2017. doi:10.1145/3092839.

  335. Wang, Cong and Rizk, Amr and Zink, Michael, "SQUAD: A Spectrum-based Quality Adaptation for Dynamic Adaptive Streaming over HTTP." Proceedings of the 7th International Conference on Multimedia Systems, Klagenfurt, Austria, ACM, New York, NY, USA, 2016. doi:10.1145/2910017.2910593.

  336. Wang, Cong and Zink, Michael, "On the Feasibility of DASH Streaming in the Cloud." Proceedings of Network and Operating System Support on Digital Audio and Video Workshop (NOSSDAV '14), 2014.

  337. Wang, Han and Lee, Ki S. and Li, Erluo and Lim, Chiun L. and Tang, Ao and Weatherspoon, Hakim, "Timing is Everything: Accurate, Minimum Overhead, Available Bandwidth Estimation in High-speed Wired Networks." Proceedings of the 2014 Conference on Internet Measurement Conference, Vancouver, BC, Canada, ACM, New York, NY, USA, 2014. doi:10.1145/2663716.2663746.

  338. Wang, K. C. and Brinn, M. and Mambretti, J., "From federated software defined infrastructure to future internet architecture." Science and Technology Conference (Modern Networking Technologies) (MoNeTeC), 2014 First International, IEEE, 2014. doi:10.1109/monetec.2014.6995605.

  339. Wang, Qing and Xu, Ke and Izard, Ryan and Kribbs, Benton and Porter, Joseph and Wang, Kuang-Ching and Prakash, Aditya and Ramanathan, Parmesh, "GENI Cinema: An SDN-Assisted Scalable Live Video Streaming Service." Network Protocols (ICNP), 2014 IEEE 22nd International Conference on, IEEE, 2014. doi:10.1109/icnp.2014.84.

  340. Wang, Xiaoyu and Veeraraghavan, Malathi and Lin, Zongli and Oki, Eiji, "Optical Switch in the Middle (OSM) architecture for DCNs with Hadoop adaptations." 2017 IEEE International Conference on Communications (ICC), Paris, France, IEEE, 2017. doi:10.1109/icc.2017.7996504.

  341. Wang, Yuefeng and Akhtar, Nabeel and Matta, Ibrahim, "Programming Routing Policies for Video Traffic." Network Protocols (ICNP), 2014 IEEE 22nd International Conference on, IEEE, 2014. doi:10.1109/icnp.2014.80.

  342. Wang, Yuefeng and Esposito, F. and Matta, I., "Demonstrating RINA Using the GENI Testbed." Research and Educational Experiment Workshop (GREE), 2013 Second GENI, IEEE, 2013. doi:10.1109/gree.2013.26.

  343. Wang, Yuefeng and Matta, I. and Akhtar, N., "Experimenting with Routing Policies Using ProtoRINA over GENI." Research and Educational Experiment Workshop (GREE), 2014 Third GENI, IEEE, 2014. doi:10.1109/gree.2014.11.

  344. Willner, Alexander and Giatili, Mary and Grosso, Paola and Papagianni, Chrysa and Morsey, Mohamed and Baldin, Ilya, "Using Semantic Web Technologies to Query and Manage Information within Federated Cyber-Infrastructures." Data, 2017. doi:10.3390/data2030021.

  345. Willner, Alexander and Magedanz, Thomas, "FIRMA: A Future Internet resource management architecture." Teletraffic Congress (ITC), 2014 26th International, IEEE, 2014. doi:10.1109/itc.2014.6932981.

  346. Willner, Alexander and Papagianni, Chrysa and Giatili, Mary and Grosso, Paola and Morsey, Mohamed and Al-Hazmi, Yahya and Baldin, Ilya, "The Open-Multinet Upper Ontology Towards the Semantic-based Management of Federated Infrastructures." Proceedings of the 10th EAI International Conference on Testbeds and Research Infrastructures for the Development of Networks & Communities, Vancouver, Canada, ACM, 2015. doi:10.4108/icst.tridentcom.2015.259750.

  347. Wong, G. and Ricci, R. and Duerig, J. and Stoller, L. and Chikkulapelly, S. and Seok, Woojin, "Partitioning Trust in Network Testbeds." System Science (HICSS), 2012 45th Hawaii International Conference on, IEEE, 2012. doi:10.1109/HICSS.2012.466.

  348. Wroclawski, John and Benzel, Terry and Blythe, Jim and Faber, Ted and Hussain, Alefiya and Mirkovic, Jelena and Schwab, Stephen, "DETERLab and the DETER Project." The GENI Book, Springer International Publishing, 2016. doi:10.1007/978-3-319-33769-2_3.

  349. Xiao, Zhifeng and Fu, Bo and Xiao, Yang and Chen, C. L. Philip and Liang, Wei, "A review of GENI authentication and access control mechanisms." International Journal of Security and Networks, 2013. doi:10.1504/ijsn.2013.055046.

  350. Xin, Yufeng and Baldin, Ilya and Chase, Jeff and Ogan, Kemafor, "Leveraging Semantic Web Technologies for Managing Resources in a Multi-Domain Infrastructure-as-a-Service Environment." CoRR, 2014.

  351. Xin, Yufeng and Baldin, Ilya and Heermann, Chris and Mandal, Anirban and Ruth, Paul, "Capacity of Inter-cloud Layer-2 Virtual Networking." Proceedings of the 2014 ACM SIGCOMM Workshop on Distributed Cloud Computing, Chicago, Illinois, USA, ACM, New York, NY, USA, 2014. doi:10.1145/2627566.2627573.

  352. Xin, Yufeng and Baldin, Ilya and Heermann, Chris and Mandal, Anirban and Ruth, Paul, "Scaling up applications over distributed clouds with dynamic layer-2 exchange and broadcast service." Teletraffic Congress (ITC), 2014 26th International, IEEE, 2014. doi:10.1109/itc.2014.6932973.

  353. Xin, Yufeng and Baldin, Ilya and Mandal, Anirban and Ruth, Paul and Chase, Jeff, "Towards an Experimental LegoLand: Slice Modification and Recovery in ExoGENI Testbed." Testbeds and Research Infrastructures for the Development of Networks and Communities, Springer International Publishing, 2017. doi:10.1007/978-3-319-49580-4_4.

  354. Xin, Yufeng and Baldine, Ilia and Mandal, Anirban and Heermann, Chris and Chase, Jeff and Yumerefendi, Aydan, "Embedding Virtual Topologies in Networked Clouds." Proceedings of the 6th International Conference on Future Internet Technologies, Seoul, Republic of Korea, ACM, New York, NY, USA, 2011. doi:10.1145/2002396.2002403.

  355. Xing, Tianyi and Huang, Dijiang and Xu, Le and Chung, Chun-Jen and Khatkar, P., "SnortFlow: A OpenFlow-Based Intrusion Prevention System in Cloud Environment." Research and Educational Experiment Workshop (GREE), 2013 Second GENI, IEEE, 2013. doi:10.1109/gree.2013.25.

  356. Xiong, Kaiqi and Makati, Mufaddal, "Assessing End-to-end Performance and Security in Cloud Computing." Proceedings of the Symposium on Applied Computing, Marrakech, Morocco, ACM, New York, NY, USA, 2017. doi:10.1145/3019612.3019633.

  357. Xiong, Kaiqi and Pan, Yin, "Understanding ProtoGENI in Networking Courses for Research and Education." Research and Educational Experiment Workshop (GREE), 2013 Second GENI, IEEE, 2013. doi:10.1109/gree.2013.31.

  358. Xu, Gang and Amariucai, G. and Guan, Yong, "Delegation of Computation with Verification Outsourcing Using GENI Infrastructure." Research and Educational Experiment Workshop (GREE), 2014 Third GENI, IEEE, 2014. doi:10.1109/gree.2014.16.

  359. Xu, Ke and Izard, R. and Yang, Fan and Wang, Kuang-Ching and Martin, J., "Cloud-Based Handoff as a Service for Heterogeneous Vehicular Networks with OpenFlow." Research and Educational Experiment Workshop (GREE), 2013 Second GENI, IEEE, 2013. doi:10.1109/gree.2013.17.

  360. Xu, Ke and Sampathkumar, S. and Wang, Kuang-Ching and Ramanathan, P., "Network Coding for Efficient Broadband Data Delivery in Infrastructure-Based Vehicular Networks with OpenFlow." Research and Educational Experiment Workshop (GREE), 2013 Second GENI, IEEE, 2013. doi:10.1109/gree.2013.19.

  361. Xu, Ke and Wang, Kuang-Ching and Amin, Rahul and Martin, Jim and Izard, Ryan, "A Fast Cloud-based Network Selection Scheme Using Coalition Formation Games in Vehicular Networks." IEEE Transactions on Vehicular Technology, IEEE, 2014. doi:10.1109/tvt.2014.2379953.

  362. Xu, Zhiguang, "Adaptive Flow Admission Control in a Software-Defined Network." 2017 IEEE International Conference on Smart Cloud (SmartCloud), New York, NY, IEEE, 2017. doi:10.1109/smartcloud.2017.27.

  363. Yan, Bo and Shi, Shu and Liu, Yong and Yuan, Weizhe and He, Haoqin and Jana, Rittwik and Xu, Yang and Chao, H. Jonathan, "LiveJack." Proceedings of the 2017 ACM on Multimedia Conference - MM '17, Mountain View, California, USA, ACM Press, 2017. doi:10.1145/3123266.3123283.

  364. Yi, Ping, "Peer-to-Peer based Trading and File Distribution for Cloud Computing (Doctoral dissertation)." Lexington, Kentucky, 2014.

  365. Yi, Ping and Fei, Zongming, "Characterizing the GENI Networks." Research and Educational Experiment Workshop (GREE), 2014 Third GENI, IEEE, 2014. doi:10.1109/gree.2014.8.

  366. Yu, Ze and Liu, Xinxin and Li, Min and Liu, Kaikai and Li, Xiaolin, "ExoApp: Performance Evaluation of Data-Intensive Applications on ExoGENI." Research and Educational Experiment Workshop (GREE), 2013 Second GENI, IEEE, 2013. doi:10.1109/gree.2013.14.

  367. Yuen, Marco, "GENI in the Cloud (Master's Thesis)." 2010.

  368. Zhang, Miao and Kissel, Ezra and Swany, Martin, "Using phoebus data transfer accelerator in cloud environments." Communications (ICC), 2015 IEEE International Conference on, IEEE, 2015. doi:10.1109/icc.2015.7248346.

  369. Zhang, Miao and Swany, Martin and Yavanamanda, Adithya and Kissel, Ezra, "HELM: Conflict-free active measurement scheduling for shared network resource management." Integrated Network Management (IM), 2015 IFIP/IEEE International Symposium on, IEEE, 2015. doi:10.1109/inm.2015.7140283.

  370. Zhang, Yihua and Steele, Aaron and Blanton, Marina, "PICCO: A General-purpose Compiler for Private Distributed Computation." Proceedings of the 2013 ACM SIGSAC Conference on Computer & Communications Security, Berlin, Germany, ACM, New York, NY, USA, 2013. doi:10.1145/2508859.2516752.

  371. Zhang, Yuanxun and Calyam, Prasad and Debroy, Saptarshi and Nuguri, Sai S., "Social Plane for Recommenders in Network Performance Expectation Management." IEEE Transactions on Network and Service Management, 2017. doi:10.1109/tnsm.2017.2772905.

  372. Zhao, Shuai and Sydney, Ali and Medhi, Deep, "Building Application-Aware Network Environments Using SDN for Optimizing Hadoop Applications." Proceedings of the 2016 Conference on ACM SIGCOMM 2016 Conference, Florianopolis, Brazil, ACM, New York, NY, USA, 2016. doi:10.1145/2934872.2959059.

  373. Zhuang, Yanyan and Rafetseder, A. and Cappos, J., "Experience with Seattle: A Community Platform for Research and Education." Research and Educational Experiment Workshop (GREE), 2013 Second GENI, IEEE, 2013. doi:10.1109/gree.2013.16.

  374. Zink, M., "A measurement architecture for Software Defined Exchanges." Science and Technology Conference (Modern Networking Technologies) (MoNeTeC), 2014 First International, IEEE, 2014. doi:10.1109/monetec.2014.6995606.


GENI Authors


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  1. Abbott, Carmen
  2. Abdelhadi, Ahmed
  3. Abu Obaida, M.
  4. Adams, George B.
  5. Agrawal, Stuti
  6. Agyapong, Patrick
  7. Ahmed, Musa
  8. Ahmed, Nadeem
  9. Aikat, Jay
  10. Akella, Aditya
  11. Akella, Anand V.
  12. Akhtar, Nabeel (Akhtar, N.)
  13. Akula, Amit R.
  14. Al-Hazmi, Yahya
  15. Alali, Fatma
  16. Alaoui, Sara E.
  17. Albrecht, Jeannie R. (Albrecht, J., Albrecht, Jeannie)
  18. Aleroud, Ahmad
  19. AlEroud, Ahmed
  20. Alfuqaha, A.
  21. Alsmadi, Izzat
  22. Amariucai, G.
  23. Amin, Rahul
  24. Anan, M.
  25. Andersen, David
  26. Anderson, Thomas
  27. Anderson, Tom
  28. Angu, Pragatheeswaran
  29. Anifantis, Evangelos
  30. Antequera, R. Bazan (Antequera, R. B., Antequera, Ronny B.)
  31. Antonenko, V.
  32. Appenzeller, Guido
  33. Araji, B.
  34. Arezoumand, Saeed
  35. Arora, Anish
  36. Arya, Renuka
  37. Ascigil, Onur (Ascigil, O.)
  38. Augé, Jordan
  39. Autenrieth, A.
  40. Avakian, Sandrine
  41. Avgeris, Marios
  42. Ayyash, M.
  43. Babaoglu, Ahmet C. (Babaoglu, A. C.)
  44. Baid, Akash
  45. Bailey, S.
  46. Baily, S.
  47. Bakshi, Parth
  48. Balakrishnan, Hari
  49. Baldin, Ilya (Baldin, I.)
  50. Baldine, Ilia (Baldine, I.)
  51. Banerjee, Nilanjan
  52. Bannazadeh, Hadi
  53. Barford, Paul
  54. Baron, Loïc
  55. Barrett, Daniel
  56. Baset, Salman A.
  57. Bashir, Sadia
  58. Bastin, NIcholas (Bastin, Nicholas)
  59. Bavier, Andrew
  60. Bavier, Andy
  61. Behal, Sunny
  62. Bejerano, Y.
  63. Ben Yoo, S. J.
  64. Benhaddou, Driss
  65. Benzel, Terry
  66. Bergesio, L.
  67. Berman, Mark (Berman, M.)
  68. Berryman, Alex (Berryman, A.)
  69. Beyene, Tsegereda
  70. Bezerra, Jerônimo
  71. Bhanage, Gautam (Bhanage, G., Bhanage, G. D.)
  72. Bhat, Divyashri
  73. Bhat, Shireesh
  74. Bhojwani, Sushil
  75. bin Tariq, Mukarram
  76. Blaine, Jessica
  77. Blanton, Ethan
  78. Blanton, Marina
  79. Blythe, Jim
  80. Boutaba, Raouf
  81. Bowman, Jason
  82. Bozakov, Zdravko
  83. Braud, Ryan
  84. Brieger, L.
  85. Brinn, Marshall (Brinn, M.)
  86. Bronzino, Francesco
  87. Brooks, Richard R. (Brooks, R. R.)
  88. Brown, D.
  89. Brown, Stephanie
  90. Buffington, Cort
  91. Bumgardner, V. K. Cody
  92. Byers, John
  93. Caesar, Matthew
  94. Cai, H.
  95. Calvert, Kenneth L. (Calvert, K., Calvert, K. L., Calvert, Ken)
  96. Calyam, Prasad (Calyam, P.)
  97. Cameron, Katherine
  98. Campanella, Mauro
  99. Cappos, Justin (Cappos, J.)
  100. Carlson, Ross
  101. Carpenter, Charles (Carpenter, C.)
  102. Casellas, Ramon
  103. Castillo, Claris (Castillo, C.)
  104. Castillo, Eduardo J.
  105. Cecil, Joe (Cecil, J.)
  106. Chakrabortty, Aranya
  107. Chandrashekara, Arjun A.
  108. Channegowda, M.
  109. Chao, H. Jonathan
  110. Chase, Jeffrey S. (Chase, J., Chase, Jeff, Chase, Jeffrey)
  111. Chase, Unc-Ch J.
  112. Chatterjee, Sarbajit
  113. Chemodanov, Dmitrii (Chemodanov, D.)
  114. Chen, C. L. Philip (Chen, Cen)
  115. Chen, Jim (Chen, J.)
  116. Chen, Kang
  117. Chen, Shuoshuo
  118. Chen, Xiaoliang (Chen, X., Chen, Xinming)
  119. Chen, Yang
  120. Cherukuri, Ramkumar
  121. Chettri, Nishant
  122. Chikkulapelly, Srikanth (Chikkulapelly, S.)
  123. Chin, Tommy
  124. Choffnes, David R. (Choffnes, David)
  125. Choi, Baek-Young
  126. Chowdhury
  127. Chuah, M.
  128. Chung, Chun-Jen
  129. Chung, Joaquín (Chung, Joaquin)
  130. Clancy, T. Charles
  131. Clark, Russell (Clark, Russ)
  132. Coady, Yvonne (Coady, Y.)
  133. Colle, Didier (Colle, D.)
  134. Collings, Jake
  135. Comer, Douglas
  136. Corner, Mark
  137. Coulaby, Adama
  138. Cox, Jacob
  139. Crovella, Mark
  140. Crowley, Patrick
  141. Cunha, Ítalo (Cunha, Italo)
  142. Çetinkaya, Egemen K.
  143. Dabbish, Laura
  144. Dadoukis, Aris
  145. Dane, L.
  146. Dao, Darren
  147. Das, Ananya
  148. Das, S.
  149. DaSilva, Luiz A.
  150. Davis, Nickolas
  151. Day, John
  152. Daya, R.
  153. de Donato, W.
  154. de Graaff, Ben
  155. de Laat, Cees
  156. Debroy, Saptarshi
  157. Dechouniotis, Dimitrios
  158. Decker, Steven G.
  159. DeCusatis, Casimer
  160. Deelman, Ewa (Deelman, E.)
  161. DeHart, John
  162. Demeester, Piet
  163. Dempsey, HeidiPicher
  164. Denazis, Spyros
  165. Deng, Juan
  166. Desai, P. D.
  167. Desell, Travis
  168. Despotovic, Zoran
  169. Dhondge, Kaustubh
  170. Diamant, E. Ilana
  171. Dietz, T.
  172. Domingue, John
  173. Dong, Chen
  174. Dong, Mo
  175. Donovan, Sean P. (Donovan, Sean)
  176. Dos Santos, F.
  177. Doucette, Cody
  178. Downie, Keith
  179. Dragga, Chris
  180. Duan, Y.
  181. Duerig, Jonathon (Duerig, J.)
  182. Dumba, Braulio
  183. Duplyakin, Dmitry
  184. Durairajan, Ramakrishnan
  185. Dutta, Rudra (Dutta, R.)
  186. Edwards, Sarah (Edwards, S.)
  187. Egemen
  188. Eide, Eric
  189. El Alaoui, Sara
  190. Elliott, Chip
  191. Elliott, Steven D.
  192. Emmerson, Steve
  193. Erazo, Miguel A. (Erazo, M.)
  194. Esposito, Flavio (Esposito, F.)
  195. Evans, Daniel
  196. Evans, P.
  197. Faber, Ted
  198. Faerman, Marcio
  199. Fahmy, Sonia
  200. Falk, Aaron
  201. Fdida, Serge
  202. Feamster, Nick
  203. Fei, Zongming
  204. Femminella, Mauro (Femminella, M.)
  205. Feng, Xiaotao
  206. Ferragut, J.
  207. Fioravanti, Mark E.
  208. Fischer, Stefan
  209. Flannigan, C.
  210. Flores, R. R.
  211. Fouli, Kerim
  212. Fowler, Robert
  213. Francescangeli, Roberto (Francescangeli, R.)
  214. Francis, Gareth
  215. Freeman, PeterA
  216. Freestone, Amy
  217. Friedman, Timur
  218. Fu, Bo
  219. Fu, Yu
  220. Fumagalli, A.
  221. Fund, Fraida
  222. Gangam, Sriharsha
  223. Ganu, S.
  224. Gao, Jingcheng
  225. Gao, Lixin
  226. Gargees, R.
  227. Ge, Jingguo
  228. Gember, Aaron
  229. Getachew, D.
  230. Ghaffarinejad, A.
  231. Giatili, Mary
  232. Giertych, Michał
  233. Goasguen, Sebastien
  234. Godfrey, P. Brighten
  235. Gosain, Abhimanyu
  236. Grammatikou, Mary
  237. Grandl, Robert
  238. Griffioen, James (Griffioen, J., Griffioen, Jim)
  239. Grossman, Robert
  240. Grosso, Paola
  241. Group, GENI Planning
  242. Gruenbacher, Don (Gruenbacher, D.)
  243. Guan, Xinjie
  244. Guan, Yong
  245. Gugel, Y.
  246. Gummeson, Jeremy
  247. Guo, K.
  248. Gupta, Arpit
  249. Gupta, Avinash
  250. Gupta, V.
  251. Gurkan, Deniz (Gurkan, D.)
  252. Gutterman, C.
  253. Hadjichristofi, G.
  254. Haider, Syed A.
  255. Hameed, Mahmood A. (Hameed, M. A.)
  256. Han, Chao
  257. Han, Dongsu
  258. Hartpence, Bruce
  259. Hasan, Shaddi
  260. Hay, Brian
  261. Hayashi, Michiaki
  262. He, Haoqin
  263. Heath, Alison
  264. Heerman, Chris (Heerman, C.)
  265. Heermann, Chris
  266. Heller, Brandon
  267. Hemmings, Matthew (Hemmings, Matt)
  268. Herron, Jon-Paul
  269. Hibler, Mike
  270. Hong, Xiaoyan
  271. Hsiao, Hsu C.
  272. Hua, Jing
  273. Huang, Dijiang (Huang, D. Y.)
  274. Huang, Shufeng (Huang, Shu)
  275. Hume, Alastair C.
  276. Husain, M. I.
  277. Hussain, Alefiya
  278. Ibarra, Julio
  279. Igarashi, K.
  280. Ilyas, Muhammad U.
  281. Ilyes, L.
  282. Ingalls, Daniel (Ingalls, Dan)
  283. Iqbal, Azeem
  284. Irwin, David (Irwin, D.)
  285. Irwin, Ryan
  286. Izard, Ryan (Izard, R.)
  287. Izhvanov, Y.
  288. Jabbar, Abdul (Jabbar, A.)
  289. Jain, Raj
  290. Jain, Shweta
  291. Jana, Rittwik
  292. Janak, Jan (Janak, J.)
  293. Javed, Umar
  294. Javed, Uzzam
  295. Jeffay, Kevin
  296. Ji, Xiang
  297. Jin, Cheng
  298. Jin, Hai
  299. Jin, Ruofan
  300. Jofre, Jordi
  301. Johnson, David
  302. Jourjon, Guillaume
  303. Ju, Xi
  304. Juluri, Parikshit
  305. Kala, Sumit
  306. Kalatzis, Nikos
  307. Kamat, P.
  308. Kaminsky, Michael
  309. Kanada, Yasusi
  310. Kang, Ruogu
  311. Kangarlou, A.
  312. Kappler, Chris
  313. Katz-Bassett, Ethan
  314. Kellerer, Wolfgang
  315. Khatkar, P.
  316. Khurshid, Ahmed
  317. Kiesler, Sara
  318. Kim, Dae Y.
  319. Kim, Dongchan
  320. Kim, Dongkyun
  321. Kim, Hyojoon
  322. Kim, Hyunjun
  323. Kim, JongWon
  324. Kim, Joobum
  325. Kim, Seung-Hae
  326. Kim, Tiffany H.
  327. Kind, M.
  328. Kissel, Ezra
  329. Kitamura, Yasuichi
  330. Kline, Donald
  331. Kobayashi, Masayoshi
  332. Koning, Ralph
  333. Kooij, Robert E.
  334. Korakis, Thanasis
  335. Kotronis, V.
  336. Kozat, U. C.
  337. Köpsel, A.
  338. Körner, M.
  339. Krahn, Robert
  340. Kribbs, Benton
  341. Krishnamoorthy, Aravind
  342. Krishnamurthy, Arvind
  343. Krishnan, Narayan
  344. Krishnappa, Dilip K. (Krishnappa, D. K.)
  345. Kuai, Meng
  346. Kuhns, Fred
  347. Kumar, Sailesh
  348. Lampropoulos, Kostas
  349. Landi, Giada
  350. Landweber, Lawrence
  351. Lantz, B.
  352. Lara, Adrian
  353. Larabi, Mohamed A.
  354. Lary, David
  355. Lauer, Gregory
  356. Leal, William
  357. Lee, Charlotte P.
  358. Lee, Hyunwoo
  359. Lee, Jae W. (Lee, J. W.)
  360. Lee, Ki S.
  361. Lee, Soo B.
  362. Lee, Suk B.
  363. Lee, Sungwon
  364. Lent, Ricardo
  365. Leon-Garcia, Alberto
  366. Leto, Ray
  367. Levine, Brian
  368. Li, Baochun
  369. Li, Chuan
  370. Li, Dawei
  371. Li, Erluo
  372. Li, Jing
  373. Li, Min
  374. Li, Qingxi
  375. Li, Ting
  376. Li, Tong
  377. Li, Xiangyang
  378. Li, Xiaolin
  379. Li, Ze
  380. Liang, Wei
  381. Lim, Chiun L.
  382. Lim, Hyeontaek
  383. Lin, Regina
  384. Lin, Shan
  385. Lin, Yue H.
  386. Lin, Zongli
  387. Lincke, Jens
  388. Little, Joseph
  389. Liu, Guoxin
  390. Liu, Jason (Liu, J., Liu, Jun)
  391. Liu, Kaikai
  392. Liu, Lei
  393. Liu, Shuhao
  394. Liu, Te-Lung
  395. Liu, Xinxin
  396. Liu, Xuan
  397. Liu, Yong
  398. Lockwood, John
  399. Loughnane, Robyn
  400. Lu, Hui
  401. Lu, Jing
  402. Luna, Nicholas
  403. Luo, Mon-Yen
  404. Lynn, Brian
  405. Lyons, Eric (Lyons, E.)
  406. Ma, Shoujiang
  407. Maccherani, E.
  408. Machado, Michel
  409. Mache, Jens
  410. Mack, Tony
  411. Madhyastha, Harsha V.
  412. Magedanz, Thomas
  413. Maglaris, Vasilis
  414. Mahindra, Rajesh (Mahindra, R.)
  415. Makati, Mufaddal
  416. Malhotra, Shivoam
  417. Malik, Zaki
  418. Malishevskiy, A.
  419. Mambretti, Joe (Mambretti, J.)
  420. Mandal, Anirban (Mandal, A.)
  421. Mandvekar, Lokesh (Mandvekar, L.)
  422. Marasevic, J.
  423. Marcondes, Cesar
  424. Marentes, Andres
  425. Marquez-Barja, Johann M.
  426. Martin, James (Martin, J., Martin, Jim)
  427. Martin, Vincent
  428. Martinez, Ricardo
  429. Marupadi, Varun
  430. Mathy, Laurent
  431. Matta, Ibrahim (Matta, I.)
  432. Matthews, Chris (Matthews, C.)
  433. Maziku, Hellen (Maziku, H.)
  434. McGeer, Rick (McGeer, R.)
  435. McGeer, Sean
  436. McKeown, Nick (McKeown, N.)
  437. Medhi, Deepankar (Medhi, Deep)
  438. Medjahed, Brahim
  439. Mehani, Olivier
  440. Mehto, RInkel
  441. Meijer, Robert
  442. Mekky, Hesham (Mekky, H.)
  443. Meyer, J.
  444. Médard, Muriel
  445. Michel, Oliver
  446. Mikroyannidis, Alexander
  447. Miller, Ruth
  448. Mills, Jonathan
  449. Mirkovic, Jelena
  450. Mishra, Anup (Mishra, A.)
  451. Mitchell, Thomas
  452. Mitroff, Sarah
  453. Mohan, S.
  454. Montpetit, Marie-José
  455. Moore, R.
  456. Morago, B.
  457. Morgan, Heidi
  458. Morita, Itsuro
  459. Morsey, Mohamed
  460. Mountrouidou, Xenia
  461. Muhammad, Monzur
  462. Mukerjee, Matthew K. (Mukerjee, Matthew)
  463. Mukherjee, Shreyasee
  464. Mundada, Yogesh
  465. Munoz, Raul
  466. Müeller, Paul (Mueller, Paul)
  467. Müller, Paul
  468. Mysore, S.
  469. Nagaraja, Kiran
  470. Nakajima, Y.
  471. Nakao, Akihiro (Nakao, Aki)
  472. Nakauchi, Kiyohide
  473. Nance, Kara
  474. Nandagopal, T.
  475. Narayan, S.
  476. Narayanan, Arvind
  477. Narisetty, RajaRevanth (Narisetty, R.)
  478. Nash, Piers
  479. Nasir, Hussanmuddin (Nasir, H., Nasir, Hussamuddin)
  480. Navaz, Abdul
  481. Nayak, Ankur
  482. Naylor, David
  483. Neely, Travis
  484. Nejabati, R.
  485. Nelson, Jude
  486. Nelson, Sam
  487. Neupane, Roshan L.
  488. Nicho, J.
  489. Nishinaga, Nozomu
  490. Nishioka, Itaru
  491. Nozaki, Yoshihiro
  492. Nuguri, Sai S.
  493. Nussbaum, Lucas
  494. Nutaro, J.
  495. O'Connell, Patrick
  496. O'Neil, Thomas
  497. O'Neill, Derek
  498. Ochs, David S.
  499. Ogan, Kemafor
  500. Okamoto, S.
  501. Oki, Eiji
  502. Oraibi, Z.
  503. Orlikowski, Victor (Orlikowski, V.)
  504. Otsuki, Hideaki
  505. Ott, Maximilian (Ott, Max)
  506. Ovon, Carol
  507. Owen, Henry
  508. Özçelik, İlker (Ozcelik, I., Ozcelik, Ilker)
  509. Padala, P.
  510. Palaniappan, K.
  511. Palusa, Saichand
  512. Pan, Jianli
  513. Pan, Yin
  514. Panwar, Shivendra S. (Panwar, Shivendra)
  515. Papagianni, Chrysa
  516. Papavassiliou, Symeon
  517. Pareit, Daan
  518. Park, Jin-Hyung
  519. Parmentelat, Thierry
  520. Parulkar, Guru (Parulkar, G.)
  521. Patali, Rohit (Patali, R.)
  522. Paul, Subharthi
  523. Peha, Jon
  524. Pelapur, R.
  525. Peng, Wei-Ren
  526. Pentikousis, Kostas
  527. Perrig, Adrian
  528. Pescape, A.
  529. Peter, Simon
  530. Peterson, Larry
  531. Pirela-Cruz, Miguel
  532. Porter, Joseph
  533. Prakash, Aditya
  534. Proietti, Roberto
  535. Puype, B.
  536. Qian, Shi
  537. Qiao, Chunming
  538. Qin, Z.
  539. Qiu, Chenxi
  540. Quan, John
  541. Rafetseder, A.
  542. Rahimi, Reza (Rahimi, R.)
  543. Rahman, Mohammed Y.
  544. Rajagopalan, Sudharsan (Rajagopalan, S.)
  545. Rajasekar, A.
  546. Rakotoarivelo, Thierry
  547. Rama Akula, Amit K.
  548. Ramachandran, Anirudh
  549. Ramakrishnan, K. K.
  550. Ramamurthy, Byrav
  551. Ramanath, Rajiv
  552. Ramanathan, Jay
  553. Ramanathan, Parmesh (Ramanathan, P.)
  554. Ramisetty, Shravya
  555. Ramnath, Rajiv (Ramnath, R.)
  556. Randall, David P.
  557. Rao, Sanjay
  558. Ravi, Abhiram
  559. Ravi, Bharath
  560. Raychaudhuri, Dipankar (Raychaudhuri, D.)
  561. Reali, Gianluca (Reali, G.)
  562. Rechia, Felipe
  563. Reed, Jeremy (Reed, J.)
  564. Reed, Martin
  565. Renci, Chris H.
  566. Reuther, Bernd
  567. Rexford, Jennifer
  568. Rezgui, Abdelmounaam
  569. Ricart, Glenn
  570. Ricci, Robert (Ricci, R., Ricci, Rob)
  571. Riga, Niky
  572. Risdianto, Aris C.
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  574. Rizk, Amr
  575. Rogers, Tamara
  576. Rohrer, Justin P. (Rohrer, J. P.)
  577. Rong, Rong
  578. Rosario, Rossi
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  581. Rouskas, George N. (Rouskas, George)
  582. Roussaki, Ioanna
  583. Röder, Marko (Roder, Marko)
  584. Ruth, Paul (Ruth, P.)
  585. Rynge, Mats (Rynge, M.)
  586. Sachdeva, Monika
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  590. Salvadori, E.
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  592. Sanders, Matt
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  596. Schlinker, Brandon
  597. Schulz, N.
  598. Schulzrinne, Henning (Schulzrinne, H.)
  599. Schumm, Phillip
  600. Schwab, Stephen
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  602. Scoglio, Caterina M. (Scoglio, C., Scoglio, Caterina)
  603. Scott, Colin
  604. Seetharam, Sripriya (Seetharam, S.)
  605. Seetharaman, G.
  606. Seetharaman, Srini
  607. Segebre, Roberto
  608. Seghbroeck, Gregory V.
  609. Selvadhurai, Arunprasaath (Selvadhurai, A., Selvadhurai, Arunprasath)
  610. Seok, Woojin
  611. Seshan, Srinivasan
  612. Seskar, Ivan (Seskar, I.)
  613. Sevinc, Soner
  614. Shahbaz, Muhammad
  615. Shamim, Sumaira
  616. Shankaranarayanan, P. N.
  617. Shao, C.
  618. Sharma, Deepti
  619. Sharma, Navin
  620. Sharma, Puneet
  621. Sharma, Sachin (Sharma, S.)
  622. Shen, Haiying
  623. Shenker, Scott
  624. Shenoy, Nirmala
  625. Shenoy, Prashant
  626. Sher-DeCusatis, Carolyn J.
  627. Shetty, Sachin (Shetty, S.)
  628. Shi, Shu
  629. Shi, Xiaomeng
  630. Shimojo, Shinji
  631. Shin, Sunae
  632. Short-Gershman, J.
  633. Simeonidou, D.
  634. Singh, P.
  635. Singhal, Manav
  636. Sirbu, Marvin
  637. Sivakumar, Ashiwan
  638. Sivalingam, KrishnaM
  639. Skubic, Marjorie (Skubic, M.)
  640. Slezak, Joseph
  641. Smeliansky, R.
  642. Smith, F. Donelson
  643. Snoeren, Alex C. (Snoeren, Alex)
  644. Soliman, Hamdy
  645. Sommers, Joel
  646. Song, Guanghua
  647. Song, Sejun
  648. Soroush, Hamed
  649. Sridharan, Mukundan (Sridharan, M.)
  650. Srinivasan, Suman
  651. Stabler, Greg
  652. Stanton, Michael
  653. Stavropoulos, Donatos
  654. Steele, Aaron
  655. Steenkiste, Peter
  656. Stege, Ulrike
  657. Sterbenz, James P. G. (Sterbenz, J. P. G.)
  658. Stoller, Leigh (Stoller, L.)
  659. Strum, Matt
  660. Stuart, Colleen
  661. Summerhill, Rick
  662. Sun, Guobao
  663. Sun, Peng
  664. Suñé, M.
  665. Suzuki, Masatoshi
  666. Swany, Martin
  667. Sydney, Ali (Sydney, A.)
  668. Syrotiuk, V. R.
  669. Takahashi, H.
  670. Tamarapalli, Venkatesh
  671. Tan, Chiu C.
  672. Tang, Ao
  673. Tarui, Toshiaki
  674. Tassiulas, Leandros
  675. Team, The Emulab
  676. Teerapittayanon, Surat
  677. Teixeira, Thiago
  678. Thomas, Charles
  679. Thomas, Vicraj
  680. Tiako, Pierre F.
  681. Tilson, Jeff
  682. Topilski, Nikolay
  683. Toseef, Umar
  684. Tran-Gia, Phouc
  685. Tranoris, Christos
  686. Tredger, Stephen (Tredger, S.)
  687. Tsai, Pang-Wei
  688. Tsuritani, Takehiro
  689. Tuncer, Hasan
  690. Turck, Filip D.
  691. Turi, Leo
  692. Turner, Jonathan S. (Turner, Jonathan)
  693. Turro, Nicolas
  694. Tuttle, Christopher
  695. Udechukwu, Robinson
  696. Ujcich, Benjamin E.
  697. Vahdat, Amin
  698. Valancius, Vytautas
  699. van der Pol, Ronald
  700. van Reijendam, Johan
  701. Van Vorst, Nathanael (Van Vorst, N.)
  702. Vanbever, Laurent
  703. Vanhove, Thomas
  704. Vassell, Mark
  705. Veeraraghavan, Malathi (Veeraraghavan, M.)
  706. Velayos, Celia
  707. Velusam, Gandhimathi
  708. Velusamy, Gandhimathi (Velusamy, G.)
  709. Venkataraman, Aishwarya (Venkataraman, A.)
  710. Venkataramani, Arun
  711. Vermeulen, Brecht
  712. Vete, D.
  713. Vico Oton, Albert
  714. Vulimiri, Ashish
  715. Wallace, Scott A.
  716. Wang, Bing
  717. Wang, Cong
  718. Wang, Gicheol
  719. Wang, Han
  720. Wang, Kuang-Ching (Wang, K. C.)
  721. Wang, Qing
  722. Wang, Xiaoyu
  723. Wang, Xiong
  724. Wang, Yuefeng
  725. Wang, Yuehua
  726. Watts, Nicki
  727. Wauters, Tim
  728. Weatherspoon, Hakim
  729. Webb, Kirk
  730. Weissmann, Paul
  731. wen Cheng, Pei
  732. Williams, James
  733. Willner, Alexander
  734. Wilson, Michael
  735. Winburn, Steven
  736. Wiseman, Charles
  737. Woesner, H.
  738. Wolf, Tilman (Wolf, T.)
  739. Wong, Gary (Wong, G.)
  740. Woos, Doug
  741. Wroclawski, John
  742. Wu, Xiongqi
  743. Xiao, Yang
  744. Xiao, Zhifeng
  745. Xin, Yufeng
  746. Xing, Tianyi
  747. Xiong, Kaiqi
  748. Xiong, X.
  749. Xu, Dongyan
  750. Xu, Gang
  751. Xu, Hao
  752. Xu, Ke
  753. Xu, Le
  754. Xu, Qingrong
  755. Xu, Yang
  756. Xu, Yingxiao
  757. Xu, Zhiguang
  758. Yamada, Kazuhisa
  759. Yamanaka, N.
  760. Yan, Bo
  761. Yang, Chu-Sing
  762. Yang, Fan
  763. Yang, Jianjun
  764. Yang, Xiaowei
  765. Yavanamanda, Adithya
  766. Yeh, Fei (Yeh, F.)
  767. Yi, Ping
  768. Yiakoumis, Y.
  769. Yoo, S. J. B.
  770. You, Junling
  771. Youssef, Mina
  772. Yu, Lu
  773. Yu, Ze
  774. Yuan, Weizhe
  775. Yuen, Marco
  776. Yumerefendi, Aydan (Yumerefendi, A.)
  777. Zar, David
  778. Zarchy, Doron
  779. Zarifis, Kyriakos
  780. Zeng, Wenjie
  781. Zhang, Haibo
  782. Zhang, Hongwei
  783. Zhang, Miao
  784. Zhang, Qiao
  785. Zhang, Yanyong (Zhang, Y. Y., Zhang, Yihua, Zhang, Yuanxun)
  786. Zhang, Zhenyu
  787. Zhang, Zhi-Li
  788. Zhao, Shuai
  789. Zhou, Dong
  790. Zhou, Wenxuan
  791. Zhu, Kunpeng
  792. Zhu, Zuqing
  793. Zhuang, Yanyan
  794. Zink, Michael (Zink, M., Zink, Mike)
  795. Zinner, Thomas
  796. Zussman, G.
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